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OTR1DGE  AND  SON  ;  G,  AND  W.  NICOL  ;  G.  WILKIE  $  J.  WALKER  $  R.  LEA  ; 




JLiUXEMBOURG  (Francis  Henry  de  Montmorenci, 
DffKE  of),  a  very  celebrated  general  and  mareschal  of 
France*  was  a  posthumous  son  of  the  famous  Bouteville, 
who  was  beheaded  under  Louis  XIII.  for  fighting  a  duel. 
He  was  born  in  1628,  and  in  1643  was  present  at  the  battle 
of  Rocroi,  under  the  great  Cond6,  whose  pupil  he  was, 
and  whom  he  followed  in  all  his  fortunes.  He  also  re- 
sembled  that  great  man  in  many  of  hia  eminent  qualities, 
in  acuteness  of  perception,  thirsfyfor  knowledge,  prompt- 
ness in  action,  and  ardour  of  gejjius.  Tfhese  qualities  he 
displayed  in  the  conquest  of  Frat^e>6oipt£  in  1668,  where 
he  served  as  lieutenant-general,  ^e^eryed  also  in  the 
Dutch  campaign  of  1672,  took  many  towns,  and  gained 
some  trophies  in  the  field.  He  closed  this  expedition  by 
a  retreat  more  famous  than  bis  victories,  which  be  accom- 
plished with  an  army  of  20,000  men,  against  the  opposition 
of  70,000.  After  distinguishing  himself  in  another  expe- 
dition in  Fran  che- Com  ti,  he  was  advanced,  in  1675,  to 
the  dignity  of  mareschal  of  France.  He  fought,  during 
the  remainder  of  that  war,  with  various  success.  In  the 
second  war  of  Louis  XIVr  against  the  allied  powers  in 
1 690,  he  gained  the  battle  of  Fleurus,  and  it  was  gene** 
rally  allowed  that  he  prevailed  in  it  chiefly  by  the  supe- 
riority of  his  genius  to  that  of  his  antagonist  the  prince  of 
Waldeck*  In  the  ensuing  year,  1691,  he  gained  the. 
battles  of  Leufen  and  Steinkirk;  and,  continuing  to  be  op- 
posed to  king  William  of  England,  he  was  again  success- 
ful, in  the  bloody  battle  of  Nerwinde,  where  there  fell  on 
die  two  sides  near  20,000  men.  It  was  said  in  France, 
that  on  this  occasion  they  should  not  sing  Te  Deum,  but 
Vol.  XXI.  B 


l)e  prqfundis,  the  mass  for  the  dead. — The  duke  of  Luxem- 
bourg is  said  to  have  had  an  ordinary  countenance  and  a 
deformed  figure,  in  consequence  of  which  William  UK 
whose  constant  antagonist  be  was,  is  reported  to  have  said 
once  with  some  impatience,  "  What !  shall  I  never  beat 
this  hump-backed  fellow  ?"  This  speech  being  repeated  to 
the  duke,  "  How  should  he  know,"  said  he,  "  the  shape 
of  my  back  ?  I  am  sure  he  never  saw  me  turn  it  to  him." 
The  last  great  action  of  the  duke's  life  was  a  second  famous 
retreat,  in  the  presence  of  superior  forces,  through  a  con- 
siderable extent  of  country,   to  Tournay.      This  was  in 
1694,  and  he  died  the  following  year,  Jan.  4,  at  the  age 
of  sixty-seven.     Notwithstanding  the  disadvantages  of  his 
person,  Luxembourg  is  said  to  have  been  much  involved 
in  intrigues  of  gallantry.     He  had  some  powerful  enemies, 
particularly  the  minister  Louvois,  who  once  had  him  con- 
fined very  unjustly  in  the  Bastille.     Among  other  frivolous 
calumnies  on  which  he  was  then  interrogated,  he  wa&  asked 
whether  he  had  not  made  a  league  with  the  devil,  to  marry 
his  son  to  the  daughter  of  the  marquis  de  Louvois.     His 
answer  was  replete  with  the  high  spirit  of  French  nobility. 
*'  When  Matthew  of  Montmorenci,"  said  he,  <c  married  a 
queen  of  France,  he  addressed  himself,  not  tb  the  devil, 
but  to  the  states- general ;  and  the  declaration  of  the  states 
was,  that  in  order  to  gain  the  support  of  the  house  of 
Montmorenci  for  the  young  king  in  his  minority,  it  would 
be  right  to  conclude  that  marriage."     Idle  as  the  accusa- 
tions against  him  were,  they  cost  him  a  confinement  of 
fourteen  months,  and  he  had  no  subsequent  redress.1 

LYGOPHRON,  a  Greek  poet  and  grammarian,  was  a 
native  of  Chalcis,  in  Euboea,  and  according  to  Ovid,  was 
killed  by  a  shot  with  an  arrow.  He  flourished  about  304 
years  before  Christ,  and  wrote  a  poem  entitled  "  Alex- 
andra/9 or  Cassandra,  containing  a  long  course  of  predic- 
tions, which  he  supposes  to  be  made  by  Cassandra,  daugh- 
ter of  Priam,  king  of  Troy.  This  poem  has  created  a  great 
deal  of  trouble  to  the  learned,  on  account  of  its  obscurity, 
which  procured  him  the  title  of  "  the  tenebrous  poet." 
Suidas  has  preserved  the  titles  of  twenty  tragedies  of  his 
composing ;  and  he  is  reckoned  in  the  number  of  the  poets 
who  were  called  the  Pleiades,  and  who  flourished  under 

Ptoletoy  Philadelphus,  king  of  Egypt.     The  best  edition 

>'.  ■  *.'■"• 

1  Mtoreri.— Diet.  Ifot— -Perrault's  Les  Homines  Wustres. 

LYC  OP  HttOK.  $ 


of  "  Lyco^hron,'*  is  that  at  Oxford,  1 697,  by' Dr.  (adfe*. 
wards  archbishop)  Potter;  re-printed  there  in  1701,  folia. 
A  few  years  ago,  the  rev.  Henry  Meen,  B.  D.  published 
"Remarks"  on  the  "  Cassandra,"  which' are  highly  judi- 
cious, and  his  conjectures  in  illustration  of  the  obscurities 
of  Lycophron,  plausible  and  happy.1 

LYCURGUS,  the  celebrated  lawgiver  of  Sparta,  flou- 
rished, according  to  the   most  judicious  modfcrn  chrorio* 
logers,  about  898  years  before  the  Christian  aera.    Plutarch 
seems  to.  think  that  he  was  the  fifth  in  descent  from  Pfocles, 
and  the  tenth  from  Hercules.     When  the  sceptre' devolved 
to  him  by  the  death  of  his  brother  Polydectes,  the  widow 
of  that  prince  was  pregnant.     He  was  no  sooner  assured  of 
this,  than  he  determined  to  hold  the  sovereign  power  irt 
trust  only,  in  case  the  child  should  prove  a  son,  and  took 
the  title  of  Prodicus  or  Protector,  instead  of  that  of  kingj 
It  is  added,  that  he  had  the  virtue  to  resist  the  offers  of 
the  queen,  who  would  have  married  him,  with  the  dread-* 
fill  promise  that  no  son  sk&uld  be  born  to  intercept  his  views. 
A  son  at  length  was  born,  and  publicly  presented  by  Kim , 
to  the  people,  from  whose  joy  on  the  occasion  he  named 
the  infant  Charilaus,  i.  e.  the  people's  joy.     Lycurgus  was 
at  this  time  a  young  man,  and  the  state  of  Sparta  was  too 
turbulent  and  licentious  for  him  to  introduce  any  system 
of  regulation,  without  being  armed  with  some  more  ex- 
press authority.     How  long  he  continued  to  administer  the' 
government  is  uncertain ;  probably  till  his  nephew  was  of  age 
to  take  it  into  his  own  hands.    After  resigning  it,  however, 
he  did  not  long  remain  in  Sparta,  but  went  as  a  traveller  to 
visit  other  countries  and  study  their  laws,  particularly  those 
of  Crete,  which  were  highly  renowned  for  their  excellence^ 
and  had  been  instituted  by  Rhadamanthus  and  Minos,  two 
illustrious  legislators,  who  pretended  to  have  received  their 
laws  from  Jupiter.     Lycurgus  passed  some  years  in  this 
useful  employment,  but  he  had  left  behind  him  such  a  re- 
putation for  wisdom  and  justice,  that  when  the  corruption 
and  confusion  of  the  state  became  intolerable,  he  was  re- 
called by  a  public  invitation1  to  assume  the  quality  of  legis- 
lator, and  to  new  model  the  government. 

Lycurgus  willingly  returned  to  undertake  the  task  thus 
devolved  upon  him,  and,  having  obtained,  aft£r  '  various?' 
difficulties,'  the  co-operation   of   the  kings,  and  of  the 

1  Sazii  Onomastieon.— Gen.  Diet. — Moreri.— Month.  Rev.  N.  S.  vol.  XXXV 1 1. 

B   2 

L  Y  C  U  R  GU  S. 

various  orders  of  the  people,  he  formed  that  extraordinary 
system  of  government  which  Las  been  the  wonder  of  aU 
subsequent  ages,  tut  which  has  been  too  much  detailed  by 
various  authors,  for  us  to  enter  into  the  particulars.  When 
with  invincible  courage,  unwearied  perseverance,  and  a 
judgment  and  penetration  still  more  extraordinary,  he  had 
formed  and  executed  the  most  singular  plan  that  ever  was 
devised,  he  waited  for  a  time  to  see  his  great  machine  in 
motion ;  and  finding  it  proceed  to  his  wish,  he  had  now  no 
other  object  but  to  secure  its  duration.  For  this  purpose 
he  convened  the  kings,  senate,  and  people,  told  them  that 
be  wished  to*  visit  Delphi,  to  consult  the  oracle  on  the 
constitution  he  had  formed,  and  engaged  them  alt  to  bind 
themselves  by  a  most  solemn  oath,  that  nothing  should  be 
altered  before  bis  return.  The  approbation  of  the  oracle 
he  received,  but  he  returned  no  more,  being  determined 
to  bind  his  countrymen  indissolubly  to  the  observance  of 
bis  laws,  and  thinking  bis  life,  according  to  the  enthu- 
siastic patriotism  of  those  time*,  a  small  sacrifice  to  secure 
the  welfare  of  his  country.  Different  accounts  are  given 
of  the  place  and  manner  of  bis  death.  According  to  some 
authors,  he  died  by  voluntary  abstinence.  One  tradition 
says,  that  he  lived  to  a  good  old  age  in  Crete,  and  dying  a 
natural  death,  his  body  was  burned,  according  to  the  prac- 
tice of  the  age,  and  his  relics,  pursuant  to  his  own  re- 
quest, scattered  in  the  sea;  lest  if  his  bones  or  ashes  had 
ever  been  carried  to  Sparta,  the  Lacedaemonians  might 
have  thought  themselves  free  from  the  obligation  of  their 
oath,  to  preserve  his  laws  unaltered.  He  is  supposed  to 
have  died  after  the  year  873  B.  C.  His  laws  were  abro- 
gated by  Philopaemen  in  the  year  188  B.  C.  but  the  Ro- 
mans very  soon  re-established  them.1 

LYCURGUS,  an  Athenian  orator,  contemporary  with 
Demosthenes,  was  born  about  403  years  before  the  Christ 
tian  sera,  and  died  about  or  after  328.  He  was  an  Athe- 
nian, and  the  son  of  a  person  named  Lycopbron.  He  stu- 
died philosophy  under  Plato,  and  rhetoric  under  Isocrates.* 
He  was  of  the  most  exalted  character  for  integrity,  in, 
which  he  was  severely  scrupulous ;  a  strenuous  defender 
of  liberty,  a  perpetual  oppose?  of  Philip  and  Alexander, 

add  a  firm  friend  of  Demosthenes.    As  a  magistrate,  he 


'*  Mitford's  History  of  Greece— Mbrcti.— Gen.  Diet.-— Saxir  OnottuuW— - 
ffetyreh  in  oil  life. 


proceeded  with  severity  against  criminals,  but  kept  a  regis- 
ter of  all  bis  proceedings,  which,  on  quitting  bis  office,  be 
submitted  to  public  inspection.  When  he  was  about  to 
die,  be  publicly  offered  his  actions  to  examination,  and 
refuted  the  only  accuser  who  appeared  against  him.  He 
was  one  of  the  thirty  orators  whom  the  Athenians  refused 
to  give  up  to  Alexander.  One  oration  of  his,  against  Leo- 
crates,  is  still  extant,  and  has  been  published  in  the  col- 
lections of  Aldus,  Taylor,  and  Reiske.  His  eloquence  par- 
took of  the  manly  severity  and  truth  of  bis  character.1 

LYDGATE  (John),  an  ancient  English  poet,  is  recorded 
as  one  of  the  immediate  successors  of  Chaucer.  '  The  few 
dates  that  have  been  recovered  of  his  history  are,  that  be 
was  ordained  a  sub-deacon  in  1389 ;  a  deacon  in  1393,  and 
a  priest  iiv  1397  ;  from  these  it  has  been  surmised  that  he 
was  born  about  1375,  that  is,  twenty-five  years  before  the 
death  of  Chaucer.  There  is  a  note  of  Wan  ley's  in  the 
Harieian  Catalogue  (2251.  3.)  which  insinuates  as  if  Lyd- 
gate  did  not  die  till  1482.  This  Dr.  Percy  thinks  too  long 
a  date ;  he  was,  however,  living  in  1446,  since  in  his  "  Phi- 
lomela" he  mentions  the  death  of  Henry  duke  of  Warwick, 
who  died  that  year.  Some  authorities  place  his  deatb  in 
1461,  and  this  date  Mr.  Ellis' thinks  is  not  improbable. 

He  was,  says  Warton,  who  of  all  our  modern  critics  hat 
considered  him  with  most  attention,  a  monk  of  the  Bene- 
dictine abbey  of  Bury  in  Suffolk.  After  a  short  education 
at  Oxford*  be  travelled  into  France  and  Italy  ;  and  returned 
a  complete  master  of  the  language  and  the  literature  of 
both  countries.  He  chiefly  studied  the  Italian  and  French 
poets,  particularly  Dante,  Boccaccio,  and  Alain  Chartier; 
and  became  so  distinguished  a  proficient  in  polite  learning, 
that  he  opened  a  school  in  his  monastery,  for  teaching  the 
sons  of  the  nobility  the  arts  of  versification,  and  the  ele- 
gancies of  composition.  Yet,  although  philology  was  his 
object,  be  was  not  unfamiliar  with  the  fashionable  philo- 
sophy :  he  was  not  only  a  poet  and  a  rhetorician,  but  a 
geometriciau,  an  astronomer,  a  theologist,  and  a  disputant.; 
Mr.  Warton  is  of  opinion  that  he  made  considerable  addi- 
tions to  those  amplifications  of  our  language,  in  which 
Chaucer,  <Jower,  and  Hoccleve,  led  the  way ;  and  that 
be  is  the  first  of  our  writers  whose  style  is  clothed  with  that 

\  7at>r.  BibI,  Grac.— Moreri. 


perspicuity  in1  which  the  English  phraseology  appears  at 
this  day  to  an  English  reader. 

Lydgate's  pieces  are  very  numerous.  Ritson  has  given 
a  list  of  two  hundred  and  fifty-one,  some  of  which  he  ad- 
mits may  not  be  Lydgate's,  but  he  supposes,  on  the  other 
hand,  that  he  may  be  the  author  of  many  others  that  are 
anonymous.  His  most  esteemed  works  are  his  "  Story  of 
Thebes,"  his  "  Fall  of  Princes,"  and  bis  "  History,  Siege, 
and  Destruction  of  Troy."  The  first  is  printed  by  Spegbt 
in  his  edition  of  Chaucer ;  the  second,  the  "  Fall  of 
Prinzes,"  or  "  Boke  of  Johan  Bochas,"  ,(first  printed  by 
Pinson  in  1494,  and  several  times  since,)  is  a  translation 
from  Boccaccio,  or  rather  from  a  French  paraphrase  of  his 
work  "  De  casibus  Virorum  et  Feminarum  illustrium."  The 
"  History,  &c.  of  Troy"  was  first  printed  by  Pinsoo  in* 
1513,  but  more  correctly  by  Marshe  in  1555.,  This  was 
once  the  most  popular  of  his  works,  and  the  inquisitive 
reader  will  find  much  curious  information  in  it,  although 
he  may  not  be  able  to  discover  such  poetical  beauties  as 
can  justify  its  original  popularity.  That  popularity  was, 
indeed,  says  Mr.  Ellis,  excessive  and  unbounded;  and'it 
continued  without  much  diminution  during,  at  least,  two 
Centuries.  To  this  the  praises  of  succeeding  writers,  bear 
ample  testimony  :  but  it  is  confirmed  by  a  most  direct  and 
singular  evidence.  An  anonymous  writer  has  taken  the 
pains  to  modernize  the  entire  poem,  consisting  of  about 
28*000  verses,  to  change  the.  ancient  context,  and  almost 
every  rhyme*  and  to  throw  the  whole  into  six-line  stanzas  ; 
and  after  all  he  published  it  with  the  name  of  Lydgate, 
under  the  title  of  "The  Life  and  Death  of  Hector,"  1614, 
folio,  printed  by  Thomas  Purfoot. — Of  the  general  merits 
of  Lydgate,  Wartbn  hag  spoken  very  favourably ;  Percy, 
Ritson,  and  Pinkerton,  with  contempt ;  and  Mr.  Ellis  with 
the  caution  of  a  man  of  correct  taste  and  judgment.1 

LYPIAT  (Thomas),  an  eminent  English  scholar,  was 
born  at  Alkrington  or  Okerton,  near  Banbury  in  Oxford- 
shire, in  1572.  His  father,  observing  his  natural  talents, 
sent  him  to  Winchester  school,  where  he  was  admitted  a 
scholar  on  the  foundation,  at  thirteen ;  and,  being  elected* 
thence  to  New-college  in  Oxford,  was  put  under  the  tuition* 
of  Dr.  (afterwards  sir)  Henry  Martin,  who  became  so  well 

1  Warton's  History  of  Poetry, — Ellis's  Specimens. — Ritson's  B.ibliographia. 
—MS  note  in  Percy's  copy  of  Winstaoley. — Phillips's  Theatrum/'  by  sir  E. 
Brydgefi.— Censura  Literaria,  vol.  VII. 

L  Y  D  I  A  T.  7 

known  during  the  rebellion.  Mr.  Lydiat  was  made  proba- 
tioner fellow  in  1591,  and  two  years  after,  actual  fellow. 
Then  taking  his  degree  in  arts,  he  applied  himself  to 
astronomy,  mathematics,  and  divinity,  in  the  last  of  which 
studies  he  was  very  desirous  of  continuing  ;  but,  finding  a 
great  defect  in  his  memory  and  utterance,  he  chose  rather 
to  resign  his  fellowship,  which  he  could  not  hold  without 
entering  the  church,  and  live  upon  his  small  patrimony. 
This  was  in  1603  ;  and  he  spent  seven  years  after  in  finish- 
ing and  printing  such  books  as  he  had  begun  when  in  col- 
lege. He  first  appeared  as  an  author  in  1605,  by  pub- 
lishing his  "  Tractatus  de  variis  annorum  formis."  Of  this 
he  published  a  defence  in  1607,  against  the  censures  of 
Joseph  Scaliger,  whom  he  more  directly  attacked  in  his 
"  Emendatio  Temporum  ab  initio  mundi  hue  usque  com- 
pendio  facta,  contra  Scaligerum  et  alios,"  1609.  This  he 
dedicated  to  prince  Henry,  eldest  son  of  James  I.  He 
was  chronographer  and  cosmographer  to  that  prince,  who 
had  a  great  respect  for  him,  and,  had  he  lived,  would  cer- 
tainly have  made  a  provision  for  him.  ,  In  1609,  he  became 
acquainted  with  Dr.  Usher,  afterwards  archbishop  of  Ar<- 
magh,  who  took  him  into  Ireland,  and  placed  him  in  the 
college  at  Dublin,  where  he  continued  two  years;  ant) 
then  purposing  to  return  to  England,  the  lord-deputy  and 
chancellor  of.  Ireland  n>ade  him,  at  his  request,  a  joint 
promise  of  a  competent  support,  upon  his  coming  back 
thither.  This  appears  to  have  been  the  mastership  of  the 
school  at  Armagh,  endowed  with  50/.  per  annum  in  laud. 

When  he  came  to  England,  which  appears  to  have  been 
in  1611,  he  is  supposed  to  have  been  married,  and  to 
Usher's  sister;  but  for  either  supposition  there  seems  very 
little  foundation.  Soon  after  his  return,  however,  the 
rectory  of  Okerton  becoming  void,  was  offered  to  him  $ 
and  though,  while  he  was  fellow  of  New-college,  he  had 
refused  the  offer  of  it  by  his  father,  who  was  the  patron, 
yet  he  now  accepted  it,  and  was  instituted  in  1612.  Here 
he  seems  to  have  lived  happily  for  many  years  :  but  being 
imprudently  security  for  the  debts  of  a  near  relation,  which 
lie  was  unable  to  pay,  he  was  successively  imprisoned  at 
Oxford,  the  KingVbench,  and  elsewhere,  in  1629,  or 
1630,  and  remained  a  prisoner  till  sir  William  Bos  well,  a 
great  patron  of  learned  men,  joining  with  Dr.  Pink,  war* 
den  of  New-college,  and  Dr.  Usher,  paid  the  debt,  and 
released  him;  and  archbishop  Laud  also,  at. the  request  of 

S  L  YD  U  T. 

sir  Henry  Martin,  gave  his  assistance  on  this  occasion  *. 
He  bad  no  sootier  got  bis  liberty,  tban,  out  of  aa  ardent 
zeal  to  promote  literature  and  the  honour  of  bis  GouiHry, 
he  petitioned  Charles  I.  for  bis  protection  and  encourage* 
j&ent  to  travel  into  Turkey,  Ethiopia,  and  tbe  Abyssiriian 
empire,  in  search  of  manuscripts  relating  to  civil  or  eccle- 
siastical history,  or  any  other  branch  of  learning,  and  to 
print  them  in  England.  For  the  farther  advancement  of 
this  design,  be  also  requested  the  king  would  apply,  by 
his  ambassadors  and  ministers,  to  such  princes  as  were  in 
alliance  with  him,  for  a  similar  privilege  to  be  granted  to 
Lydiat  and  his  assigns :  this  was  a  spirited  design,  but  it 
was  impossible  for  the  king  at  that  unhappy  period  to  pay 
attention  to  it 

This  disappointment,  however,  did  not  diminish  his 
loyalty,  and  ou  that  account  he  was  a  great  sufferer  during 
the  rebellion.  He  was  a  man  of  undaunted  mind,  ana 
talked  frequently  and  warmly  in  behalf  both  of  the  king 
and  the  bishops,  refused  to  comply  with  the  demands  of 
money  made  upon  him  by  the  parliament  army,  and  with 
great  personal  courage  defended  his  books  and  papers 
against  their  attempts  to  seize  them,  For  these  offences 
Jie  was  four  times  plundered  by  some  troops  of  the  parlia^ 
xnent,  at  Compton-house  in  Warwickshire*  to  the  value  of 
at  least  70/# ;  was  twice  carried  away  from  his  house  at 
Okerton ;  once  to  Warwick,  and  another  time  to  Banbury  $ 
he  was  treated  infamously  hy  the  soldiers,  and  so  muctl 
debarred  from  decent  necessaries,  that  he  could  have  up 
change  of  linen  for  a  considerable  time,  without  borrowing 
from  some  charitable  person.  At  length,  after  be  had 
lived  at  his  parsonage  several  year?,  in  indigence  and  ob- 
scurity, he  died  April  3,  1646,  and  was  interred  the  next 
day  in  the  chancel  of  Okerton  church,  which  bad  been 
rebuilt  by  him.  .A  stone  was  laid  over  his  grave  in  1669, 
by  tbe  society  of  New-college,  who  also  erected  an  hono- 
rary monument,  with  an  inscription  to  his  memory,  in  the 
cloister  of  their  college. 

In  bis  person  he  was  low  in  stature,  and  of  mean  appear- 
ance. In  tbe  matter  of  church  discipline  and  ceremonies 
he  is  said  to  have  thought  with  the  non- conformists,  but 

*  In  1633,  be  wrote  a  defence, of  lease*    This  may  be  given  as  a  proof 

Laud's  setting  up  altars  in  churches,  that  what  is  afterwards  reported  of  hfa 

and  dedicated  it  to  him,  in  gratitude  ipn-cojifoflttftty  haw  Very  little  fouada/- 

fer  bis  assistance  in  procuring  his.  re-  lion. 

L  Y  D  1  A  T.  9 

not  enough,  it  would  appear,  to  gain  their  protection. 
$Je  wis,  however,  highly  esteemed  by  his  learned  coo* 
temporaries,  particularly  primate  Usher,  air  Adam  New- 
ton,  secretary,  and  sir  Thomas  Chailon4r,  chamberlain  to 
prince  Henry,  Dr.  J.  Bainbridge,  Mr.  Henry  Briggg,  Dr. 
Peter  Tomer,  and  other* :  and  some  foreigners  did  not 
scruple  to  rank  him  with  Mr.  Joseph  Mede,  and  even  with 
lord  Bacon.  Yet  the  memory  of  this  learned  man  was  not 
of  long  duration,  for  when  his  misfortunes  were  alluded  to 
by  Dr.  Johnson  in  his  "  Vanity  of  Human  Wishes/'  in 
jthese  lines,  . 

*r  If  dreams  yet  flatter,  once  again  attend  9 
Hear.Lydiat's  life,  and  Galileo's  end:" 

it  was  a  subject  of  inquiry,  who  Lydiat  was  ? 
'  The  following  is,  we  believe,  a  correct  list  of  his  works, 
including  those  already  mentioned.  1.  "  Tractatus  de 
varii*  anhorum  formis,"  1605,  8vo.  2.  "  Praelectio  astro- 
ttotnica  de  natura  cceli  &  cbuditionibus  eleuientoru'm.1* 
3.  v  Disqnisitio  physiologica  de  origirte  fontium."  These 
two  ate  printed  with  the  first  4.  "  Defensio  tractatus  de 
varifs  annorum  formis,  contra  Jos.  Scaligeri  obtrectatio- 
nem/*  1  $07,  Uvo.  5.  "  Examen  canonum  chronologic 
i&gogicorum,"  printed  with  the  "  Defensio."  6.  "  Eoien- 
datio  iemporum,  &c.  contra  Scaligerum  &  alios,"  1609, 
Svo.  7.  **  Explicatip  &  additamentum  argumentorum  in 
libello  emendationis  temporum  compendio  facta  de  nati~ 
ritate  Christi,  &  ministerii  in  terris,"  1613,  8vo.  8.  "  SolU 
&  lunsB  periodus  sell  annus  magnus,"  163d,  8vo,  &c. 
9.  "  De  anui  Solaris  mensura  epistola  astronomical  &c« 
1621,  3vo.  10.  "  Numtfrus  aureus,  melioribus  lapillis  in- 
signitus,"  &c.  1621  ;  a  single  large  sheet  on  one  side. 
11.  «  Canones  chronologic^  &c.  1675,  8vo.  12.  "  Let-^ 
ters  to  Dr.  James  Usher,  primate  of  Ireland/'  printed  in 
the  Appendix  of  his  life  by  Dr.  Parr.  13.  "  Marmoreum 
chronicum  Arundelianum,  cum  Annotationibus,"  printed 
in  the  "  Marmora  Oxoniensia,"  by  Humphrey  Prideauic 
He  also  left  twenty-two  manuscripts,  two  of  which  were 
written  in  Hebrew,  in  the  hands  of  Dr.  John  Lamphire.1 
V  LYE  (Edward),  a  learned  linguist  and  antiquary,  the 
•*nth6r  of  an  excellent  dictionary  of  the  Saxon  and  Gothic 
languages,  was  born  at  Totnes  in  Devonshire,  in  1 704. 

}  Geo.  Ptet*»4io0.  Brit.-^th,  Q<.  toM I. —Fuller's  Worthies.— UsW* 
Life  aad  Letter*.  r 

10  LYE. 

He  virajs  educated  partly  at  home,  under  his  father,  who 
kept  a  school  at  Totnes,  partly  under  other  preceptors, 
but  chiefly  (being  obliged  to  return  home  from  consump- 
tive complaints)  by  his  own  private  care  and  application. 
At  the  age  of  nineteen,  he  was  admitted  at  Hart  hall  (now 
Hertford  college)  in  Oxford,  took  his  bachelor's  degree  in 
1716,  was  ordained  deacon  in  1717,  and  priest  in  1719, 
soon  after  which  he  was  presented  to  the  living  of  Hough - 
ton-parva  in  Northamptonshire.  In  this  retreat  he  laid  the 
foundation  of  his  great  proficiency  in  the  Anglo-Saxon 
language.     He  became  master  of  arts  in  1722. 

Having  now  qualified  himself  completely  for  a  work  of 
that  nature,  he  undertook  the  arduous  task  of  publishing 
the  "  Etymologicum  Anglicanum"  of  Francis  Junius,  from 
the  manuscript  of  the  author  in  the  Bodleian  Library.     To 
this  undertaking  he  was  led,  as  he  tells  us  in  his  preface, 
by  the  commendations  which  Hickes  and  other  learned 
antiquaries  had  given  to  that  unpublished  work.     In  the 
seventh  year  from  the  commencement  of  his  design,  he 
published  the  work,  with  many  additions,  and  particularly 
that  of  an  Anglo-Saxon   Grammar  prefixed.     The  work 
was  received  with  the  utmost  approbation  of  the  learned. 
In  1750,  Mr.  Lye  became  a*  member  of  the  society  of  an-* 
tiquaries,  and  about  the  same  time  was  presented  by  the 
earl  of  Northampton  to  the  vicarage  of  Yardley  Hastings, 
on  which  accession  be  resigned  his  former  living  of  Hough* 
ton ;  giving  an  illustrious  example  of  primitive  moderation, 
especially  as  he  had  hitherto  supported  his  mother,  and 
had  still  two  sisters  dependent  upon  him.     The  next  pub- 
lication which  he  issued,  was  that  of  the  Gothic  Gospels, 
undertaken   at  the   desire  of  Eric  Benzelius,  bishop   of 
Upsal,  who  had  collated  and  corrected  them.     This,  which 
he  had  been  long  preparing,  appeared  from  the  Oxford 
press  in  the  same  year,  with  a  Gothic  Grammar  prefixed* 
His  last  years  were  employed  chiefly  in  finishing  for  the 
press  his  own  great  work,  the  Anglo-Saxon  and  Gothic 
Dictionary,  which  was  destined  to  owe  that  to   another 
editor,  which  he  had  performed  for  Junius.     His  manu? 
script  was  just  completed,  and  given  to  the  printer,  when 
he  died  at  Yardley   Hastings,  in    1767;  and   was  there 
buried,  with  a  commendatory  but  just  and  ejegarjt  epitaph* 
His  Dictionary  was  published  in  1772,  in  two  volumes  folio, 
by  the  rev.  Owen  Manning,  with  a  grammar  of  th6  two 
languages  united,  and  some  memoirs  of  the  author,  from 

LYE.  11 

which  this  account  is  taken.  It  appears  by  some  original 
correspondence  between  Mr.  Lye  and  Dr.  Ducarel  (for  the 
perusal  of  which  we  are  indebted  to  Mr.  Nichols),  that  Mr.' 
Lye  bad  been  employed  on  his  dictionary  a  long  tinte  before 
1765,  and  that  he  had  almost  relinquished  the  design  from 
a  dread  of  the  labour  and  expence.  In  the  labour  he  had 
none  to  share  with  him,  but  at  the  time  above  mentioned 
archbishop  Seeker  offered  him  a  subscription  of  50/.  to 
forward  the  work,  and  he  appears  to  have  hoped  for  similar 
instances  of  liberality. l 

LYFORD  (William),  a  pious  clergyman  of  the  seven- 
teenth century,  was  born  about  1598,  at  Peysmere,  near 
Newbury  in  Berkshire,  of  which  place  his  father  was  rec- 
tor. Iu  1614  he  became  a  commoner  of  Magdalen  hall, 
Oxford,  and  a  demy  of  Magdalen  college  in  1617.  In 
1622  he  took1  his  degree  of  M.  A.  and  was  then  chosen  a 
fellow.  In  1631  he  was  admitted  to  the  reading  of  the 
sentences,  and,  having  taken  orders,  was  presented  to 
the  living  of  Shirburne,  in  Dorsetshire,  by  John  Earl  of 
Bristol.  Here,  says  Wood,  "  he  was  very  much  resorted 
to  for  his  edifying  and  practical  way  of  preaching;"  and 
appears  indeed  to  have  deserved  the  affections  of  his 
flock,,  by  the  most  constant  diligence  in  discharging  the 
duties  of  his  office.  He  divided  his  day  into  the  following 
portions :  nine  hours  for  study,  three  for  visits  and  con- 
ferences with  his  parishioners,  three  for  prayers  and  devo- 
tion, two  for  his  affairs,  and  the  rest  for  his  refreshment.  He 
divided  likewise  his  estate  into  three  parts,  one  for  the  use 
of  his  family,  one  for  a  reserve  in  case  of  future  wants, 
and  one  for  pious  uses.  His  parish  he  divided  into  twenty- 
eight  parts,  to  be  visited  in  twenty -eight  days  every  month, 
"  leaving,"  says  one  of  his  biographers,  "  knowledge  wher£ 
he  found  ignorance,  justice  where  he  found  oppression, 
peace  where  he  found  contention,  and  order  where  .  be 
found  irregularity."  - 

A  man  of  this  disposition  was  not  likely  to  add  to  die 
turbulence  of  the  times ;  and  although  he  is  said  to  have 
inclined  to  the  presbyterian  party,  and  was  chosen  one  of 
the  assembly  of  divines,  he  never  sat  among  them,  but 
remained  on  his  living,  employed  in  preaching,  catechizing, 
&c.  until  his  death,  Oct  3,  1653.  Fuller  and  Wood  unite 
in*  their  praises  of  Mr.  Lyford's  character,  and  in  their 

t  Meitooirt  as  above.— MS  belters  in  Mr.  Nichols's  possession* 

12  L  Y  F  O  R  D. 

opinion  of  bis  writings,  wbicb,  says  Wood,  "  savour  much 
of  piety,  zeal,  and  sincerity,  but  shew  him  to  have  been  a 
sealous  Calvinist."  Dr.  Walker  informs  us  that  "  be  suf- 
fered much  from  the  faction,  both  in  his  name  and  mi- 
nistry, and  they  wondered  that  so  holy  a  man  as  h$  was, 
should  doat  so  much  on.  kings,  bishops,  the  common  prayer, 
and  ceremonies."  He  bequeathed  the  sum  of  120/.  to 
Magdalen  college  "  in  gratitude  for  the  advantages  which 
be  bad  there  enjoyed,  and  in  restitution  for  a  sum  of  money, 
which,  according  to  the  corrupt  custom  of  those  times,  he 
had  received  for  the  resignation  of  his  fellowship." 

Although  he  took  no  active  part  in  the  disputed  of  the 
nation,  he  gave  bis  opinion  on  some  subjects  Arising  out 
of  tbem,  respecting  toleration,  in  a  work  entitled  "  Causes 
of  conscience  propounded  in  the  time  of  Rebellion," 
which  bisbop  Rennet  in  bis  "Chronicle?'  says,  is  written 
with  plainness,  .modesty,  and  impartiality.  His  other  works 
are,  1.  "Principles  of  Faith  and  of  a  good  Conscience," 
Lond.  1642  ;  Oxford,  1652;  8vo.  2.  "  An  Apology  for  our 
public  Ministry  and  infant  Baptism,"  ibid.  1652,  1653,. 
4to.  3*  "  The  plain  roan's  senses  exercised  to  discern 
both  good  and  evil ;  or  a  discovery  of  the  errors,  heresies, 
and  blasphemies  of  these  times,  ibid.  1655,  4to,  with 
sonne  other  pious  tracts.1 

LYLLY.     See  LILLY. 

LYNAR  (Rochus  .  Frederic  Count),  a  Danish  states- 
man and  scholar,  was  descended  from  an  ancient  family,  a 
branch  of  the  counts  of  Guerini,  in  the  dukedom  of  Tus- 
cany, which  had  settled  in  Germany*  He  was  bom  in 
1708,  at  the  castle  of  Lubbenau,  and  educated  at  Jena  and 
Halle,  at  both  which  places  he  applied  with  the  utmost 
assiduity  to  the  Greek  and  Latin  languages,  and  even  to 
theology.  After  travelling  in  various  parts  of  Europe,  and 
visiting  England  in  1732,  he  obtained  an  appointment  at 
the  court  of  Denmark ;  but,  being  ambitious  of  a  more 
public  station,  he  volunteered  his  services  in  the  home  and 
foreign  department,  and  displayed  so  much,  activity  that 
he  was  dispatched  by  Christian  VI.  to  East  Friezland*  to 
settle  the  affairs  of  the  dowager  princess,  Sophia  Caroline, 
sister  to  the  queen.  This  mission  be  discharged  to  the 
satisfaction  of  hjs  sovereign;  and  was  appointed  it)  1735 
ambassador  extraordinary  to  the  court  of  Stockholm,  where; 

»  Ath.Ox.  vol.  Ih— Fuller's  Woithies.— Lloyd's  Memoir*.  f»l.  p.  6(fl.— 
W*ikcrV  Sufferings  of  the  Clergy, 

L  Y  N  A  R.  13 

«  * 

•hfc  itstded  until-  1740.  On  hi*  return  to  Denmark  the 
king  conferred  on  him  an  office  in  Holstein,  and  a  few 
year*  after  be  was  sent  as  ambassador  extraordinary  to  Pe- 
tersburgb.  On  his  return  in  1752  he  was  appointed  go* 
vernor  of  the  counties  of  OHenburgh  and  Delchanhorst,  to 
which  he  Retired  with  bis  family,  and  where  he  spent  hit 
time  in  the  composition  of  literary  worlcs,  the  first  of  which* 
a  translation  of  "  Seneca  de  Beneficils,"  with  excellent 
notes^  was  printed  in  1753.  Having  renewed  the  study  of 
the  Greek  language  while  at  Oldenburgh,  he  made  so  much 
progress,  that  by  comparing  the  best  commentators  he  was 
enabled  to  write  a  good  paraphrase  on  "  The- Epistles  of 
St.  Paul,1'  Ice.  which  was  afterwards  published.  He  wrote 
also  several  moral  essays.  .  * 

In  1757  be  bad  an  opportunity  again  of  rendering  him* 
self  conspicuous  in  a  political  capacity,  by  the  part  which 
be  took  in  the  famous  convention  of  Closter- seven,  en- 
tered into  between  the  duke  of  Richelieu,  commander  of 
the  French  forces,  and  the  duke  of  Cumberland,  who  waa 
then  at  the  head  of  the  allied  army.  In  this,  however,,  ho 
met  with  many  difficulties,  as  the  history  ofthat  conventions 
shows ■;•  and  the  king  of  France  and  his  Britannic  majesty 
at  last  refused  their  ratification.  In  March  1763  he  was* 
invested  with  the  order  of  the  elephant  by  Frederic  V.  the 
highest  honour  his  sovereign  could  bestow;  but  some 
complaints  being  made  against  him  on  account  of  his  ad- 
ministration, which  were  not  altogether  groundless,  be 
resigned  in  Oct  1765.  The  remainder  of  his  life  he  passed, 
in  retirement  at  Lubennau,  where  he  died  of  a  dropsy  of 
the  breast,  Nov.  1781,  in  the  seventy- third  year  of  his 
age*  He  was  a  man  of  considerable  learning,  elegant  ad-, 
dress,  *  and'  various  accomplishments;  His  works .  are,  1 . 
A  translation  of"  Seneca  de  Beneficiis,"  Hamburgh,  1753, 
8vo.  2.  A  translation  of  Seneca  on  "The  Shortness  of 
Life,"  1754.  3."Der  Sonderling,"  or  "The  Singular 
Mao,"  Hanover,  1761,  8 vo,  and  in  French,  Copenhagen, 
17=77,  8vo,  a  work,  which,  according  to  his  biographer 
Btt8cbifrg,  is  well  worth  a  perusal*  4.  "Historical,  Po- 
litical and  Moral  Miscellanies,"  in  four  parts,  1775—1777, 
8*0."  5,  Paraphrases  on  "The  Epistles,"* printed  at  va- 
rious times,  1754 — 1770.  6.  "  The  real  ftate  of  Europe 
in  the  year  1737,"  and. several  other  articles  in  Busching's 
Magazine  for  History  and  Geography.  \ 

\  Atbeoaeam,  vol.  III. 

14  1YN0E. 

LYNDE  (Sir  Humphrey),  a  learned  English  gentle- 
man, was  descended  from  a  family  in  Dorsetshire,  and  born 
in  1579.     Being  sent  to  Westminster  school,  he  was  ad- 
mitted scholar  upon  the  foundation,  and  thence  elected 
student  of  Christ  Church,  Oxford,  in  1596.     Four  years 
afterwards  he  commenced  B.  A.  about  which  time  he  be- 
came heir  to  ^considerable  estate,  was  made  a  justice  of 
peace,  and  knighted  by  king  James  in  1613*    He  obtained 
a  seat  in  the  House  of  Commons  in  several  parliaments;  but 
he  is  entitled  to  a  place  in  this  work  as  a  man  of  learning* 
and  author  of  several  books,  which  had  considerable  re- 
putation in  their  day.     He  died  June  14,   1636,;  and  was 
interred  in  the  chancel  of  the  church  at  Cobbaoi  in  Surrey. 
Tbe  night  before  he  died,  being  exhorted  by  a  friend  to 
give  some  testimony  of  his  constancy  in  the  reformed  re- 
ligion, because  it  was   not  unlikely  that  his  adversaries 
might  say  of  him,  as  they  did  of  fieza,  Reynolds,  King 
bishop  of  London,  and  bishop  Andrews,  that  they  recanted 
the  protestant  religion,  and  were  reconciled  to  the  church 
of  Rome  before  their  death ;  he  professed,  that  if  he  had  a 
thousand  souls,  he  would  pawn  them  all  upon  the  truth  of 
that  religion  established  by  law  in  the  church  of  England* 
and  which  he  had  declared  and  maintained  in  his  "  Via 
tut£"  *   Accordingly,  in  his  funeral  sermon  by  Dr.  Daniel 
Featly,  he  is  not  only  styled   "  a  general  scholar,  an  ac- 
complished gentleman,  a  gracious  Christian,  a  zealous  pa- 
triotr  and  an  able  champion  for  truth;9'   but  "one  that 
stood  always  as  well  for  the  discipline,  as  the  doctrine  of 
the  church  of  JEngland ;  and  whose  actions,  as  well  as  writ- 
ings, were  conformable  both  to  the  laws  of  God  and  canons 
and  constitutions  of  that  church."  -    .- 

His  works  are,  1.  "  Ancient  characters  of  the  visible 
Church,  1625."  2.  "Via  tuta,  the  safe  way,  &c."  re- 
printed several  times,  and  translated  into  Latin,  Dutch* 
and  French,  printed  at  Paris,  1647,  from  the  sixth  edition 
published  in  1636,  !2mo,  under  the  title  of  "  Popery  con- 
futed by  Papists,"  &c.  3.  "  Via  devia,  the  by-way,"  &c. 
1630  and  1632,  8vo.  4.  ((  A  Case  for  the  Spectacles; 
or,  a  Defence  of  the  Via  tuta,"  in  answer  to  a  book  written 
by  J.  R.  called  "A  pair  of  Spectacles,"  &c.  with  a  supple- 
ment in  vindication  of  sir  Humphrey,  by  the  publisher, 
Dr.  Daniel  Featly.  A  book  entitled  "  A  pair  of  Spectacles 
for  sir  Humphrey  Lynde,"  was  printed  at  Roan,  1631,  in 
8vo,   by  Robert  Jenison,   or  Frevili  a  Jesuit.     5.  "An 

IYND  E..  15 

account  of  Bertram,  with  observation*  concerning  the  cen- 
sures upon  his  Tract  De  corpore  et  sanguine  Christi," 
prefixed  to  an  edition  of  it  at  London,  1623,  8vo,  and  re- 
printed there  in  1686,  8vo,  by  Dr.  Matthew  Brian.1 

LYONET  (Peter),  an  eminent  naturalist,  was  born  at 
Maestricht  July  22,  1707.     He  was  of  a  French  family, 
originally  of  Lorraine,  whence  they  were  obliged  to  take 
refuge  in  Switzerland,  on  account  of  their  religion.     His 
father,  Benjamin  Lyonet,  was  a  protestant  minister  at  Heuf- 
ion.     In  his  early  years  he  displayed  uncommon  activity 
both  of  body  and  mind,  with  a  memory  so  prompt,  that  he  . 
acquired  an  exact  knowledge  of  nine  languages,  ancient 
and  modern,  and  in  the  farther  pursuit  of  his  academical 
studies  at  Leyden,  made  great  progress  in  logic,  philo- 
sophy, geometry,  aud  algebra.    It  was  his  father's  wish  that 
he  should  study  divinity,  with  a  view  to  the  church,  and  it 
appears  that  he  might  have  passed  by  an  easy  transition  to 
any  of  the  learned  professions.     The  law,  however,  was  hit 
ultimate  destination  ;  and  he  applied  himself  to  this  with 
so  much  zeal,  that  he  was  promoted  the  first  year,  when 
he  delivered  a  thesis  "  on  the  use  of  the  torture,"  which 
was  published,  and  gained  him  considerable  reputation. 
At  what  time  he  settled  at  the  Hague  we  are  not  told,  but 
there  he  was.  made  decypherer,  translator  of  the  Latin  and 
French  languages,  and  patent-master  to  the  States  General. 
It  was  now  that  he  turned  his  attention  to  natural  history, 
especially  entomology,  and  undertook  an  historical,  descrip- 
tion of  such  ^insects  as  are  found  about  the  Hague  ;  and  as, 
among  his  other  accomplishments,  he  understood  drawing, 
he  enriched  his  work  with  a  great  number  of  plates,  which ' 
were  much  admired  by  the  connoisseurs.  In  1741  a  French 
translation  of  Lesser's  "  Theology  of  Insects"  was  printed 
at  the  Hague,  which  induced    Mr.  Lyonet  to  defer  the 
publication  of  his  own  work,  and  make  some  observations 
on  Lesser's,  to  which  he  added  two  beautiful  plates  de- 
signed by  himself.     His  observations  were  thought  of  so 
much  importance  that  Reaumur  caused  the  above  transla- 
tion to  be  reprinted  at  Paris,  merely  on  account  of  them. 
Lyonet  afterwards  executed  drawings  of  the  fresh  water 
polypes  for  Mr.  Trembley's  beautiful  work,  in  1744-.  Wan- 
delaar  had  engraved  the  first  five  plates  of  this  work,  and 
being  rather  dilatory  in  producing  the  rest,  Lyonet  took  a 

i  Ath.  Ox.  vol.  I. 

single  lesson  in  engraving,  and  executed  the  btfaete  Mm-* 
*elf  in  a  manner  which  astonished  not  only  amateurs,  but 
experienced  artists.  In  1748  his  reputation  procured  tan* 
the  hohour  of  being  elected  a  member  of  the  royal  society 
of  London,  as  he  was  afterwards  of  other  learned  societies 
in  Europe.  In  1764  appeared  his  magnificent  work  on 
the  caterpillar,  "  Traitg  anatomique  de  la  Chenille  qui 
ronge  ie  bois  de  Saule."  In  order  to  enable  such  as  might 
be  desirous  of  following  him  in  bis  intricate  and  astonishing 
discoveries  respecting  the  structure  of  this  animal,  he  pub- 
lished, in  the  Transactions  of  the  Dutch  society  of  sciences, 
at  Haerlem,  a  description  and  plate  of  the  instrument  and 
tools  be  had  invented  for  the  purpose  of  dissection,  and 
likewise  of  the  method  he  used  to  ascertain  the  degree  of 
strength  of  his  magnifying  glasses.  Mr.  Lyonet  died  at  tbe 
Hague,  Jan.  10,  1789,  leaving  some  other  works  on  ento- 
mology unfinished,  one  of  the  most  extensive  collections  of 
shells  in  Europe,  and  a  very  fine  cabinet  of  pictures.  In 
his  early  years,  Mr.  Lybnet  practised  sculpture  and  por- 
trait-painting. Of  the  former,  bis  Apollo  and  the  Moses, 
a  basso  relievo  cut  in  palm  wood,  is  mentioned  by  Vaii 
Gool,  in  his  "  Review  of  the  Dutch  Painters/9  as  a  master* 
piece.  To  these  many  accomplishments  Mr.  Lyonet  added 
a  personal  character  which  rendered  him  admired  during 
his  long  life,  and  deeply  regretted  when  his  friends  and 
his  country  were  deprived  of  his  services. ' 

LYONS  (Israel),  son  of  a  Polish  Jew,  who  was  a  silver- 
smith, and  teacher  of  Hebrew  at  Cambridge,  was  bora 
there,  in  1739.  He  displayed  wonderful  talents  as  a  young 
man;  and  shewed  very  early  a  great  inclination  to  learn* 
ing,  particularly  mathematics ;  but  though  Dr.  Smith,  then 
master  of  Trinity-college,  offered  to  put  him  to  school  at 
his  own  expence,  he  would  go  only  for  a  day  or  two*  say- 
ing, "  he  could  learn  more  by  himself  in  an  hour  than  in 
a  day  with  his  master."  He  began  the  study  of  botany  in 
1755,  which  he  continued  to  his  death  ;  and  could  remem- 
ber, not  only  the  Linnaean  names  of  almost  all  the  English 
plants,  but  even  the  synonyma  of  the  old  botanists,  which 
form  a  strange  and  barbarous  farrago  of  great  bulk ;  autl 
bad  collected  large  materials  for  a  "Flora  Cantabrigien- 
sis,"  describing  fully  every  part  of  each  plant  from  the  life, 
without  being  obliged  to  consult,  or  being  liable  to  be  mis-* 

1  Diet.  Hist.— CUmt.  Mag.  vol.  LIX. 


LYONS.  17 

■  ■ 

led  by,  former  authors.  In  1758  he  obtained  much  cele- 
brity by  publishing  a  treatise  "  on  Fluxions,"  dedicated 
to  his  patron,  J)r.  Smith;  and  in  1763  a  work  entitled 
"  Fasciculus  plantarum  circi  Cantabrigiam  nascentium,  quae 
post  Raium  observatse  fuere,"  8vo.  Mr.  Banks  (now  sir 
Joseph  Banks,  bart.  and  president  of  the  royal  society), 
whom  he  first  instructed  in  this  science,  sent  for  him  to 
Oxford,  about  1762  or  1763,  to  read  lectures;  which  he 
did  with  great  applause,  to  at  least  sixty  pupils ;  but  could 
not  be  induced  to  make  a  long  absence  from  Cambridge. 
He  had  a  salary  of  a  hundred  pounds  per  annum  for  cal- 
culating the  "  Nautical  Almanack,"  and  frequently  received 
presents  from  the  board  of  longitude  for  his  inventions. 
•He  cpuld  read  Latin  and  French  with  ease ;  but  wrote  the 
former  ill ;  had  studied  the  English  history,  and  could  quote 
whole  passages  from  the  Monkish  writers  verbatim.  He 
was  appointed  by  the  board  of  longitude  to  go  with  cap- 
tain Phipps  (afterwards  lord  Mulgrave)  to  the  North  pole 
in  1773,  and  made  the  astronomical  and  other  mathemati- 
cal calculations,  printed  in  the  account  of  that  voyage. 
After  his  return  he  married  and  settled  in  London,  where, 
on  May  1,  1775,  he  died  of  the  measles.  He  was  then 
engaged  in  publishing  a  complete  edition  of  all  the  works 
of  Dr.  Halley.  His  "  Calculations  in  Spherical  Trigo- 
nometry abridged,**  were  printed  in  "Philosophical  Trans- 
actions," vol.  LXI.  art  46.  After  his  death  his  name  ap- 
peared in  the  title-page  of  "A  Geographical  Dictionary/'  of 
which  the  astronomical  parts  were  said  to  be  "  taken  from 
the  papers  of  the  late  Mr.  Israel  Lyons,  of  Cambridge,  au- 
thor of  several  valuable  mathematical  productions,  and 
astronomer  in  lord  Mulgrave*s  voyage  to  the  Northern  he- 
misphere." It  remains  to  be  noticed,  that  a  work  entitled 
"  The  Scholar's  Instructor,  or  Hebrew  Grammar,  by  Israel 
Lyons,  Teacher  of  the  Hebrew  Tongue  in  the  University 
of  Gambridge :  the  second  edition,  with  many  Additions 
and  Emendations  which  the  Author  has  found  necessary  in 
his  long  course  of  teaching  Hebrew,*'  Cambridge,  1757, 
8vo,  was  the  production  of  his  father;  as  was  a  treatise 
printed  at  the  Cambridge  press,  under  the  title  of  "  Obser- 
vations and  Enquiries  relating  to  various  parts  of  Scripture 
jjistory,  1761,"  published  by  subscription  at  two  shillings 
and  six-pence.  He  died  in  August  1770,  and  was  bu- 
ried, agreeably  to  his  own  desire,  although  contrary  to 
the  Jewish  principles,  in  Great  St.  Mary's  Church-yard, 
Vol.  XXI.  C 

18  LYONS. 

Cambridge.  He  was  on  this  occasion  carried  through  the 
church,  and  his  daughter  Judith  read  some  form  of  inter* 
ment-service  over  his  grave.  He  had  resided  near  forty 
years  at  Cambridge. ' 

LYRA  (Nicholas  de),  or  LYRANUS,  a  celebrated 
Franciscan,  in  the  14th  century,  and  one  of  the  most 
learned  men  of  his  time,  was  born  of  Jewish  parents  at 
Lyre,  a  town  in  Normandy,  in  the  diocese  of  Evreux. 
After  having  been  instructed  in  rabbinical  learning,  he  em- 
braced Christianity,  entered  among  the  Franciscans  at 
Verneuil,  1291,  and  taught  afterwards  at  Paris  with  great 
credit.  He  rose  by  his  merit  to  the  highest  offices  in  bis 
order,  and  also  gained  the  esteem  of  the  great;  queen 
Jane,  countess  of  Burgundy,  and  wife  of  Philip  the  Long, 
appointed  him  one  of  her  executors  in  1'325.  He  died  at 
a  very  advanced  age,  October  23,  1340,  leaving  some 
"  Postils,"  or  short  Commentaries  oh  the  whole  Bible, 
which  were  formerly  in  considerable  reputation  :  the  most 
scarce  edition  of  them  is  that  of  Rome,  1472,  seven  vols, 
folio;  and  the  best  that  of  Antwerp,  1634,  six  vols,  folio. 
These  commentaries  are  incorporated  in  the  "  Biblia  Max- 
ima," Paris,  1660,  nineteen  vols,  folio;  and  there  is  a 
French  translation  of  them,  Paris,  1511,  and  1512,  five 
vols,  folio.  He  published  also  "  A  Disputation  against  the 
Jews,"  in  8vo,  a  treatise  against  a  particular  rabbi,  who 
made  use  of  the  New  Testament  to  combat  Christianity* 
These,  and  his  other  works  not  printed,  show  the  author 
to  have  had  a  much  more  perfect  knowledge  of  the  Holy 
Scriptures  than  was  common  at  that  time. 9 

LYSERUS  (Polycarp),  a  learned  Protestant  theologian, 
was  born  at'Winendeen  in  the  territory  of  Wittemberg,  in 
the  year  1552.  He  was  educated  at  Tubingen,  at  the  ex- 
pence  of  the  duke  of  Saxony,  and  became  a  minister  of 
the  church  of  Wittemberg  in  1577.  He  was  one  of  th£ 
first  to  sign  the  ",  Concord,"  and  was  deputed,  with  James 
Andreas,  to  procure  the  signature  of  the  divines  and  mi- 
nisters in  the  electorate  of  Saxony.  He  died  at  Dresden,, 
where  he  was  then  minister,  February  14,  1601,  aged  50, 
leaving  a  great  number  of  works,  both  in  German  and  La* 
tin.  The  principal  are,  1.  "  Explanations  of  Genesis/'  in. 
six  parts,  or  six  volumes,  4to,  each  of  which  bears  th& 
name  of  the  patriarch  whose  history  it  explains.  2.  "Com- 

i  Nichols's  Bowyer.— Cole's  MS  Athenst  in  Brit  Mus. 
8  Moreri. — Dupin.— Diet.  Hist. 

LY8ERUS.  19 

mentaries  on  the  two  first  chapters  of  Daniel,"  2  vols.  4to. 
3,  u  A  Paraphrase  on  the  History  of  the  Passion,"  4to,  or 
12mo.  4.  "  Explanation  of  Psalm  CI,"  8vo.  5.  "  Com- 
mentaries on  the  Minor  Prophets,"  4to,  published  at  Leip- 
sic,  1609,  by  Polycarp  Lyserus,  his  great-grandson,  who 
has  added  some  remarks  on  Haggai,  according  to  his  an- 
cestor's method.  6.  "  Commentaries  oil  the  Epistle  to  the 
Hebrews."  7.  "  Centuria  qosestionufti  de  articulis  libri 
Christians  Concordiae,"  4to.  8.  "  Christiantsmus,  Papis- 
mus,  Calvinismus,"  8vo.  9.  "  tlarmonia  Calviniafrorum  et 
Photinianornm  in  Doctrkia  de  Sacfa  Cemfa,"  4to.  10. li Vin- 
diciafc  Lyserianro,  an  sincretisrtius  in  rebus  fidei  cum  Cal- 
vinianis  coli  prodest,"  4to.  11.  "  Disputatioftes  IX.  An- 
ti  Steinianscr  quijbus  examinacar  defensio  concionis.  Irenica 
Paiili  Steinii,"  4to.  12.  u  Harmonia  Evangelistarum  con- 
tinuata  ad  Christianam  Harmon iam  et  ejusdem  Epitome, 
Svo\  13.  "  Dispot.  de  Deo  patre  Creatore  coeli  et  terrae, 
4to.  14.  "De  aeternitate  Fitii  Dei,"  4to.  15.  "  De  sa- 
cramentis  decades  date/9  4to.  He  published  also  the 
"  History  of  the  Jesuits/9  written  by  Elias  Hasenmullor, 
who  having  quitted  that  society,  and  turned  Lutheran,  re- 
tired to  Witteraberg,  and  died  there  before  his  work  was 
printed.  Father  Gretser  attacked  this  history,  and  Lyserus 
auswered  him  by  "  Strena  ad  Gretserum  pro  honorario 
ejus,"  8vo.1 

LYSERUS  (John),  another  learned  protestant,  of  the 
same  family  as  the  preceding,  but  of  opposite  character, 
may  be  introduced  here  as  the  precursor  of  the  celebrated 
Martin  Madan,  in  supporting  the  doctrine  of  polygamy. 
Lyserus  is  said  to  have  been  so  infatuated  with  the  am* 
bition  of  founding  a  sect  of  polygamists,  that  he  sacrificed 
his  life  and  fortune  to  prove  that  polygamy  is  not  only 
permitted,,  but  even  commanded  in  certain  cases ;  and  tra- 
velled about  Europe,  endeavouring  to  find  some  countries 
that  would  adopt  his  opinion.  At  length,  after  many  fruit- 
less journeys,  Lyserus  took  the  singular  resolution  of  visit* 
ing  France,  with  a  view  to  repair  his  fortune  by  chess,  a 
game  he  was  perfectly  master  of,  and  accordingly  settled 
at  Versailles.  Here,  however,  he  likewise  failed,  and 
having,  when  sick,  set  out  to  walk  from  Versailles  to  Paris, 
be  encreased  his  disorder  so  much,  that  he  died  at  a  bouse 
on  the  road,  in  1634.     He  left  numerous  pieces,  under 

I  Melchior  Adam. — Moreri.— Gen.  Diet. 

C   2 

,20  LY8  E  R  U  S. 

fictitious  names,  in  favour  of  polygamy,  the  most  consider* 
able  of  which  is  entitled  "  Polygamia  triumpbatrix,"  1682, 
4to.  Brunsmanus,  a  minister  of  Copenhagen  has  refuted 
this  in  a  book*  entitled  "  Polygamia.  triumphata,"  1689, 
8vo;  and  again  in  another  work,  "  Monogamia  victrix," 
1639,  8vo.  This  poor  man's  attachment  to  a  plurality  of 
wives  appears  the  more  wonderful,'  Bayle  observes,  because 
he  had  been  much  embarrassed  by  one.  In  less  than  a  cen-v 
tury  he  was  succeeded  in  his  opinions  by  the  rev.  M.  Madan, 
of  whom  hereafter. * 

LYSIAS,  an  .eminent  Greek  orator,  was  born  at  Syra- 
cuse, about  the  year  459  B.  C.  He  was  educated  at  Athens, 
and  became  a  teacher  of  rhetoric,  and  composed  orations 
for  others,  but  does  not  appear  to  have  been  a  pleader.  Of 
his  orations,  which  are  said  to  have  amounted  to  three  or 
four  hundred,  only  thirty-four  remain.  He  died  in  the 
eighty-first  year  of  his  age,  and  in  the  378th  year  B.C.  and  Quintilian  give  him  a  very  high  character,  and 
suppose  that  there  is  nothing  of  their  kind  more  perfect 
than  his  orations.  Lysias  lived  at  a  somewhat  earlier  period 
than  .Isocrates ;  and  exhibits  a  model  of  that  manner  which 
the  ancients  call  the  "  tenuis  vel  subtilis."  He  has  none 
of  the  pomp  of  Isocrates.  He  is  every  where  pure  and 
$ttic  in  the  highest  degree ;  simple  and  unaffected ;  but 
wants  force,  and  is  sometimes  frigid  in  his  compositions.  In 
the  judicious  comparison  which  Dionysius  of  Halicarnas- 
sus  makes  of  the  merits  of  Lysias  and  Isocrates,  he 
ascribes  to  Lysias,  as  the  distinguishing  character  of 
his  manner,  a  qprtain  graoe  or  elegance  arising  from  sim- 
plicity :  "  the  style  of  Lysias  has  gracefulness  for  its  na- 
ture ;  that  of  Isocrates  seems  to  have  it.9'  In  the  art  of 
narration,  as  distinct,  probable,  and  persuasive,  he  holds 
Lysias  to  be  superior  to  all  orators ;  at  the  same  time  be 
admits,  that  his  composition  is  more  adapted  to  private 
litigation  than  to  great  subjects.  He  convinces,  but  he 
does  not  elevate  nor  animate.  The  magnificence  and  splen- 
dour of  Isocrates  are  more  suited  to  great  occasions.  He 
is  more  agreeable  than  Lysias ;  and  in  dignity  of  senti- 
ment far  excels  him.  The  first  edition  of  Lysias  is  that 
by  Aldus,  folio,  1513,  in  the  first  part  of  the  "  Rhetorum 
Gnecorum  orationes."  The  best  modern  editions  are  that 
of  Taylor,  beautifully  and  correctly  printed  by  Bowyer,  in 
1739,  4toj    of  Reiske,   at  Leipsic,  1772,    8vo;    and   of 

•  * 

1  Moreri«— Geo,  Diet, 


Anger  it  Paris,  1782.     Auger  also  published  an  excellent 
French  translation  of  Lysias  in  1783.  ■ 

LYSIPPUS,  a  celebrated  statuary  among  the  ancients, 
was  a  native  of  Sicyon,  and  flourished  in  the  time  of 
Alexander  the  Great.  He  was  bred  a  locksmith,  and  fol- 
lowed that  business  for  a  while  ;  but,  by  the  advice  of  Eu- 
pompus,  a  painter,  he  applied  himself  to  painting,  which, 
however,  he  soon  quitted  'for  sculpture,  and  being  thought 
to  execute  his  works  with  more  ease  than  the  ancients, 
he  became  more  employed  than  any  other  artist.  The 
statue  of  a  man  wiping  and  anointing  himself  after  bathing 
was  particularly  excellent :  Agrrppa  placed  it  before  his 
baths  at  Rome.  Tiberius,  who  was  charmed  with  it,  and 
not  able  to  resist  the  desire  of  being  master  of  it,  when  he 
came  to  the  empire,  took  it  into  his  own  apartment,  and 
placed  another  very  fine  one  in  its  place.  But  the  Roman 
people  demanding,  in  a  full  theatre,  that  he  would  replace 
the  first  statue,  he  found  it  necessary,  notwithstanding  his 
power,  to  comply  witji  their  solicitations,  in  order  to  ap- 
pease the  tumult  Another  of  Lysippus's  capital  pieces 
was  a  statue  of  the  sun,  represented  in  a  car  drawn  by  four 
%  horses ;  this  statue  was  worshipped  at  Rhodes.  He  'made 
also  several  statues  of  Alexander  and  his  favourites,  which 
were  brought  to  Rome  by  Metellus,  after  he  had  "reduced 
the  Macedonian  empire.  He  particularly  excelled  in  the 
representation  of  the  hair,  which  be  more  happily  expressed 
than  any  of  his  predecessors  in  the  art.  He  also  made  his 
figures  less  than  the  life,  that  they  might  be  seen  such  as 
statues  appear  when  placed,  as  usual,  at  some  height; 
and  when  he  was  charged  with  this  fault,  he  answered, 
"  That  other  artists  had  indeed  represented  men  such  as 
nature  had  made  them,  but,  for  his  part,  he  chose  to  re- 
present them  such  as  they  appeared  to  be  to  the  eye." 
He  had  three  sons,  who  were  all  his  disciples,-  and  ac- 
quired great  reputation  in  the  art,9 


LYTTELTON  (George),  an  elegant  English  writer^ 
was  the  eldest  son  of  sir  Thomas  Lyttelton,  of  Hagley,  in 
Worcestershire,  bart.  and  was  born  in  1709.  He  came  into 
the  world  two  months  before  the  usual  time,  and  was 
imagined  by  the  nurse  to  be  dead,  but  upon  closer  in  spec* 

1  From    his    editors.— Saxii  Onomast.— Moreri.— Diet.   Hist. — Dibciin    and 
Clarke.— Biair'i  lecture*.  *  Pliim  Hist.  Nat.  lib.  III.  cop.  9. 


tion  was  found  alive,  apd  with  sojne  difficulty  r e*r§d*  At 
Eton  school,  where  he  was  educated,  be  w?s  so  much  dis- 
tinguished that  his  exercises  were  recommended  as  ippdels 
to  his  school-fellows.  From  Eton  he  wept  to  Christ  Church, 
where  he  retained  the  same  reputation  of  superiority,  and 
displayed  his  abilities  to  the  public  in  a  poem  on  Blenheim* 
He  was  a  very  early  writer,  both  in  verse  and  prose ;  bis 
"  Progress  of  Love/'  and  his  "  Persian  Letters,"  hav- 
ing both  been  written  when  he  was  very  young,  Aftefr 
a  short  residence  at  Oxford,  he  began  bis  travels  in 
J728-,  and  visited  France  and  Italy.  From  Rome  he 
sent  those  elegant  verses  which  are  prefixed  to  the  works 
of  Pope,  whom  he  consulted  in  1730  respecting  his  four 
pastorals.  Pope  made  some  alterations  in  them,  which 
may  be  seen  in  Bowles's  late  edition  of  that  poet's  wprks 
(vol.  IV.  p.  139).  We  find  Pope,  a  few  years  afterwards, 
in  a  letter  to  Swift,  speak  thus  of  him :  He  is  "  one  of 
those  whom  his  own  merit  has  forced  me  to  contract  an 
intimacy  with,  after  I  had  sworn  never  to  love  st  man 
more,  since  the  sorrow  it  cost  me  to  have  loved  so  many 
now  dead,  banished,  or  unfortunate,  I  mean  Mr.  Lyttel- 
ton,  one  of  the  worthiest  of  the  rising  generation,"  &c. 
In  another  letter  Mr.  Lyttelton  is  mentioned  in  a  manner 
with  which  Dr.  Warton  says  he  was  displeased  *. 

When  he  returned  from  his  continental  tour,  he  was 
(May  4, 1729)  made  page  of  honour  to  the  princess  royal. 
He  also  obtained  a  seat  ip  parliament,  and  soon  distin- 
guished himself  among  the  most  eager  opponents  of  sir 
Robert  Walpole,  though  his  father,  who  was  one  of  the 
lords  of  the  admiralty,  always  voted  with  the  court.  For 
many  years  the  name  of  George  Lyttelton  was.  seen  in 
every  account  of  every  debate  in  the  bouse  of  commons. 
Among  the  great  leading  questions*  be  qpposed  the  stand- 
ing army j  and  the  excise,  and  supported  the  motion  for 
petitioning  the  king  to  remove  Wajpole.  The  prince  of 
Wales  having,  in  consequence  of  a  quarrel  with  the  king, 
been  obliged  to  leave  St.  James's  in  1737,  kept  a  separate 
court,  and  opened  his  arms  to  the  opponents  of  the  mi- 
nistry. Mr.  Lyttelton  was  made  his  secretary,  and  was 
supposed  to  have  great  influence  in  the  direction  of  his 
conduct.  His  name  consequently  ocgurs,  although  not 
very  often,  in  Doddington's   Diary.     He  persuaded  the 

♦  Pope's  Works,  vol.  IX.  Letter  LXXXV, 



prince,  whose  business  it  was  now  to  be  popular,  that  ha 
would  advance  his  character  by  patronage.  Mallet  wa* 
made  undersecretary,  with  200/.  a  year;  and  Thomson 
had  a  pension  of  100/.  The  disposition  of  the  two  men 
must  account  for  the  difference  in, the  sums.  Mallet  could 
do  more  political  service  than  the  honest-hearted  Thomson. 
For  Thomson,  however,  Mr.  Lyttehon  always  retained 
bis  kindness,  and  was  able  at  last  to  place  him  at  ease. 
Moore  courted  his  favour  by  an  apologetical  poem  called 
"  The  Trial  of  Selim,"  and  was  paid  with  kind  words, 
which,  as  is  common,  says  Dr.  Johnson,  raised  great  hopes, 
that  at  last  were  disappointed.  This  matter,  however,  ii 
differently  stated  in  our  account  of  Moore. 

Mr.  Lyttelton  now  stood  in  the  first  rank  of  opposition ; 
and  Pope,  who  was  incited,  it  is  not  easy  to  say  how,  to 
increase  the  clamour  against  the  ministry,  commended 
him  among  the  other  patriots.  This  drew  upon  him  the 
reproaches  of  Mr.  Henry  Fox,  who,  in  the  House  of  Com- 
mons, was  weak  enough  to  impute  to  hitan  as  a  crime 
his  intimacy  with  a  lampooner  so  unjust  and  licentious. 
Eyttelton  supported  bis  friend,  and  replied,  "  that  he 
thought  it  an  honour  to  be  received  into  the  familiarity  of 
so  great  a  poet.9'  While  he  was  thus  conspicuous,  he 
married  (1741)  Miss  Lucy  Fortescne,  sister  to  Matthew  lord 
Fortescue,  of  Devonshire,  by  whom  he  bad  a  sort,  Thomas, 
and  two  daughters,  and  with  whom  he  appears  to  have 
lived  in  the  highest  degree  of  cownubial  felicity :  but  hn- 
tnan  pleasures  are  *hort;  dhe  died  in  childbed  about  six 
years  afterwards  (1747) ;  and  he  solaced  his  grief  by  writ- 
ing a  "  Monody"  *  to  her  memory,  without,  however,  con- 

•  This  notice  of  the  Monody,  which 
it  given  in  Dr.  Johnson's  words,  has 
been  thought  toe  scanty  praise.  In 
truth,  it  is  no  praise  at  all,  but  an 
assertion,  and  not  a  just  one,  that  lord 
Lyttelton  "  solaced  his  grief"  by  writ- 
ing the  poem.  The  praise  or  blame 
was  usually  reserved  by  Johnson  •  for 
the  conclusion  of  his  lives,  but  in  this 
case  the  Monody  is  not-  mentioned  at 
all.  We  have  on  record,  however,  an 
opinion  of  Gray,  which  the  admirers  of 
the  poem  will  perhaps  scarcely  think 
more  sympathetic  than  Johnson's  «- 
line*.  In  a  letter  to  lord  Orford,  who 
had  probably  spoken  "with  disrespect 
of  the  Monody,  pray  says,  "  I  am 
not  totally  of  your  mind  as  to  Mr. 

Lyttelton's  elegy,  though  I  love  kids 
and  fauns  as  little  as  you  do.  If  it 
were  aH  like  the  fourth  stanza,  I  should 
be  eacessively  pleased.  Nature  and 
sorrow  and  tenderness  are  the  true 
genius  of  such  things ;  and  something 
of  these  I  find  in  several  parts  of  it 
(not  in  the  orange  tree) :  poetical  or- 
naments are  foreign  to  the  purpose, 
for  they  only  show  a  man  is  not  sorry 
—and,  devotion  worse  ;  for  it  teaches 
hjm  that. he  ought  not  to  he  sorry, 
which  *  all  the  pleasure  of  the  thiiijr." 
— Orford's  Works,  vol.  V.  p.  359.  Dr, 
Johnson  is  undoubtedly  ironical  in  say- 
ing that  the  author  "  solaced  his  grief" 
by  writing  the  Monody.  The  poet's 
grief  must  have  abated,  and  hi^mind 

24  iYtf  ELTON. 

demning  himself  to  perpetual  solitude  and  sorrow;  for 
soon  after  he  sought  to  find  the  same  happiness  again  in  a 
second  marriage  with  the  daughter  of  sir  Robert  Rich 
(1749) ;  but  the  experiment  was  unsuccessful,  and  he  was 
for  some  years  before  his  death  separated  from  this  lady. 
"  She  was,"  says  Gilbert  West  in  a  letter  to  Dr.  Doddridge, 
"  an  intimate  and  dear  friend  of  his  former  wife,  which  » 
some  kind  of  proof  of  her  merit ;  I  mean  of  the  goodness 
of  her  heart,  for  that  is  the  chief  merit  which  Mr.  Lyttel- 
ton  esteems;  and  I  hope  she  will  not  in  this  disappoint, 
his  expectations;,  in  all  otter  points  she  is  well  suited  to 
him;  being  extremely  well  accomplished  in  languages, 
music,  painting,  &c.  very  sensible,  and  well  bred."  This 
lady  died  Sept.  17,  1795. 

When,  after  a  long  struggle,  Walpole  gave  way,,  and 
honour  and  profit  were  distributed  among  his  conquerors, 
Lyttelton  was  made  in  (1744)  one  of  the  lords  of  the  trea- 
sury ;  an^  from  that  time  was  engaged  hi  supporting  the 
schemes  of  ministry.  Politics  did  not,  however,  so  muph 
engage  him  as  to  withhold  his  thoughts  from  things  of  more 
importance.  He  had,  in  the  pride  of  juvenile  confidence, 
with  the  help  of  corrupt  conversation,  entertained  doubts 
of  the  truth  of  Christianity  ;  but  he  thought  the  time  now 
come  when  it  was  no  longer*  fit  to  doubt  or  believe  by 
chance,  aifd  applied  himself  seriously  to  the  great  question. 
His  studies  being  honest,  ended  in  conviction.  He  found 
that  Religion  was  true,  and  what  he  had  learned  he  endea- 
voured to  teach,  by  "  Observations  on  the  Conversion  and 
Apostleship  of  St.  Paul,"  printed  in  1747  ;  a  treatise  to 
which  infidelity  has  never  been  able  to  fabricate  a  specious 
answer.  This  book  his  father  h?d  the  happiness  of  seeing, 
and  expressed  his  pleasure  in  a  letter  which  deserves  to  be 
inserted,  and  must  have  given  to  such  a  son  a  pleasure 
more  easily  conceived  than  described :  "  I  have  read  your 
religious  treatise  with  infinite  pleasure  and  satisfaction. 
The  style  is  fine  and  clear,  the  arguments  close,  cogent, 
.and  irresistible.  May  the  King  of  kings,  whose  glorious 
cause  you  have  so  well  defended,  reward  your  pious  la- 
bours, and  grant  that  I  may  be  found  worthy,  through  the 

recovered    its   tone    before  be  could  led  him  to  do  this  in  poetry,  and  he 

write  at  all ;  and  when  this  became  no  more  deserves  the  suspicion  of  Ijr- 

Mr.  Lyttelton%  case,  he  felt  it  his  duty  pocrisy,  than  if  he  had,  as  an  artist, 

to  pay  an  affectionate  tribute  to  the  painted  an  apotheosis,  or  executed  a 

memory  of  his  lady,  who  certainly  was  monument, 
one  of  %  best  of  women.    His  talent* 

IYTTELTO**.  25 

merits  of  Jesus  Christ,  to  be  an  eye-witness  of  that  happi- 
ness which  I  don't  doubt  He  will  bountifully  bestow  upon 
you!  In  the  mean  time,  I  shall  never  cease  glorifying 
God,  for  havjng  endowed  you  with  such  useful  talents,  and 
given  me  so  good  a  son.  Your  affectionate  father,  Tho- 
mas Lyttelton." — When  the  university  of  Oxford  con- 
ferred the  degree  of  LL.  D.  on  Mr.  West  for  his  excellent 
work  on  the  "  Resurrection,"  the  same  honour  is  said  to 
have  been  offered  to  our  author  for  the  above  piece,  but  he 
declined  it  in  a  handsome  maimer,  by  saying  that  he  chose 
not  to  be  under  any  particular  attachments,  that,  if  he 
should  happen  to  write  any  thing  of  the  like  kind  for  the 
future,  it  might  not  appear  to  proceed  from  any  other  mo- 
tive whatsoever,  but  a  pure  desire  of  doing  good. 

A  few  years  afterwards,  in  1751,  by  the  death  of  his 
father,  be  inherited  the  title  of  baronet,  with  a  large  es- 
tate, which,  though  perhaps  he  did  not  augment,  he  was 
careful  to  adorn,  by  a  house  of  great  elegance  and '  ex- 
pence,  and  by  much  attention  to  the  decoration  of  his 
park  at  Hagley.  As  he  continued  his  exertions  in  parlia- 
ment, he  was  gradually  advancing  his  claim  to"  profit  and 
preferment;  and  accordingly  was  made  in  1754  cofferer 
and  privy-counsellor.  This  place  he  exchanged  next  year 
for  that  of  chancellor  of  the  exchequer,  an  office,  however, 
that  required  some  qualifications  which  he  soon  perceived 
himself  to  want.  It  is  au  anecdote  no  less  remarkable  than 
true,  that  he  never  could  comprehend  the  commonest  rules 
of  arithmetic.  The  year  after,  his  curiosity  led  him  into 
Wales;  of  which  he  has  given  an  account,  perhaps  rather 
with  too  much  affectation  of  delight,  to  Archibald  Bower, 
a  man  of  whom  he  had  conceived  an  opinion  more  favour- 
able than  he  seems  to  have  deserved,  \md  whom,  having 
once  espoused  his  interest  and  fame,  he  never  was  per- 
suaded to  disown.  It  must  indeed  have  proceeded  from  a 
strong  conviction  of  Bower's  innocence,  however  acquired, 
that  such  a  man  as  Lyttelton  adhered  to  him  to  the  very  last. 
About  1755,  he  prevented  Garrick  from  bringing  Bower 
on  the  stage  in  the  character  of  a  mock  convert,  to  be 
shewn  in  various  attitudes,  in  which  the  profligacy  of  his 
conduct  was  to  be  exposed  :  and  a  Very  few  years  before 
his  own  death,  he  declared  to  the. celebrated  Dr.  Lardner 
bis  opinion  of  Bower  in  these  words,  "  I  have  no  more 
doubt  of  his  having  continued  a  firm  protestant  to  the  last 
hour  of  his  life,  than  I  have  of  my  not  being  a  papist  my- 



About  this  time  he  published  his  "  Dialogues  of  the 
Dead,"  which  were  very  eagerly  read,  though  the  produce 
tion  rather,  as  it  seems,  of  leisure  than  of  study,  rather 
effusions  than  compositions.  When,  in  the  latter  part  of 
the  last  reign,  the  inauspicious  commencement  of  the  war 
made  the  dissolution  of  the  ministry  unavoidable,  sir 
George  Lyttelton,  losing  his  employment  with  the  rest, 
was  raised  to  the  peerage,  Nov.  19,  1757,  by  the  title  of 
lord  Lyttelton,  baron  of  Frankley,  in  the  county  of  Wor- 
cester. His  last  literary  production  was,  "  The  History  of 
Henry  the  Second,"  1764,  elaborated  by  the  researches 
and  deliberations  of  twenty  years,  and  published  with  the 
greatest  anxiety,  which  Dr.  Johnson,  surely  very  impro- 
perly, ascribes  to  vanity.  The  story  of  the  publication, 
however,  we  allow  to  be  remarkable.  The  whole  work 
was  printed  twice  over,  greatest  part  of  it  three  times,  and 
many  sheets  four  or  five  times  *.  The  booksellers  paid 
for  the  first  impression  f ;  but  the  charges  and  repeated 
alterations  of  the  press  were  at  the  expence  of  the  author, 
whose  ambitious  accuracy  is  known  to  have  cost  him  at 
least  a  thousand  pounds.  He  began  to  print  in  1755.  Three 
volumes  appeared  in  1764;  a  second  edition  of  them  in 
1767  ;  a  third  edition  in  1768  ;  and  the  conclusion  in  1771. 
Andrew  Reid,  a  man  not  without  considerable  abilities,  and 
Hot  unacquainted  with  letters  or  with  life,  undertook  to 
persuade  the  noble  author,  as  he  had  persuaded  himself, 
that  he  was  master  of  the  secret  of  punctuation  ;  and,  as 
fear  begets  credulity,  he  was  employed,  we  know  not  at 
what  price,  to  point  the  pages  of  "  Henry  the  Second,"  as 
if#  said  Johnson  once  in  conversation,  "  another  man  could 
point  his  sense  better  than  himself.'*     The  book,  however, 

*  The  copy  was  all  transcribed  by 
hit  lordship's  own  hand,  and  that  net 
a  vary  legible  one,  as  he  acknowledges 
in  a  letter  to  bis  printer.  See  Nichols's 

f  This  fact  is  undoubtedly  true.  We 
snail  not  scruple,  however,  to  add  to  it 
a  trifling  circumstance,  which  shews 
that  the  excellent  peer  (whose  finances 
tfere  not  in  the  most  flourishing  situa- 
tion) could  bear  with  great  fortitude 
#hat  by  many  would  hare  been  deem- 
ed an  insnlt.  The  booksellers,  at  a 
stated  period,  had  paid  the  stationer 
for  at  much  paper  as  they  had  agreed 
to-  purchase.  His  lordship  then  be- 
came the  paymaster ;  in  which  state 

the  work  went  on  for  some  years,  till 
the  stationer,  having  been  disappointed 
of  an  expected  sum,  refused  to  furnish 
any  more  paper.  With  great  reluct- 
ance Mr.  Bowyer  was  prevailed  on  to 
carry  this  report  to  his  lordship  ;  and 
began  the  tale  with  much  hesitation.—- 
"  Oh  !  I  understand  you,"  says  his 
lordship  very  calmly,  "  the  man  is 
afraid  to  trust  me !  I  acknowledge  I  am 
poor,  and  so  are  two  thirds  of  the 
House  of  Peers ;  but  let  me  request 
you  to  be  my  security."  It  is  need- 
less to  add,  that  Mr.  Bowyer  obliged 
his  lordship,  and  had  no  reason  to  re- 
pent of  the  civility. 


was  at  last  pointed  and  printed,  and  sent  into  the  world. 
His  lordship  took  money  for  his  copy,  of  which,  when  he 
had  paid  the  pointer,  he  probably  gave  the  rest  away ;  for 
be  was  very  liberal  to  the  indigent*  When  time  brought 
the  history  to  a  third  edition,  Reid  was  either  dead  or  dis- 
carded ;  and  the  superintendence  of  typography  and  punc- 
tuation was  committed  to  a  man  originally  a  eomb-jnaker, 
but  then  known  by  the  style  of  Dr.  Saunders.  Something 
uncommon  was  probably  expected,  and  something  uncom- 
mon was  at  last  done ;  for  to  the  edition  of  Dr.  Saunders  is 
appended,  what  the  world  had  hardly  seen  before,  a  list  of 
errors  of  nineteen  pages. 

Lord  Lyttelton  had  never  the  appearance  of  a  strong  or 
a  healthy  man  ;  be  had  a  slender  uncompacted  frame,  and 
a  meagre  face  * :  he  lived,  however,  above  sixty  years, 
and  then  was  seized  with  bis  last  illness,  '  Of  his  death  this 
very  affecting  and  instructive  account  has  been  given  by 
his  physician,  Dr.  Johnstone  of  Kidderminster/  "  On  Sun- 
day evening  the  symptoms  of  his  lordship's  disorder,  which 
for  a  week  past  had  alarmed  us,  put  on  a  fatal  appearance, 
and  his  lordship  believed  himself  to  be  a  dying  man.  From 
this  time  he  suffered  by  restlessness  rather  than  pain  ;  and 
though  his  nerves  were  apparently  much  fluttered,  bis 
mental  faculties  never  seemed  stronger,  when  he  was  tho- 
roughly awake.  His  lordship's  bilious  and  hepatic  com- 
plaints seemed  alone  not  equal  to  the  expected  mournful 
event ;  bis  long  want  of  sleep,  whether  the  consequence 
of  the  irritation  in  the  bowels,  or,  which  is  more  probable, 
of  causes  of  a  different  kind,  accounts  for  his  loss  of 
strength,  and  for  his  death,  very  sufficiently.  Though  his 
lordship  wished  his  approaching  dissolution  not  to  be  lin- 
gering, he  waited  for  it  with  resignation.  He  said,  *  It  is 
a  folly,  a  keeping  me  in  misery,  now  to  attempt  to  prolong 
life ;'  yet  he  was  easily  persuaded,  for  the  satisfaction  of 
others,  to  do  or  take  any  thing  thought  proper  for  him. 
On  Saturday  he  had  been  remarkably  better,  and  we  were 
apt  without  some  hopes  of  bis  recovery.  On  Sunday,  about 
eleven  in  the  forenoon,  his  lordship  sent  for  me,  and  said 
he  felt  a  great  hurry,  and  wished  to  have  a  little  conversa- 
tion with  me  in  order  to  divert  it.  He  then  proceeded  to 
open  the  fountain  of  that  heart,  from  whence  goodness  had 

*  la  a  political  Caricature  print,  le-        "  But  who  be  dat  to  lank,  90  lean,  to 
#Ned  against  lir  Robert  Walpole,  he  bony  ) 

i*  tfcus  described :  O  dat  be  great  orator,  Lytteltony." 

28  L  Y  T  TELTON. 


so  long  flowed  as  from  a  copious  spring*  '  Doctor,' said 
he,  €  you  shall  be  my  confessor :  When  I  first  set  out  in 
the  world,  I  had  friends,  tvho  endeavoured  to  shake  my 
belief  in  the  Christian  religion.  I  saw  difficulties  which 
staggered  me;  but  I  kept. my  mind  open  to  conviction. 
The  evidences  and  doctrines  of  Christianity,  studied  with 
attention,  made  me  a  most  firm  and  persuaded  believer  of 
the  Christian  religion.  I  have  made  it  the  rule  of  my  life, 
and  it  is  the  ground  of  my  future  hopes.  I  have  erred 
and  sinned ;  but  have  repented,  and  never  indulged  any 
vicious  habit.  In  politics,  and  public  life,  I  have  made 
the1  public  good  the  rule  of  my  conduct.  I  never  gave 
counsels  which  I  did  not  at  the  time  think  the  best.  I 
have  seen  that  I  was  sometimes  in  the  wrong,  but  I  did 
not  err  designedly.  I  have  endeavoured,  in  private  life, 
%o  do  all  the  good  in  my  power,  and  never  for  a  moment 
could  indulge  malicious  or  unjust  designs  upon  any  person 
whatsoever.9  At  another  time  he  said, '.  I  must  leave  my 
soul  in  the  same  state  it  was  in  before  this  illness ;  I  find 
this  a  very  inconvenient  time  for  solicitude  about  any 
thing.9.  On  the  evening  when  the  symptoms  of  death 
came  on  him,  he  said,  'I  shall  die ;  but  it  will  not  be  your 
fault'  When  lord  and  lady  Valentia  came  to  see  bis  lord- 
ship, he  gfwe  them  this  solemn  benediction,  and  said,  '  Be 
good,  be  virtuous,  my  lord.  You  must  come  to  this.9  Thus 
he  continued  giving  his  dying  benediction  to  all  around 
him.  On  Monday  morning  a  lucid  interval  gave  some 
'small  hopes,  but  these  vanished  in  the  evening;  and  he 
continued  dying,  but  with  very  little  uneasiness,  till  Tues- 
day morning,  August  22,  when  between  seven  and  eight 
o'clock  he  expired,  almost  without  a  groan."  His  lord- 
ship was  buried  at  Hagley  ;  with  an  inscription  cut  on  the 
side  of  his  lady's  monument. 

He  was  succeeded  by  his  son  Thomas,  second  lord  LyU 
telton,  of  whom  the  following  too  just  character  is  on 
record :  "  With  great  abilities  generally  very  ill  applied ; 
with  a  strong  sense  of  religion,  which  he  never  suffered  to 
influence  .his  conduct,  his  days  were  mostly  passed  in 
splendid  misery ;  and  in  the  painful  change  of  the  most 
extravagant  gaiety,  and  the  deepest  despair.  The  delight, 
when  lie  pleased,  of  the  first  and  most  select  societies,  he 
chose  to  pass  his  time,  for  the  most  part,  #rith  the  most 
profligate  and  abandoned  of  both  sexes.  Solitude  was  qi 
him  the  most  insupportable  torment ;  and  to  banish  reflec- 


tion,  be  flew  to  company  whom  he  despised  and  ridiculed. 
His  conduct  was  a  subject  of  bitter  regret  both  to  fait  father 
and  all  his  friends*."  He  closed  this  unhappy  life,  Nov.  27, 
1779.  Two  volumes  of  "Letters"  published  in  1780  and 
1782,  though  attributed  to  him,  are  known  to  have  been 
the  production  of  an  ingenious  writer  yet  living;  and  a 
quarto  volume  of  "Poems,"  published  in  1780,  was,  as 
well  as  the  "  Letters,"  publicly  disowned  by  his  executors, 
but  as  to  the  "Poems,"  they  added,  *  great  part  whe^of 
are  undoubtedly  spurious." 

We  have  more  pleasure,  however,  in  returning  to  the  cha* 
racter  of  George  lord  Lvttelton,  which  has  been  uniformly 
delineated  by  those  who  •  knew  him  best,  in  favourable 
colours.  Of  the  various  sketches  which  we  have  seen,  we 
are  inclined  to  give  a  place  to  the  following,  which, 
although  somewhat  Ipng,  is  less  known  than  those  to  be 
found  in  the  accounts  of  his  biographers,  and  appears  to 
have  been  written  by  a  near  observer :  "  Few  characters, * 
says  the  writer,  "recorded  m  the  annals  of  this  country,, 
ever  united  so  many  rare,  valuable,  and  amiable  qualities, 
as  that  of  the  late  lord  Lyttelton.  Whether  we  consider 
this-  great  man  in  public  or  private  life,  we  are*  justified  in 
affirming,  that  he  abounded  in  virtues  not  barely  sufficient 
to  create  reverence  and  esteem,  but  to  insure  him  the  love 
and  admiration  of  all  who  knew  him. — Look  upon  him  as  a 
statesman,  and  a  public  man  ;  where  shall  we  find  another, 
who  always  thought  right  and  meant  well,  and  who  So  sel- 
dom acted  wrong,  or  was  misled  or  mistaken  in  his  mini- 
sterial, or  senatorial  conduct?  Look  upon  his  lordship  in 
the  humbler  scene  of  private  and  domestic  life;  and  if 
thou  hadst  the  pleasure  of  knowing  him,  gentle  reader, 
point  out  the  breast  warm  or  cold,  Khat  so  copiously 
abounded  with  every  gift  and  acquirement  which  indulgent 
nature  could  bestow,  or  the  tutored  mind  improve  arid  re- 
fine, to  win  and  captivate  mankind. 

"  His  personal  accomplishments,  and  the  sweetness  and 
pliability  of  his  temper,  which  accompanied  and  swayed 
them,  always  recalled  to  my  memory,  that  line  of  his  own, 
only  varying  the  sex ',  bis  '  Wit  was  Nature  by  the  Grace* 
drest.' — His  affability  and  condescension  to  those  below 
him,  was  not  the  effect  of  art,  or  constrained  politeness, 
dictated  by  the  hackneyed  sterile  rules  of  decorum  'and 

*  Pennington's  Memoirs  of  Mrs.  Carter. 



good  breeding :  no,  the  benevolence  of  his  heart  pervaded 
the  whole  man ;  it  illuminated  his  countenance,  it  softened 
his  accents,  it  mixed  itself  with  bis  demeanour,  and  gave 
evidence  at  once  of  the  goodness  of  his  heart,  and  the 
soundness  of  his  understanding. 

"  To  such  as  were  honoured  with  his  friendship  and  his 
intimacy,  his  kindness  was  beyond  example ;  he  shared  at 
once  bis  affections  and  his  interests  among  his  friends,  and 
.  tomrds  the  latter  part  of  his  life,  when  his  ability  to  serve 
them  ceased,  he  felt  only  for  those  who  depended  on  biof 
for  their  future  advancement  in  life.  The  unbounded  au- 
thority be  possessed  over  them  was  established  in  parental 
dominion,  not  in  the  cold,  haughty,  supercilious  supe- 
riority of  a  mere  patron. — Among  this  latter  description, 
the  author  of  the  present  rude  outline  is  proud  of  ranking 
himself,  and  is  happy  in  recollecting,  that  he  obeyed,  or 
ratber  anticipated,  the  wishes  of  bis  noble  friend,  as  far  as 
lay  in  bis  power,  with  more  ehearfulness  and  alacrity  than 
he  would  in  executing  even  the  confidential  mandates  of 
the  greatest  monarch  or  minister  in  Christendom. 

"  His  lordship's  acquaintance  with  men  and  books  was 
accurate  and  extensive.  His  studies  in  the  early  part  of 
hisJife  must  have  been  well  directed,  and  his  taste  remark- 
ably judicious,  for  no  person  ever  lived  who  was  less  tinc- 
tured with  the  vulgar  moroseness,  and  self- conceited  air  of 
a  pedant,  nor  with  the  affectation  and  frivolity  of  that  rank 
in  life,  which  his  birth,  fortune,  and  situation,  rendered 
customary  and  familiar  to  him. 

"  He  was  perfectly  and  intimately  acquainted  with  the 
works  of  the  most  celebrated  writers  of  antiquity  in  verse 
and  prose.  His. memory  was  stocked  with  the  most  strik- 
ing passages  contained  in  them;  but  he  never  indulged 
nor  gave  way  to  the  strong  impressions  they  had  stamped 
on  his  mind,  but  to  gratify  his  confidential  friend*  When* 
ever  he  consented  to  their  entreaties,  his  allusion*  were 
judiciously  selected,  and  applied  with  thenvost  consummate 
propriety.  His  language  was  manly,  nervous,  and  tech* 
nicak  It  was  suited  to  the  personal  rank,  knowledge,  and' 
disposition,  of  those  be  conversed  with ;  by  which  means 
be  rendered  himself  agreeable  and  intelligible  to  every 

mtsoq,  whom  chance,  amusement,  or  business,  threw  in 
us  way. 

"  His  discernment  of  spirits,  the  term  which  the  late 
lord  Bolingbroke  substitutes  for  th  e  familiar '  phrase  of 


knowing  mankind,  was  no  less  conspicuous,  when  he 
thought  proper  to  exert  it  with  steadiness  and  vigour ;  but 
unfortunately  for  his  own  domestic  peace,  it  was  extremely 
difficult  to  rouse  him.  He  trusted  too  much  to  the  repre- 
sentations of  others,  and  was  always  ready  to  leave  the 
labour  of  discriminating  characters,  to  those  who  too  often 
found  an  interest  in  deceiving  him.  Though  his  steadiness 
of  principle,  penetration,  and  justness  of  reflection,  might 
be  well  ranked  in  the  first  class,  those  talents  were  in  a 
great  measure  effectually  lost,  because  his  employments 
and  pursuits  as  a  public  man,  his  amusements  as  a  man  of 
taste  and  science,  and,  in  the  latter  part  of  his  life,  bis 
avocations  as  a  writer,  so  totally  engrossed  his  attention, 
that  he  entirely  neglected  his  private  affairs,  and  in  a  va- 
riety of  instances  fell  a  prey  to  private  rapine  and  literary 
imposition.  This  was  the  joint  effect  of  native  indolence, 
and  a  certain  incurable  absence  of  mind.  To  show  that 
his  want  of  discrimination  was  not  native,  but  that  the 
power  of  knowing  those  he  communicated  with*  was  ren- 
dered to  some  purpose  useless,  because  it  was  not  em- 
ployed, a  stronger  proof  need  not  be  given,  than  his' 
thorough  knowledge  of  the  court,  as  exhibited  in  parties, 
and  the  several  individuals  who  composed  them.  He  could 
tell  the  political  value  of  almost  every  veteran  courtier,  of 
candidate  for  power.  He  could  develope  their  latent  view% 
he  cotold  foretell  their  change  of  conduct  He  foresaw  the 
effect  of  such  and  such  combinations,  the  motives  which 
formed  them,  the  principles  which  held  them  together, 
and  the  probable  date  of  their  dissolution.  Whenever  tab 
was  imposed  on,  it  was  through  the  want  of  attentive,  not 
of  parts ;  or  from  a  kind  of  settled  opinion,  that  men  of 
common  plain  understandings,  and  good  reputation,  would 
hardly  risque  solid  advantages  in  pursuit  of  unlawful  gain, 
which  last  might  eventually  be  accompanied  with  loss  of 
character,  as  well  as  the  object  proposed  to  he  attained* 
Whatever  plausibility  tber/s  may  appear  in  this  mode  of 
reasoning,  experience  frequently  informed  his  lordship, 
tfrat  it  was  not  to  be  depended  on.  He  was  plundered  by 
his  servants,  deceived  by  bis,  humble  companions,  misled 
by  his  confidents,  and  imposed  on  by  several  of  those 
whom  he  patronized.  He  felt  the  effects  of  all  this,  in  his 
family,  in  his  finances,  ^nd  even  in  the  rank  he  should 
have  preserved.  Those  who  were  not  acquainted  with  the 
solidity,  of  his  judgment,  the  acuteness  of  his  wit,  the 

S2  IYTTELTON.     . 

brilliancy  and  justness  of  bis  thoughts,  the  depth  of  his 
penetration,  and  with  the  amazing  extent  of  bis  genius, 
were  apt  to  confound  the  consequences  of  his  conduct, 
with  the  powers  and  resources  of  his  mind.  If  his  lordship 
remained  out  of  place,  on  principle,  the  ignorant  inclined 
to  ascribe  this  seeming  court  proscription  to  simplicity  or 
want  of  talents.  If  he  did  not  support  his  rank  with  that 
ostentatious  splendour  now  become  so  fashionable,  the 
world  was  ready  to  impute  it  to  a  want  of  (economy,  or  a 
want  of  spirit ;  but  in  all  those  conjectures  and  conclu- 
sions, the  world  were  much  mistaken  and  misled.  He  had 
frequent  offers,  some  of  them  the  most  flattering,  to  take 
a  part  in  administration  ;  but  he  uniformly  rejected  them. 
His  manner  of  living  at  his  seat  at  Hagley  was  founded  on 
the  truest  principles  of  hospitality,  politeness,  and  society ; 
and  as  to  money,  he  knew  no  other  use  of  it  but  to  answer 
his  own  immediate  calls,  or  to  enable  him  to  promote  the 
happiness  of  others  *."  # 

Much  of  this  character  corresponds  with  the  accounts 
which  might  be  extracted  from  the  correspondence  of  his 
friends,  who  were  so  numerous  as  perhaps  to  include  all 
the  eminent  literary  persons  of  his  time.  With  such  he 
delighted  to  associate,  was  often  a  useful  patron  of  rising 
genius,  and  to  the  last  was  ambitious  of  a  personal  ac- 
quaintance with  men  whose  works  he  admired.  We  have 
a  remarkable  instance  of  this  in  his  visiting  (in  1767)  old 
Dr.  Lardner,  and  introducing  himself  as  one  who  had  read 
his  volumes  with  pleasure  and  profit.  Lardner  was  at  this 
time  so  deaf  that  his  visitors  were  obliged  to  carry  on  con- 
versation with  him  by  writing,  to  which  tiresome  condition 
lord  Lyttelton  gladly  submitted. 

Lord  Lyttelton's  literary  character  has  been  so  long 
established  that  it  is  unnecessary  to  add  much  on  the  sub- 
ject. His  Miscellaneous  Works  have  been  often  reprinted, 
and,  although  in  some  of  them  rigid  criticism  may  find  ob- 
jections, cannot  be  read  without  pleasure  and  advantage. 
His  "  History  of  Henry  II.'9  is  also  now  a  standard  work, 
valuable  both  for  matter  and  style.  ,  His  "  Persian  Let- 
ters,11 written  when  a  very  young  man,  are  included  among 
his  miscellaneous  works,  but  Dr.  Warton  informs  us  that 
he  had  intended  to  discard  them,  as  there  were  principles 
and  remarks  in  them  that  he  wished  to  retract  and  alter. 

*  St.  James's  Chronicle,  Sept.  1776. 

LYTTELT  O'tf.  33 

The  reader  finds  them,  however,  as  originally  published, 
and  they  contain  many  shrewd  remarks  and  just  ridicule  on 
the  manners  of  the  times.  His  juvenile  pieces  were  not 
always  his  worst.  Dr.  Warton  remarks  that  his  Observa- 
tions on  the  life  of  Cicero  contain  perhaps  a  more  dispas- 
sionate and  impartial  character  of  that  great  orator  than  is 
exhibited  in  the  panegyrical  volumes  of  Middleton,  It 
may  here  be  noticed  that  some  of  his  letters  to  Warton 
occur  in  WoolPs  Life,  by  which  we  learn  that  lord  Lyttel- 
ton  made  him  his  chaplain  in  1756.  As  a  poet,  we  do  not 
find  among  critics  any  wide  departure  from  Dr.  Johnson's 
opinion.  Lord  Lyttelton's  poems  are  to  be  praised  chiefly 
for  correctness  and  elegance  of  versification  and  style. 
His  "  Advice  to  Belinda/'  though  for  the  most  part  writ- 
ten when  he  was  very  young,  contains,  Dr.  Johnson  says, 
"  much  truth  and  much  prudence,  very  elegantly  and  vi- 
gorously expressed,  and  shows  a  mind  attentive  to  life,  and 
a  power  of  poetry  which  cultivation  might  have  raised  to 
excellence."  As  far,  however,  as  this  implies  that  lord 
Lyttelton  did  not  cultivate  his  powers,  we  are  inclined  to 
think  our  great  critic  in  error.  Lord  Lyttelton  was  very 
early  a  poet,  and  appears  to  have  not  only  valued  his  talent, 
bat  acquired  his  first  reputation  from  the  exercise  of  it. 
He  was  very  early  a  critic  too,  as  appears  by  his  account 
of  Glover's  "  Leonidas,"  printed  in  1737,  and  few  men  * 
were  oftener  consulted  by  young  poets  in  the  subsequent 
part  of  his  life.  Mickle  may  be  instanced  as  one  whose 
first  pieces  were  carefully  perused  and  corrected  by  him, 
and  although  Mickle  was  disappointed  in  the  hopes  he  en- 
tertained from  him  as  a  patron,  he  often  owned  his  obligations 
to  him  as  a  critic;  Lord  Lyttelton's  was  the  patronage  of 
kindness  rather  than  of  bounty.  He  courted  the  acquaint- 
ance and  loved  the  company  of  men  of  genius  and  learning, 
with  whom  his  correspondence  also  was  extensive,  but  he 
had  little  of  his  own  to  give  away,  and  was  so  long  of  the 
party  in  opposition  to  ministers,  as  to  have  very  little  state 

His  collected  works,  first  printed  in  4to,  in  1774,  and 
since  in  8vo,  consist  of,  1.  "Observations  on  the  Life  of 
Cicero."  2.  "  Observations  on  the  Roman  History."  3. 
"  Observations  on  the  present  state  of  our  affairs  at  home, 
and  abroad,"  &c.  4.  "  Letters  from  a  Persian  in  England 
to  his  friend  at  Ispahan."  5.  "  Observations  on  the  con- 
version and  apostleship  of  St.  Paul."     6.  "  Dialogues  of 

Vol.  XXI.  D 

S*  t.  Y  T.  T  E.  U  T  O  Nl 

the  XHNkL"      7.    "  Four  Speeches  in  parliament."     fr. 

V  Poems."     9,  "  Letters  to  Sir  Thomas  Lyttelton."     lO. 

V  Account  of  *  Journey  into  Wales."  Some  other  lesser 
pieces,  which  appeared  in  the  periodical  journals,  have  been 
attributed  to  him,  and  some  anonymous  political  pamphlets* 
Lord  Qrford  mentions  him  as  a  writer  in  the.  paper  called 
"  Copimon  Sense,"  hut  has  riot  discovered  his  share.  In 
th*t,  however,  he  certainly  wrote  the  criticism  on  "  Leo* 
oidas,"  which  occurs  in  p.  72,  of  the  first  volume.  In 
yol,  II.  p.  31,  is  a  paper  from  the  pen  of  lord  Chesterfield, 
dated  March  4,  173 8,  in  defence  of  lord  (then  Mr.)  Lyt- 
telton against  the  attacks  of  the  writers  in  the  Daily  Ga- 
zetteer. From  bis  connection  with  the  party  in  opposition 
to  sir  Robert  Waipole,  it  seems  not  unreasonable  to  con* 
jecture  that  he  wrote  in  the  ".Craftsman ;"  but  for  this  we 
have  no  positive  authority.1 

LYTTELTON  (Charles),  third  son  of  sir  Thomas,  and 
brother  to  George  lord  Lyttelton,  was  born  at  Hagley,  in 
1714.  He  was  educated  at  Eton-school,  and  went  thence 
first  to  University-college,  Oxford,  and  then  to  the  Inner- 
Temple*  where  he  became  a  barrister  at  law ;  but  entering 
into  orders,  was  collated  by  bishop  Hough  to  the  rectory 
of  Alvechuroh,  in  Worcestershire,  Aug.  IS,  1742.  He 
took  the  degree  of  LL.  B.  March  28,  1745  ;  LL.  D.  June 
18  the  same  year ;  was  appointed  king's  chaplain  in  Dee. 
1747,  dean  of  Exeter  in  May  1748,  and  was  consecrated 
bishop  of  Carlisle,  March  21,  1762.  In  1754  he  caused 
the  cieling  and  cornices  of  the  chancel  of  Hagley  church 
to  be  ornamented  with  shields  of  arms  in  their  proper  co- 
lours, representing  the  paternal  coats  of  his  ancient  and 
fespectable  family.  In  1765,  on  the  death  of  Hugh  lord 
Willoughby  of  Parham,  he  was  unanimously  elected  pre- 
sident of  the  society  of  antiquaries ;  a  station  in  which  hia 
distinguished  abilities  were  eminently  displayed.  He  died 
unmarried,  Dec*.  22,  1768.  His  merits  and  good  qualities 
are  universally  acknowledged ;  and  those  parts  of  his  cha- 
racter which  more  particularly  endeared  him  to  the  learned 

1  Life  by  Johnson.—- Lord  Orford's  Works,  vol.  T.  p.  539,  and  vol.  V.  p.  38S. 
— Nichols's  Bowyer. — Swift's  Works. — BosweiPs  Life  of  Johnson — Doddridge's 
Letters*  p.  1 19f  344,  443,  470,— .Gent.  Mag.  vol.  XLV.  p.  371,  and  LX.  p.  594. 
—Forbes^  Life  of  Beattie.-*-Wooll's  Life  of  Warton,  p.  242.  321.— Da  vies* s 
Xifeof  Garrick,  vol.  I.  p.  272.— Bowles's  edition  of  Pope's  Works.— Leland's 
tteistieal  Writers,  and  an  interesting  chapter  in  Graves's  "  Recollection- of 
some  particulars  in  the  Life  of  Sbeasfone,?'  1788,  8vo. — Sir  E.  Brydges's  edit* 
*t  Coliins'a  Peerage. 

L  Y  TT  E  L  T  O  M.  35 

Society  over  which  he  so  wbrtfcily  presided,  shall  be 
pointed  out  in  the  words  of  his  learned  successor  dean 
Miiles  :  "  The  study  of  antiquity,  especially  that  part  of 
it  which  relates  to  the  history  and  constitution  of  these 
kingdoms,  was  one  of  his  earliest  and  most  favourable  pur- 
suits ;  and  he  acquired  great  knowledge  in  it  by  constant 
study  and  application,  to  which  he  was  led,  not  only  by  his 
natural  disposition,  but  also  by  his  state  and  situation  in 
life.  He  took  frequent  opportunities  of  improving  and  en- 
riching this  knowledge  by  judicious  observations  iu  the 
course  of  several  journies  which  he  made  through  every 
country  of  England,  and  through  many  parts  of  Scotland 
and  Wales.  The  society  has  reaped  the  fruits  of  these 
observations  in  the  most  valuable  papers,  which*  his  lord- 
ship from'  time  to  time  has  communicated  to  us ;  which 
are  more  in  number,  and  not  inferior  either  in  merit  or  im- 
portance, to  those  conveyed  to  us  by  other  hands.  Blest 
with  a  retentive  memory,  and  happy  both  in  the  disposi- 
tion and  facility  of  communicating  his  knowledge,  he  was 
enabled  also  to  act  the  part  of  a  judicious  commentator 
and  candid  critic,  explaining,  illustrating,  and  correcting 
from  his  own  observations  many  of  the  papers  which  have 
been  ^read  at  this  society.  His  station  and  connection* in 
the  world,  which  necessarily  engaged  a  very  considerable 
part  of  his  time,  did  not  lessen  his  attention  to  the  business 
and  interests  of  the  society.  His  doors  were  always  open 
to  his  friends,  amongst  whom  none  were  more  welcome 
tohiin  than  the  friends  of  literature,  which  he  endeavoured 
to  promote  in  all  its  various  branches,  especially  in  those 
which  are  the  more  immediate  objects  of  our  attention. 
Even  this  circumstance  proved  beneficial  to' the  society, 
for,  if  I  may  be  allowed  the  expression,  lie  was  the  centre 
in  which  the  various  informations  on  points  of  antiquity 
from  the  different  parts  of  the  kingdom  united,  and  the 
medium  through  which  they  were  conveyed  to  us.  His 
literary  merit  with  the  society  received  an  additional  lustre 
from  the  affability  of  his  temper,  the  gentleness  of  his 
manners,  and  the  benevolence  of  his  heart,  which  united 
every  member  of  the  society  in  esteem  $o  their  head,  and 
in  harmony  and  friendship  with  each  other.  A  principle - 
so  essentially  necessary  to  the  prosperity  and  even  to  the 
existence  of  all  communities,  especially  those  which  have 
arts  and  literature  for  their  object,  that  its  beneficial  ef- 
fects are  visibly  to  be  discerned  in  the  present  flourishing 

D  2 

36  L  Y  T  T  E  L  T  O  N, 

state  of  our  society,  which  I  flatter  myself  will  be  long 
continued  under  the  influence  of  the  same  agreeable  prin- 
ciples. I  shall  conclude  this  imperfect  sketch  of  a  most 
worthy  character,  by  observing  that  the  warmth  of  his  af- 
fection to  the  society  continued  to  his  latest  breath;  and 
he  has  given  a  signal  proof  of  it  in  the  last  great  act  which 
a  wise  man  does  with  respect  to  his  worldly  affairs ;  for, 
amongst  the  many  charitable  and  generous  donations  con- 
tained in  his  will,  he  has  made  a  very  useful  and  valuable 
bequest  of  manuscripts  and  printed  books  to  the  society, 
as  a  token  of  his  affection  for  them,  and  of  his  earnest  de-? 
sire  to  promote  those  laudable  purposes  for  which  they  were 
instituted."  The  society  expressed  their  gratitude  apd  re-r 
spect  to  his  memory  by  a  portrait  of  him  engraved  at  their 
expence  in  1770. 

Besides  his  contributions  to  th*  papers  of  the  society  of 
antiquaries,  published  in  the  "  Archseologia,"  there  is  in 
Gutch's  "  Collectanea  Curiosa,"  vol.  II.  p.  354,  "  Dean 
Lyttelton's  Memoir  concerning  the  authenticity  of  his  copy 
of  Magna  Charta,"  from  the  minutes  of  the  antiquarian 
society,  and  an  answer  by  judge  Blackstone.1 

I  Nichols's  Bowyer. 


JtVlABILLON  (John),  a  very  learned  French  writer, 
was  born  Nov.  23,  1632,  at  Pierre-mont,  on  the  frontiers 
of  Champagne.  He  was  educated  in  the  university  of 
Rheims,  and  afterwards  entered  into  the  abbey  of  the 
Benedictines  of  St.  Remy ;  where  he  took  the  habit  ir\ 
1653,  and  made  Che  profession  the  year  following.  He 
was  looked  upon  at  first  as  a  person  that  would  do.  honour 
to  his  order  ;  but  a  perpetual  head-ach,  with  which  he  was 
afflicted,  almost  destroyed  all  the  expectations  which  were 
conceived  of  him.     He  was  ordained  priest  at  Amiens  in 

M  A  B  I  L  L  O  N.  it 

1660;    and   afterwards,    lest    too  much   solitude   should 
injure  his  health,  which  was  not  yet  re-established,  was 
sent  by  his  superiors  to  St.  Denis,  where  he  was  appointed, 
during  the  whole  year  1663,  to  shew  the  treasure  arid  'mo- 
numents of , the  kings  of  France.     But  having  there  un- 
fortunately broken  a  looking-glass,  which  was  pretended 
to  have  belonged  to  Virgil,  he  obtained  leave  to  quit  an 
employment,  which,  as  he  said,  frequently  obliged  him  to 
relate  things  he  did  not  believe.     As  the  indisposition  of 
his  head  gradually  abated,  he  began  to  shew  himself  more 
and* more  to  the  world.     Father  d'Acheri,  who  was  then 
compiling  his  "  Spicilegium,"  desiring  to  have  some  young 
monk,  who  could  assist  him  in  that  work,  Mabillon  was 
chosen  for  the  purpose,  and  accordingly  went  to  Paris  in 
1664,  where  he  was  very  serviceable  to  d'Acheri.     This 
began  to  place  his  talents  in  a  conspicuous  light,  and  to 
shew  what  might  be  expected  from  him.     A  fresh  occasion 
soon  offered  itself  to  him.  The  congregation  of  St.  Maur  had* 
formed  a  design  of  publishing  new  editions  of  the  fathers, 
revised  from  the  manuscripts,  with  which  the  libraries  of 
the  order  of  the  Benedictines,  as  one  of  the  most  ancient, 
are  furnished.     Mabillon   was  ordered  to   undertake   the 
edition  of  St.  Bernard,  which  he  had  prepared  with  great 
judgment  and  learning,  and  published  at  Paris,  in  1667, 
in  two  volumes  folio,  and  nine  octavo.     In  1690  he  pub- 
lished a  second  edition,  augmented  with  almost  fifty  letters, 
new  preliminary  dissertations-,  and    new  notes;    and  just 
before  his  death  was  preparing  to  publish  a  third.     He 
had  no  sooner  published  the  first  edition  of  St.  Bernard, 
than   the   congregation   appointed   him   to  undertake   an 
edition  of  the  "  Acts  of  the  Saints  of  the  order  of  Benedic- 
tines;" the  first  volume  of  which  he  published  in  1668, 
and  continued  it  to  nine  volumes  in  folio,  the  last  of  which; 
was  published   in   1701.     The  writers  of  the  "Journal  de 
Trevoux"  speak  not  improperly  of  this  work  when  they 
say  that  "  it  ought  to  be  considered,  not  as  a  simple  col- 
lection of  memoirs  relating  to  monastic  history,  but  as  a 
valuable  compilation  of  ancient  monuments ;  which,  being 
illustrated  by  learned  notes,  give  a  great  light  to  "the  most 
obscure  part  6f  ecclesiastical  history.  "  The  prefaces  alone,'* 
say  they,  "  would  secure  to  the  author  an  immortal  reputa- 
tion.    The  manners  and   usages  of  those  dark  ages   are 
examined  with   great   care;    and    an*  hundred   important 
questions  are  ably   discussed."     Le  Clerc,  in  the  placfe 

.  / 

3*  MA  RILL  ON. 

referred  to  above,  from  which  we  have  chiefly  drawn  out 
account  of  Mabillon,  has  given  us  one  example  of  a  que** 
tion  occasionally  discussed  by  him  in  the  course  of  hi* 
work,  concerning  the  use  of  unleavened  bread,  in  the  ce* 
lebration  of  the  sacrament.  Mabillon  shews,  in  the  pre- 
face to  the  third  age  of  his  "  Acta  Sanctorum,"  that  the 
use  of  it  is  more  ancient  than  is  generally  believed ;  and* 
in  1674,  maintained  it  in  a  particular  dissertation,  ad* 
dressed  to  cardinal  Bona,  who  was  before  of  a  contrary 
opinion.  But  the  work  which  is  supposed  to  have  done 
him  the  most  honour  i»  his  "  De  re  diplomatic*  libri  sex, 
in  quibus  quicquid  ad  veterum  instrumentorum  antiquita- 
tern,  materiam,  scripturam  et  stilum  ;  quicquid  ad  sigilla* 
monogrammata,  subscriptiones,  ac  notas  cnronologicas ; 
quicquid  inde  ad  antiquariam,  historicam,  forensemque 
disciplinam  pertinet,  expljcatur,  et  illustratur.  Accedunt 
commentarius  de  antiquis  regum  Francorum  palatiis,  ve«* 
terum  scripturarum  varia  specimina  tabulis  LX.  compre*> 
hensa,  nova  ducentorum  et  amplius  monumentorum  coi lec- 
tio," Paris,  1681,  folio.  The  examination  of  almost  an 
infinite  number  of  charters  and  ancient  titles,  which  had 
passed  through  his  hands,  led  him  to  form  the  design  of 
reducing  to  certain  rules  and  principles  an  art,  of  which, 
before  there  had  been  only  very  confused  ideas.  It  was  a, 
bold  attempt;  but  he  executed  it  with  such  success,  that 
he  was  thought  to  have  carried  it  at  once  to  perfection. 

In  1682  he  took  a  journey  into  Burgundy,  in  which  M. 
Colbert  employed  him  to  examine  some  ancient  titles  re- 
lating to  the,  royal  family.  That  minister  received  all  the 
satisfaction  he  could  desire ;  and,  being  fully  convinced 
of  Mabillon's  experience  and  abilities  in  these  points,  sent 
him  the  year  following  into  Germany,  in  order  to  search 
there,  among  the  archives  and  libraries  of  the  ancient 
abbeys  for  materials  to  illustrate  the  history  of  the  church 
in  general,  and  that  of  France  in  particular.  He  spent  five 
months  in  this  journey,  and  published  an  account  of  it. 
He  took  another  journey  into  Italy  in  1685,  by  order  of 
the  king  of  France  ;  and  returned  the  yesrr  following  with 
a  very  noble  collection  of  above  three  thousand  volumes  of 
rare  books,  both  printed  and  manuscript,  which  he  added 
to  the  king's  library ;  and,  in  1687,  composed  two  volumes, 
of  the  pieces  he  had  discovered  in  that  country,  under  the 
title  of  "Museum  Italicum."  After  this  he  employed 
himself  in  publishing  other  works,  which  are  strong  evi~ 

fif  ▲  B  I  L  L  0  &  3* 

dence*  of  his  vast  abilities  and  application*  In  16»S  be< 
published  a  Latin  letter  concerning  the  worship  of  theim* 
knQwn<$aints,  which  be  called  "  Eusebii  Theo-. 
philum,  Galium  epistola."  The  history  of  Ibis  piece  does 
credit  to  his  love  of  truth,  and  freedoofc  from  traditional 
prejudices.  While  at  Rome  be  had  endeavoured  to  iO" 
form  himself  particularly  of  those  rules  and  precautions, 
which  were*>necessary  to  be  observed  witb  regard  to  the 
bodies  of  saints  taken  out  of  the  catacombs,  in  order .  to  be 
exposed  to  the  veneration  of  the  public.  He  had  himself 
visited  those  plaies,  and  consulted  all  persons  who  could 
give  him  light  upon  the  subject;  but  five  or  six  years 
elapsed  after  bis  return  to  France,  without  his*  having  ever 
thought  of  making  use  of  these  observation*.  .  In  1692, 
however,  be  drew  up  the  treatise  above-mentioned  J  in 
which  be  gave  it  as  bis  opinion,  that  the  bodies  found  ii* 
the  catacombs  were  Aoo  hastily,  and  without  sufficient 
foundation,  concluded  to  be  the  bodies  of  martyrs.  Still,; 
aware  this  was  a  subject  pf  a  very  delicate  nature,  and  that 
such  an  opinion  might  possibly  give  offence,  be  kept  it  by 
bim  five  years,  without  communicating  it  to  above  one 
person ;  and  tb$n  sent  it,  under  the  seaL  of  secresy,  to 
rardinal  Collorrde  at  Rome,  whose  opinion  was,  that  it 
should  not  be  published  in  the  form  it  was  then  in.  JNever* 
theiess,  in  1698  it  waa  published ;  aad,  as  might  easily  be 
foreseen,  very  ill  received  at  Rome ;  and  after  many  com* 
plaints,  murmurs,  and  criticisms,  it  was  to  1701  brought 
before  (be  Congregation  of  the  Index,  and  MabiUon  fo  iud 
it  necessary  to  employ  all  his  interest  to  prevent  the ( cen- 
sure of  that  body.  Nor,  perhaps,  could  he  have  averted 
this  misfortune  if  be  bad  not  agreed  to  publish  a  new 
edition  of  it ;  in  which,  by  softening  seine  passages,  and 
throwing  upon  inferior  officers  whatever  abuses  might  be 
committed  with  regard  to  the  bodies  taken  out  of  the  ca^ 
tacombs,  be  easily  satisfied  his  judges;  who,  to  do  them 
justice,  bad  a  great  esteepa  for  his  learning  and  virtues, 
and  were  not  very  desirous  of  condemning  bim. 

•  This  eminent  man  died  of  a  suppression  of  urine,  at  the 
abbey  of  St.  Germain- des^Pres*  in  Dec.  1707.  His  great 
merit  bad  procured  bim,  in  1701,  the  plaae  of  honorary 
member  of  the  academy  of  inscriptions.  :  Du  Pin  tells  us. 
thac  "  it  would  be  difficult  to  give  Mabillpn  the  praises  he 
deserves :  the  voice  of  the  ptiMic,  and  the  general  esteem 
of  all  the  learned,  are  a  much  better  commendation  of  him 

4fr  MABILLOHr. 

r  _ 


than  any  thing  we*  can  say.  His  profound  learning  ap- 
pears from  his  works :  his  modesty,  humility,  meekness, 
and  piety,  are  no  less  known  to  those  who  have  had  the 
least  conversation  with  him.  His  style  is  masculine,  pure, 
clear,  and  methodical,  without  affectation  or  superfluous 
ornaments,  and  suitable  to  the  subjects  of  which  he  has 
treated*"  Few  men  were  more  honoured  by  the  notice  of 
the  great  than  Mabillon,  aad  to  this  he  was  entitled  both 
by  his  virtues  and  his  extensive  learning.  Pope  Cle-, 
.  merit  XI.  paid  him  the  compliment  to  write  to  father 
Ruinart,  expressing  his  hopes  that  the  remains  of  such  a 
man  had  been  interred  with  the  honours  due  to  him. 
^  Every  man  of  learning  who  goes  to  Paris,"  said  cardinal 
Colloredo,  *'  will  ask  where»you  have  placed  him  V%  l 

MABLY  (Gabriel  Bonnot,  Abbe'  de),  a  celebrated 
French. political  and  miscellaneous  writer,  and  brother  to 
the  abbe  Condillac,  was  born  at  Grenoble  in  March  1709, 
and  was  educated  in  the  Jesuits'  college  at  Lyons.  In  his 
youth  he  attached  himself  to  his  relation  the  cardinal  de 
Tencin,  but  never  took  any  higher  order  in  the  church 
than  that  of  sub-deacon.  On  his  coming  into  life,  as  it  is 
called,  he  had  the -honour  to  be  admitted,  both  as  a  rela- 
tion and  a  man  of  letters,  into  the  parties  of  madame  d% 
Tencin,  so  well  "known  for  her  intrigues  and  her  sprightly 
talents,  who  at  that  time  gave  dinners  not  only  to  wits,  but 
to  politicians.  Here  madame  de  Tencin  was  so  much 
pleased  with  the  figure  Mably  made  in  conversation  with 
Montesquieu  and  other  philosophical  politicians  at  her 
table,  that  she  thought  he  might  prove  useful  to  her  bro- 
ther, then  entering  on  his  •  ministerial  career.  The  first 
service  he  rendered  to  the  cardinal  was-  to  draw  out  an 
abridgment  of  all  the  treaties  from  the  peace  of  West- 
phalia to  that  time  (about  1740) :  the  second  service  he  ren- 
dered his  patron,  was  of  a  more  singular  kind.  The  cardi- 
nal soon  becoming  sensible  that  he  had  not  the  talent  of 
conveying  his  ideas  in  council,  Mably  suggested  to  him. 
the  lucky  expedient  of  an  application  to  the  king,  that  he 
might  be  permitted  to  express  his  thoughts  in  writing,  and 
there  can  be  little  doubt  that  in  this  also  he  profited  by  the 
assistance  of  his  relative,  who  soon  began  himself  to  med- 
dle in  matters  of  state.     In  1743  he  was  entrusted  to  nego- 

*  Gen.  Diet.— Niceron,  vol.  VII.  and  X.— Life  by  Ruinart,  1708.— Le  Cl*rt> 
Bibl.  Choisie. — Saxii  Onomast. 

M  A  B  L  Y.  4t 

ciate  privately  at  Paris  with  the  Prussian  ambassador,  and 
drew  up  a  treaty,  which  Voltaire  was  appointed  to  carry  to 
Berlin.  Frederick,  to  whom  this  was  no  secret,  conceived 
from  this  time  a  very  high  opinion  of  the  abb6,  and,  as 
Mably's  biographer  remarks,  it  was  somewhat  singular  that 
two  men  of  letters,  who  had  no  political  character,  should 
be  employed  on  a  negociation  which  made  such  an  impor- 
tant change  in  the  state  of  affairs  in  Europe.  The  abb£ 
also  drew  up  the  papers  which  were  to  serve  as  the  basis  of 
the  negociation  carried  on  in  tbe  congress  at  Breda  in  the 
month  of  April  1746. 

His  success  in  these  affairs  bad  nearly  fisted  him  in  poli- 
tical life,  when  a  dispute  with  the  cardinal  changed  his 
destination,  and  tbe  circumstance  does  credit  to  his  libe- 
rality.    The  cardinal  was  not  only  minister  of  state,  but 
archbishop  of  Lyons,  when  the  question  was  agitated  re- 
specting the  marriages  of  protestants.     The  abb6  wished 
him  to  view  this  question  with  the  eyes  of  a  statesman 
only,  but  the  cardinal  would  consider  it  only  as  a  prince  of 
the  Romish  church,  and  as  he  persisted  in  this  opinion, 
the  abb6  saw  him  no  more.     From  this  time  he. gave  him- 
self up  to  study,  without  making  any  advances  to  fortune, 
or  to  literary  men.     He  always  said  he  was  more  anxious 
to  merit  general  esteem  than  to  obtain  it.     He  lived  a  long 
time  on  a  small  income  of  a  thousand  crowns,  and  an  an- 
nuity ;  which  last,  on  the  death  of  his  brother,  he  gave  up 
to"  his  relations.     The  court,  however,  struck  with  this  dis- 
interested act,  gave  him  a  pension  of  2800  livres,  without 
tBe  solicitation  or  knowledge  of  any  of  his  friends.     Mably 
not  only  inveighed  against  luxury  and  riches,  but  showed 
by  his  example  that  he  was  sincere  ;  and  to  these  moderate 
desires,  he  joined  an  ardent  love  of  independence,  which 
he  took  every  opportunity  to  evince.     One  day  when  a 
friend  brought  him  an  invitation  to  dine  with  a  minister  of 
state,  he   could  not  prevail  on  him  to  accept  it,  but  at 
length  the  abbe  said  he  would  visit  the  gentleman  with 
pleasure  as  soon  as  he  heard  that  he  was  "  out  of  office." 
He  had  an  equal  repugnance  to  become  a  member  of  any 
of  the  learned  societies.     The  marshal  Richelieu  pressed 
him  much  to  become  a  candidate  for  the  academy,  and 
with  such  arguments  that  he  could  not  refuse  to  accept  the 
offer;  but  he  had  no  sooner  quitted  the  marshal  than  he 
rah  to  his  brother  the  abbe*  Condillac,  arfd  begged  he  would 
get  himreleased,  cost  what  it  w^uld.     "  Why  all  this  ob- 

43  MABL  Y- 

stinacy  ?,f  said  bia  brother.-—"  Wby  !"  rejoined  the  afeW, 
Mabiy,  "  because,  if  I  accept  it  1  shall  be  obliged  t?  praise 
the  cardinal  de  Richelieu,  which  is  contrary  to  nay  princi- 
ples, or,  if  I  do  not  praise  him,  as  I  owe  every  thing  to, 
bis  nephew,  I  shall  be  accused  of  ingratitude."  la  the 
qame  spirit,  he  acquired  a  bluntoess.  of  manner  that  was  not 
very  agreeable  in  the  higher  circles,  where  he  never  failed 
to  take  the  part  of  men  of  genius  who  were  poor,  against 
the  ins  pita  of  the  rich  and  proud.  His  works,  by  which 
the  booksellers  acquired  large  sum?  of  money,  contributed 
very  little  to  his  own  finances,  for  he  demanded  no  return, 
but  a  few  copies  to  give  ag  presents  to  bis,  friends.  He  ap- 
peared always  dissatisfied  with  the  state-  of  public  affairs*- 
aud  had  the  credit  of  predicting  the  French  revolution.. 
Political  sagacity,  indeed,  was  that  on  which  be  chiefly 
rested  his  fame,  and  having  formed  his  theory  from  certain 
systems  which  be  thought  might  be  traced  to  the  Greek* 
and  Romans,  and  even  the  ancient  Gauls,  he  went  as  far 
as  most  of  his  contemporaries  in  undervaluing  the  preroga- 
tives of  the  crowi),  and  introducing  a  representative  go- 
vernment. In  his  latter  works  bis  own  mind  appears  to* 
have  undergone  a  revolution,  and  be  proved  that  if  he  wa» 
before  sincere  in  bis  notions  of  freedom,  he  was  aow< 
equally  illiberal.  After  enjoying  considerable  reputation,. 
and  being  considered  as  one  of  the  most  popular  French 
writers  on  the  subjects  of  politics,  morals,  and  history,  he 
died  at  Paris,  April  23,  1785.  The  abb6  Barruel  ranks? 
him  among  the  class  of  philosophers,  who  wished  to  be 
styled  the  Moderates,  but  whom  Rousseau  calls  the  Iruon- 
sistents.  He  adds,  that  "  without  being  impious  like  a 
Voltaire  or  a  Condorcet,  even  though  averse  to  their  im- 
piety, his  own  tenets  were  extremely  equivocal.  At  times 
his  morality  was  so  very  disgusting,  that  it  was  necessary, 
to  suppose  his  language  was  ambiguous,  and  that  he  bad 
been  misunderstood,  lest  one  should  be  obliged  to  throw 
off  all  esteem  for  his  character."  Such  at  least  was  the 
defence  which  Barruel  heard  him  make,  to  justify  himself 
from  the  censures  of  the  Sor bonne. 

His  works  are,  1.  "  Parallele  des  Romains  et  des  Fran- 
jais,"  Paris,  1740,  2  vols.  12 mo.  2.  "  Le  Droit  public  de 
l'Euro'pe,"  1747,  3  vols.  12mo.  3.  "Observations  su» 
les  Romains/9  2  vols.  12mo.  4.  "  Observations  sur  lee 
Qrecs,"  1751,  12mo,  reprinted  in  1766,  with  the  title  of 
"  Observations  sur  I'histoire  de  la  Grece,"     £.  "  Des  prtA- 

M  A  B  L  Y.  4* 

cipesdes  negociatioos,"  1757,  19mo.  €.  "  Entretiens  de 
Phocion  sur  le  rapport  da  la  morale  avec  la  politique," 
Arose.  (Paris),  1763,  12mo,  reprinted  in  1783,  S  vols*  12mo, 
and  by  Didot  in  1795,  4to.  Of  this  an  English  translation 
was  published  by  Mr.  Macbean  in  1770.  It  was  once  a 
very  popular  work  in  America,  where  bis  name  was  held 
in  the  highest  honour1,  until  be  published  his  work  on  the 
constitution  of  the  United  States  after  tbe  peace  of  1783, 
when  tbe  Americans  hung  him  in  effigy  as  an  enemy  to 
toleration  and  liberty.  '  7.  "  Observations  sur  I'bistoiie  de 
France,"  1765,  2  vols*  12 mo.  8.  "  Entretiens  sur  PHis* 
toire,"  12 mo.  This  is  the  work  by  which  be  has  been 
most  known  in  England,  but  in  it,  as  well  as  bis  other 
works,  be  gives  too  great  preference  to  the  ancients  over 
tbe  moderns.  9.  "  De  la  maniere  dPecrire  L'bistoire," 
Kehl,  1784,  2  vols.  13mo.  Tbe  whole  of  his  works  were 
collected,  with  an  eloge  by  the  abb6  Brizard,  in  15  vob. 
8vo,  1794.  In  tbis  are  many  pieces  not  enumerated  above, 
particularly  his  work  on  "  Morals/9  and  bis  "  Observations 
on  the  Government  and  Laws  of  America,"  which  last,  as 
we  have  noticed,  destroyed  his  popularity  in  America.  In 
both  are  symptoms  of  decayed  intellect,  and  that  confu- 
sion, of  thought  which  is  peculiar  to  men  who  have  been 
theorizing  all  their  lives.1 

MABUSE,  or  MABEUGE  (JoHK  de),  a  Hungarian 
artist,  was  born  at  Maubeuge,  a  village  in  Hainault,  in 
1499,  though  in  the  Chronological  Tables  his  birth  is  sop* 
posed  to  have  been  in  1492.  It  is  not  known  from  whom 
he  derived  bis  knowledge  of  the  art  of  painting ;  but,  isj 
his  youth,  be  was  laborious  in  his  practice,  and  his  princi- 
pal studies  were  after  nature,  by  which  he  acquired  a  great 
deal  of  truth  in  his  compositions.  To  improve  himself  in 
bis  profession,  he  travelled  to  Italy,  and  became  an  artist 
of  great  repute.  He  bad  a  good  pencil,  and  finished  his 
pictures  highly,  with  great  care ;  yet,  notwithstanding  his 
studies  in  Italy,  and  the  correctness  of  his  design,  he  never 
could  arrive  at  tbe  elegance  of  tbe  Roman  school;.  Hia 
manner  was  dry,  stiff,  and  laboured  ;  but  he  was  exceed* 
ingly  industrious  to  give  a  polished  smoothness  to  his  co- 
louring. By  king  Henry  VIII.  of  England  he  was  em- 
ployed to  paint  the  portraits  of  .some  of  his  children,  which 
gained  him  great  reputation,  as  he  finished  them  deli- 

*  Diet.  Bat.-r-BarrqtPi  Mem.  of  Jacobinism,  vpl.  II.  p.  93& 

4*  MABUSE. 

cately,  and  gave  them  spirit  and  liveliness ;  and  he  painted 
several  others  for  the  nohjlity  who  attended  the  court  at 
London.  His  paintings  are  consequently  not  unfrequent 
in  this  country; 

Many  excellent  works  of  Mabuse  are  at  Middleburg; 
one  of  the  most  capital  is  the  altar-piece  of  the  great 
church,  representing  the  descent  from  the  cross.  That 
picture  had  been  so  highly  commended,  that  it  raised  the 
curiosity  of  Albert  Durer  ;  and  he  took  a  journey  to  Mid- 
dleburg, merely  to  be  an  eye-witness  of  the  merit  of  that 
performance.  He  viewed  it  with  singular  attention,  and 
expressed  the  pleasure  it  afforded  him,  by  the  praise  he 
bestowed  upon  it.  But  the  picture  which  is  accounted  to 
exrcel  all  his  other  productions,  is  the  Virgin  with  the  in- 
fant Jesus,  which  he  finished  while  he  was  retained  in  the 
service  of  the  marquis  of  Veren ;  and  in  that  subject  he 
contrived  to  pay  an  extraordinary  compliment  to  his  patron, 
by  making  the  heads  of  his  lady  and  son  the  models  for  the 
heads  of  his  figures. 

He  is  censured  by  all  writers  for  his  immoderate  love  of 
drinking ;  and  it  is  confidently  said,  that  having  received, 
by  order  of  the  marquis,  a  piece  of  brocade  for  a  dress,  to 
appear  in  before  the  emperor  Charles  V.  he  sold  it  at  a 
tavern,  and  painted  a  paper  suit  so  exceedingly  like  it, 
that  the  emperor  could  not  be  convinced  of  the  deception 
till  he  felt  the  paper,  and  examined  every  part  with  bis 
own  hands.     He  died  in  1562,1 

MACARIUS  (St.),  the  elder,  a  celebrated  hermit  of  the 
•fourth  century,  saJ4  to  be  a  disciple  of  St.  Antony,  was 
born  at  Alexandria,  in  the  year  301,  of  poor  parents.  Hie 
was  bred  a  bakjsr,.  which  trade  he  pursued  to  the  age  of 
thirty  ;  then,  being  baptized,  he  retired  and  took  up  a  so- 
litary life.  He  passed  sixty  years  in  a  monastery  in  mount 
Sceta,  dividing  his  time  between  prayer  and  manual  la- 
bour. He  died  about  the  year  391.  Fifty  homilies  in 
Greek  have  been  attributed  to  him,  which  were  printed  at 
Paris  in  1526,  with  Gregory  Thaumaturgus,  in*  folio;  and 
in  2  vols.  8vo,  at  Leipsic,  in  1698.* 

MACARIUS  (St.),  the  younger,  another  famous  monk, 
a  friend  of  the  former,  and  a  native  also  of  Alexandria, 
had  near  5000  monks  under  his  direction.  •  He  was  per- 

1  Pilkington.—Wal pole's  Anecdotes. 

3  Cave,  vol.  I«— Mosheiuu — Saxii  Onomast.  * 


*ecuted  by  the  Arians,  and  banished  into  an  island  where 
there  was  not  a  single  Christian,  but  where,  he  converted 
,almost  all  the  inhabitants  by  his  preaching,  and  as  some 
*ay>  hy  his  miracles.  He  died  in  the  year  394  or  395. 
"-The  Rules  of  Monks/9  in  30  chapters,  are  attributed 
to  him,  and  a  discourse  by  him  on  the  "  Death  of  the 
Just,"  was  published  by  Tollius,  in  his  "  Insignia  Itine- 
rarii  Italici."1 

MACAULAY  (Catherine)  or  Graham,  the  name  of 
her  second  husband,  was  born  in  1733,  at  OUantigh,  in 
Kent,  the  seat  of  her  father,  John  Sawbridge,  esq.  She 
appears  to  have  had  none  of  the  regular  education  given 
to  youpg  ladies  of  her  rank,  but  had  an  early  taste  for  pro- 
miscuous reading,  which  at  length  terminated  in  a  fond- 
ness for  history.  That  of  the  Romans  is  supposed  to  have 
inspired  her  with  the  republican  notions  which  she  pro* 
fessed  throughout  life,  and  in  which  she  was  probably  en* 
couraged  by  her  brother  the  late  alderman  Sawbridge, 
whose  politics  were  of  the  same  cast.  In  1760  she  married 
Dr.  George  Macaulay,  a, physician  of  London.  Soon  after 
this,  she  commenced  her  career  in  literature,  and  in  1763 
published  the  first  volume,  in  4to,  of  her  "  History  of 
England,  from  the  accession  of  James  L  to  that  of  the 
Brunswick  Line."  This  work  was  completed  in  8  vols, 
in  1783  ;  it  was  read  with  some  avidity  at  the  period  of  its 
publication,  as  the  production  of  a  female  pen,  but  has 
since  fallen  into  so  much  disrepute,-  as  scarcely  ever  to  be 
inquired  after.  It  was  written  in  the  true  spirit  of  ranco- 
rous republicanism,  and  was  greatly  deficient  in  that  im- 
partiality which  ought  to  be  the  characteristic  of  true  his- 
tory. While  in  the  height  of  her  fame,  Mrs.  Macaulay 
excited  the  admiration  of  Dr.  Wilson,  rector  of  St.  Ste- 
phen's, Walbrook,  who  in  his  dotage  placed  her  statue, 
while  living,  in  the  chancel  of  his  church.  This  disgrace- 
ful appendage,  however,  his  successor  thought  himself 
justified  in  removing.  Having  been  left  a  widow,  Mrs. 
Macaulay  in  177$  married  Mr.  Graham,  a  step  which,  from 
the  disparity  of  years,  exposed  'her  to  much  ridicule.  In 
the  year  1785  she  went  to  America,  for  the  purpose  of 
visiting  the  illustrious  Washington,  with  whom  she  had  be- 
fore maintained  a  correspondence.  She  died  at  Binfield,' 
in  Berkshire,  June  22,  1791.     Her  works,  besides  the  his- 

*  *  *  •  * 

1  Cave,  vol.  L—  Saxii  Ooomast. 

■*«  M  A  C  A  U  L  A  Y, 

tory  already  referred  to,  which  may  be  regarded  as  the 
yvincipal)  are,  M  Remarks  on  Hobbes's  Rudimerrt«  of  Go* 
*ernment  and  Society  j"  "  Loose  Remarks  on  some  <>f  M*. 
Hobbes'a  Positions  ;**  the  latter  being  an  enlarged  edition 
of  the  former :  tbe  object  of  these  is  to  shew  the  supe- 
riority of  a  republican  to  a  monarchical  form  of  govern- 
jnent  In  1770,  Mrs.  Macanlay  wrote  a  reply  to  Mr. 
Burke's  celebrated  pamphlet  entitled  "  Thoughts  on  the 
Cteses  of  the  Present  Discontents ;"  and  in  1775  she  pub- 
lished "  An  Address  to  the  People  of  England,  Scotland, 
and  Ireland,  on  the  present  important  Crisis  of  Affairs,** 
She  wrote  also  "  A  Treatise  on  the  Immutability  of  Moral 
Truth;'*  which  she  afterwards  re-published,  with  much 
other  original  matter,  under  the  title  of  "  Letters  on  Edu- 
cation," 1790.  Her  last  publicatiou  was  "  Observations 
on  tbe  Reflections  of  the  Right  Hon.  Edmund  Burke,  on 
the  Revolution  in  France,  in  a  letter  to  the  Right  Hon.  the 
Earl  of  Stanhope,"  1790,  8vo.  Many  curious  particular* 
of  this  lady  may  be  found  in  our  authorities.1 

MAC  BRIDE  (David),  a  distinguished  physician,  was 
born  at  Ballymony,  co.  Antrim,  on  tbe  26th  of  April, 
1726.  He  was  descended  from  an  ancient  family  of  his 
name  in  the  shire  of  Galloway,  in  Scotland ;  but  his  grand- 
father, who  was  bred  to  the  church,  was  called  to  officiate 
at  Belfast  to  a  congregation  of  Presbyterians,  and  bis 
father  became  the  minister  of  Ballymony,  where  David 
was  born.  Having  received  the  first  elements  of  his  edu- 
cation at  the  public  school  of  this  place,  and  served  his 
apprenticeship  to*  a  surgeon,  he  went  into  the  navy,  first 
in  the  capacity  of  mate  to  an  hospital-ship,  and  subse- 
quently in  tbe  rank  of  surgeon,  in  which  station  he  re- 
mained for  some  years  preceding  tbe  peace  of  Aix-la- 
Chapel le.  At  this  period  he  was  led  from  the  frequent 
opportunities  of  witnessing  tbe  attacks  of  scurvy  which  a 
sea-faring  life  afforded  him,  to  investigate  the  best  method 
of  cure  for  that  disease,  upon  which  he  afterwards  pub- 
lished a  treatise.  After  the  peace  of  Aix,  Mr.  Macbride 
went  to  Edinburgh  and  London,  where  he  studied  anatomy 
Under  those  celebrated  teachers  doctors  Monro  and  Hunter, 
and  midwifery  under  Smellie.    About  the  end  of  1749,  he 

*  Gort.  Mag.  vol.  XL.  p.  505 ;  LXI.  p.  569,^1 8.    Sfe  also  Iad«x.~*Brft» 

Critic,  vol  IV.— Baldwin's  Literary  Journal,   vol.   f.  p.  Ill,  284,  317,  377, 
§62.— BoswelTs  life  of  Johnson,— Wilkes's  Life  and  Lepers,  4  volt.  lSmoi 


Muted  m  Dublin  as  a  surgeon  and  accoucheur;  but  his 
youth  and  remarkable  bashf illness  occasioned  him  to  re* 
itmttvi  number  of  years  in  obscurity*  little  employed  ;  al- 
though he  was  endeared  to  a  smalt  circle  of  friends  by  his 
great  abilities,  amiable  dispositions,  and  his  general  know- 
ledge in  all  the  branches  of  polite  literature  and  the  arts. 
In  1764,  he  published  bis  "  Experimental  Essays,"  which 
were  received  with  great  applause,  and  were  soon  trans* 
lated  into  different  languages;  and  the  singular  merit  of 
this  performance  induced  the  university  of  Glasgow  to 
confer  the  degree  of  doctor  of  physic  on  its  author.  The 
improvement  introduced  by  Dr.  Macbride  in  the  art  of 
tanning,  by  substituting  lime-water  for  common  water  in 
preparing  ooze,  procured  him  the  honour  of  a  silver  medal 
from  the  Dublin  Society,  in  1768,  and  of  a  gold  medal  of 
considerable  value  from  the  society  of  arts  and  commerce 
in  London. 

•  For  several  years  after  Dr.  Macbride  obtained  his  de- 
gree, he  employed  part  of  his  time  in  the  duties  of  a  me- 
dical teacher,  and  delivered  at  his  own  bouse  a  course  of 
lectures  on  the  theory  and  practice  of  physic.  These  lec- 
tures were  published  in  1772,  in  1  vol.  4to,  under  the  title 
of"  An  Introduction  to  the  Theory  and  Practice  of  Medi- 
cine," and  a  second  edition  appeared  in  1777.  It  was' 
translated  into  Latin,  and  published  at  Utrecht,  in  2  vols. 
$vo,  in  (774.  This  work  displayed  great  acoteness  of  ob- 
servation, and  very  philosophical  views  of  pathology,  and 
contained  a  new  arrangement  of  diseases,  which  was 
deemed  of  so  much  merit  by  Dr.  Cullen,  that  an  outline 
of  it  was  given  by  that  celebrated  professor  in  his  Com- 
pendium of  Nosology.  Of  the  five  classes,  however,  into 
which  Dr.  Macbride  distributed  diseases,  the  genera  and 
species  ef  the  first  only  were  detailed. 

The  talents  of  Dr.  Macbride  were  now  universally  known, 
his  character  was  duly  appreciated,  and  his  professional 
emoluments  increased,  rapidly;  for  the  public,  as  if  to  make 
amends  for  former  neglect,  threw  more  occupation  into 
his  hands  than  he  could  accomplish  either  with  ease  or 
safety.  Although  much  harassed  both  in  body  and  mind, 
so  as  to  have  suffered  for  some  time  an  almost  total  inca- 
pacity for  sleep,  he  continued  in  activity  and1  good  spirits 
until  the -end  of  December,  1778,  when  an  accidental  cold 
brought  on  a  fever  and  delirium,  which  terminated  his  life 
en  the  13th  of  that  month,  in  the  fifty-third  year  of  his 

«  M  A  C-C  AG  H  W  E  L  L* 

age ;  his  death  was  sincerely  lamented  by  persons  of  al| 

MAC-CAGHWELL  (Hugh),  who  in  his  Latin  work* 
called  himself  Cavellus,  was  titular  primate  of  Armagh* 
and  a  learned  writer  in  defence  of  Duns  Scotus,  whose 
opinions  were  generally  embraced  by  his  countrymen.  He 
was  born  in  the  county  of  Down,  in  Ireland,  in  1571,  ai|d 
became  a  Franciscan  friar.  He  studied  at  Salamanca,  in 
Spain,  and  afterwards  for  many  years  governed  the  Irish 
Franciscan  college  at  Louvain,  dedicated  to  St.  Anthony, 
in  the  founding  of  which  he  had  been  instrumental.  In 
this  college  he  was  also  professor  of  divinity,  which  office 
he  filled  afterwards  in  the  convent  of  Ara  Coeli  at  Rome* 
was  definitor-general  of  his  order,  and  at  length  advanced 
by  the  pope  to  the  see  of  Armagh ;  but  died  at  Rome,  as 
he  was  preparing  for  his  journey  to  Ireland,  Sept.  22, 
1626,  in  the  fifty-fifth  year  of  his  age.  He  was  buried 
in  the  church  of  St.  Isidore,  under  a  monumental  stone, 
and  inscription,  placed  there  by  the  earl  of  Tyrone.  He 
was  reckoned  a  man  of  great  learning,  and  one  of  the  best 
schoolmen  of  his  time.  His  works,  which  consist  chiefly 
of  commentaries  on  and  a  defence  of  Scotus,  were  in  sub-.* 
stance  incorporated  in  Wading's  edition  of  Scotus's  works, 
printed  at  Lyons,  1639,  in  12  vols,  folio.9 

MACDIARMID  (John),  an  ingenious  young  writer,  was 
the  son  of  the  rev.  Mr.  Macdiarmid,  minister  of  Weem  ia 
the  northern  part  of  Perthshire,  and  was  b#rn  in  17.79. 
He  studied  at  the  universities  of  Edinburgh  and  St.  An- 
drews, and  was  for  some  years  tutor  in  a .  gentleman's, 
family.  Such  a  situation  is  generally  desired  in  Scotland 
with  the  view  of  provision  in  the  church,  but  as  this  was. 
not  Mr.  Macdiarmid's  object,  he  became  desirous  of  visit- 
ing the  metropolis,  and  trying,  his  fortune  in  the  career  of 
literary  competition.  He  accordingly  came  to  London  in 
1-801,  and  was  soon  in  the  receipt  of  a.  competent  income, 
from  periodical  writing.  His  principal  occupations  of  this 
kind  were,  as  editor  of  the  St.  James's  Chronicle  (a  paper 
in  which  some  of  the  first  scholars  and  wits  of  the  last  half 
century  have  employed  their  pens),  and  as  a  reviewer  in  a 
critical  publication.  On  the  commencement  or  rather  the 
renewal  of  the  late  war  in  1802-3,  his  attention  was  di- 
rected to  our  military  establishment,  and  hejelinquisbed 


1  Rees'f  Cyclopedia.  *  Ware's  Ireland,  by  Harris. 


Ms  periodica*  engagements  to  become  the  author  of  a  vtof 
elaborate  work,  entitled  "  An  Inquiry  into  the  System  of 
Military  Defence  of  Great  Britain/'  1803,  2  vols.  8vo. 
This  exposed  the  defects  of  the  volunteer  system,  as  welt  art 
of  all  temporary  expedients,  and  asserted  the  superiority 
of  a  regular  army ;  and  had  be  lived,  he  would  have  doubt- 
less been  highly  gratified  to  contemplate  the  army  forrned 
by  the  illustrious  Wellington.  His  nertt  Work  was,  an 
"  Inquiry  into  the  Nature  of  Civil  and  Military  Subordina- 
lion,"  1804,  8vo,  perhaps  .the,  fullest  disquisition  which 
the  subject  has  received.  He  now  determined  to  suspend 
his  theoretic  labours,  and  to  turn  his  attention  to  Works  of 
narrative.  He  accordingly  wrote  the  "  Lives  of  British 
Statesmen/'  4 to,  beginning  with  the  life  of  sir  Thomas 
More^  This  work  has  strong  claims  on  public  attention. 
The  style  is  perspicuous  and  unaffected ;  authorities  are 
quoted  for  every  statement  of  consequence,  and  a  variety 
of  curious  information  is  extracted  from  voluminous  records* 
and  brought  for  the  first  time  before  the  public  view.  His 
political  speculations  were  always  temperate  and  libefah 
He  was  indeed  in  all  respects  qualified  for  a  work  of  this 
description,  by  great  powers  of  research  and  equal  impart 
Jiality.  But  unfortunately  he  was  destined  to  enjoy,  for  a 
short  time  only,  the  approbation  with  whidh  bis  work  was 
received.  His  health,  at  all  times  delicate,  received  in 
November  1807,  an  irreparable  blow  by  a  paralytic  stroke ; 
and  in  February  1808  a  second  attack  proved  fatal,  April  7. 
Mr.  D' Israeli  has  paid  a  just  and  pathetic  tribute  to  his 
memory  tind  talents  in  the  work  referred  to  below. l 

MAC  DONALD  (AnUrew),  another  yourtg  writer  of 
considerable  talents,  was  the  son  of  George  Donald,  a 
gardener  at  Leith.  The  Mac  he  appended  to  ht$  name 
when  he  came  to  London.  He  was  born  in  1757  at  Leith, 
where  he  was  educated,  chiefly  by  the  assistance  of  bishop 
Forbes.  For  some  time  he  bad  the  charge  of  a  chapel  at 
Glasgow,  in  which  city  he  published  a  novel,  entitled 
u  The  Independent."  He  afterwards  came  to  London, 
and-  wrote  for  the  newspapers.  His  works  were  lively, 
satirical,  and  humorous,  and  were  published  under  the 
signature  of  Matthew  Bramble.  He  naturally  possessed  a 
fine  genius,  and  had  improved  his  understanding  with 
classical  and  scientific  knowledge ;  but  for  want  of  con  nee- 

1  Atheneum,  vol.  III. — D' Israeli'*  Calatoitics  of  Author?. 

you  xxi.  e 


tions  in  this  southern  part  of  the  united  kingdom/  and  s 
proper  opportunity  to,  bring  bis  talents  into  notice,  he  was 
always  embarrassed,  and  had  occasionally  to  struggle  with 
great  and  accumulated  distress.  He  died  in  the  33d  year 
of  his  age,  at  Kentish  Town,  in  Aug.  17V0,  leaving  a  wife 
and  infant  daughter  in  a  state, of  extreme  indigence.  A 
volume  of  his  "  Miscellaneous  Works"  was  published  in 
1791,  in  which  were  comprised,  " The. fair  Apostate,  a 
tragedy;  "Love  and  Loyalty,"  an  opera;  "Princess. of 
Tarejnto,"  a  comedy  ;  and  "  Vimonda,"  a  tragedy. l 

MACE  (Francis),  a  learned  French  priest,  was  born  at 
Paris  about  1640,  and  pursued  his  divinity  studies  at  the 
university  of  hiq  native  city,  where  he  took  his  degree^. 
About  this. time  he;  was  appointed  secretary  to  the  council 
for  managing  the  domains  and  finances  of  the  queen,  con- 
sort to  Lewis  XIV. ;  and  when  he  took  holy  orders,  in  1 6&59 
he  wap  immediately  appointed  canon  and  rector  of  the 
church  of  St.  Opportune,  at  Paris.  He  was  a  very  dili- 
gent student  as  well  in  profane  as  in  sacred  literature,  and 
was  celebrated  for  his*  popular  talents  as  a  preacher.  He 
died  in  1721,  leaving  behind  him  a  great  number  of  works 
that  do  honour  to  bis  memory,  of  which  we  shall  men tiou 
"  A  chronological,  historical,  and  moral  abridgment  o$ 
the  Old  and  New  Testament,"  in  2  vols,  4to ;  t€.  Scriptural 
Knowledge,  reduced  into  four  tables ;"  a  French  version 
of  the  apocryphal  " Testaments  of  the  Twelve  Patriarchs;'* 
of  which  Grosse teste,  bishop  of  Lincoln,  gave  the  first 
Latin  translation, .  Grabe  the  first  Greek  edition, .  from 
MSS.  in  the  English  universities,  and  Whiston  an  English 
version  ;  "  The  History  of  the  Fiwr  Ciceros,"  in  which  he 
attempts  to  prove,  that  {be  sons  of  Cicero  were  as  illustri- 
ous as  their  father*  * 

MACE  .(Thomas),  a  practitioner  on  the  lute,  but  more 
distinguished  among  lovers  of  music  by  a  work  entitled 
^.Music's  Monument,  or  a  Remembrancer  of,  the  best 
practical  Musi*?,  both  divine  and  civil,,  that  has  ever  been 
known  to  .have  been  in  the  world,V  1676,  folio,  was  borrr 
in  1613,  and  became  one  of  the  clerks  of  Trinity-college, 
Cambridge.  He  does  not  appear  to  have  held  any  con- 
siderable rank  among  musicians,  nor  is  he  celebrated 
either  as  a -composer  or  practitioner  on  the  lute:  yet  his. 
*  ■  * 

1  Biog.  Dram.— Gent.  Mag.  vol.  LX,— ^Israeli's  Calamities. 
'    2  Moreri.— <Dict  Hist.— Rees'a  Cyclopaedia. 

MACE.  51 


book  is  a  proof  that  he  was  an  excellent  judge  of  the  in- 
strument;.  and  contains  such  variety  of  directions  for  the 
ordering  and  management  of  it,  and  for  performing  on  it, 
as  renders  it  a  work  of  great  utility.  It  contains  also  many 
particulars  respecting  himself,  many  traits  of  an  original 
and  singular  character;  and.  a  vein  of  humour  which,  far 
from  being  disgusting,  exhibits  a  lively  portraiture  of  a 
good-natured  gossiping  old  man.  Dr.  Burney  recommends 
its  perusal  to  all  who  have  taste  for  excessive  simplicity 
and  quaintness,  and  can  extract  pleasure  from  the  sincere, 
and  unassembled  happiness  of  an  author,  who,  with  ex- 
alted notions  of  his  subject  and  abilities,  discloses  to  his 
reader  every  inward  working  of  self-approbation  in  as  un- 
disguised a  manner,  as  if  he  were  communing  with  himself 
in  all  the  plenitude  of  mental  comfort  and  privacy.  There 
is  a  print  of  him  prefixed  to  his  book,  from  an  engraving 
of  Faithorne,  the  inscription  under  which  shews  him  to 
have  been  sixty-three  in  167.6:  how  long  be  lived  after- 
wards, is  not  known.     He  had  a  wife  and  children.1 

MACEDO  (Francis),  a  Portuguese  Jesuit,  and  most 
indefatigable  writer,  born  at  Coimbra,  in  1596,  quitted 
that  order  after  a  time  to  take  the  habit  of  a  cordelier/ 
He  was  strongly  in  the  interest  of  the  duke  of  Braganza 
when  he  seized  the  crown  of  Portugal.  Being  sent  to 
Rome,  he  acquired  for  a  time  the  favour  of  pope  Alexan- 
der the  Vllth,  and  was  preferred  by  him  to  several  impor- 
tant offices.  The  violence  of  his  temper  however  soort 
embroiled  him  with  this  patron,  and  he  went  to  Venice, 
where  he  disputed  de  omni  scibiti;  and  gaining  great  repu- 
tation, obtained  the  professorship  of  moral  philosophy  at 
Padua.  Afterwards,  having  .ventured  to  interfere  in  some 
state  matter  at  Venice,  where  he  had  been  held  very  high, 
he  was  imprisoned,  and  died  in  confinement,  in  1681,. at 
the  age  of  85.  He  is  said,  in  the  "  Bibliotbeque  Portu- 
gaise,"  to  have  published  109  different  works  :  and  in  one 
of  his  own  books  he  boasts  that  he  had  pronounced  53  pub- 
lic panegyrics,  60  Latin  discourses,  and  32  funeral  ora- 
tions; that  he  had  written  48  epic  poenjs,  123  elegies, 
^1 15  epitaphs,  212  dedications,  700  familiar  letters,  26QQ 
poems  in  heroic  verse,  3000  epigrams,  4  Latin  comedies., 
and  had  written  or  pronounced  150,000  verses  extempo- 

1  Hswfcias  and  Barney's  Histories  of  Music,  but  especially  the  latter,  m 
Reel's  Cyclopaedia, 


5*  M  A  C  t  1>  O. 

raneously.  Yet  the  man  who  could  declare  all  this,  is 
hardly  known  by  name  in  the  greater  part  of  Europe ;  and 
of  the  enormous  list  of  his  printed  works,  not  more  than 
fiVe  are  thought  worthy  of  mention  by  the  Writers  of  his 
life.  To  write  much,  is  far  easier  than  to  write  well.  The 
works  specified  by  his  biographers  are,  1.  "  Clavis  Aa- 
giistiniana  liberi  arbitrii,1'  a  book  written  against  father, 
afterwards  cardinal  Noris.  The  disputants  were  both 
silenced  by  authority;  but  Macedo,  not  to  seem  vanquished, 
dent  his  antagonist  a  regular  challenge  to  a  verbal  cotttro*- 
versy,  which  by  some  biographers  has  been  mistaken  for  a 
Challenge  to  fight.  The  challenge  may  be  found  in  thm 
"Journal  Etranger"  for  June  1757.  2.  4<  Schema  Sane- 
te  Congregationis,"  1676,  4to:  a  dissertation  on  the  in- 
quisition, full  of  learning  and  absurdity.  3.  "  Encyclo- 
paedia in  agon  em  1  iterator  um,"  1677,  folio.  4.  •"  Praise 
df  the  French,"  in  Latin,  1641,  4to;  «  book  on  the  Jan- 
senian  controversy.  5.  "  Myrothechim  Morale/9  4to.  This 
is  the  book  in  which  be  gives  the  preceding  account  of 
what  he  had  written  and  spoken,  &c.  He -possessed  a 
prodigious  memory,  and  a  ready  command  of  language; 
but  his  judgment  and  taste  were  by  no  means  equal  to  his 
learning  and  fecundity. ' 

MACEDONIUS,  was  an  ancient  heretic  of  the  church 
of  Constantinople,  whom  the  Arians  made  bishop  of  that 
see  in  the  year  342,  at  the  same  time  that  the  orthodox 
contended  for  Paul.  This  occasioned  a  contest,  which  rose 
at  length  to  such  a  height,  that  arms  were  taken  up,  and 
many  lives  lost.  The  emperor  Constantius,  however,  put 
*  an  end  to  the  dispute,  by  banishing  Paul,  and  ratifying  the 
nomination  of  Macedonius;  who,  after  much  opposition, 
which  ended  at  the  death  of  Paul,  became  peaceably  and 
quietly  settled  in  his  see,  and  might  have  remained  so  had 
.he  been  of  a  temper  to  be  long  peaceable  and  quiet  in  any 
situation :  he  soon  fell  into  disgrace  with  Constantius,  for 
acting  the  part  of  a  tyrant,  rather  than  a  bishop.  What 
made  bitn  still  more  disliked  by  the  emperor;  was  his  caus- 
ing the  body  of  Con stan tine  to  be  translated  from  the 
temple  of  *he  Apostles  to  that  of  Acacius  the  martyr*  This 
also  raised  great  tumults  and  confusion  among  the  peo- 
ple, some  highly  approving,  others  loudly  condemning, 
the. procedure  of  Macedonius ;  and  the  parties  again  taking 

*  Gen.  Diet.— Niceroo,  yo1.  XXXI,— -Moreri.— Antonio  Bibl.  Hisp. 

M  A  C  E  D  O  N  I  US.  $$ 

up  arms,  a  great  number  on  both  aide*  were  slain.  :  Mac** 
doaiuo,  however,   notwithstanding  the  emperor's  displde^ 
sure,  sthieb  be  bad  incurred  by  his  seditious  «rid  tUTbniefat 
practices  contrived  te  a opport  himself  by  bm  party,  which 
be  bad  lately  increased  by  taking  hi  the  tsemi -Arians  \  tfll 
at  length*  imprudently  offending  two  of  bm  bishops,  they 
procured  his  deposition  by  the  council  of  Constantinople^ 
in  the  year  359.     He  was  so  enraged  at  this,  as  to  resotofe 
to  revenge  the  insok  by  broaching  a  new  heresy.  He  began 
to  teach,  therefore,  that  the  Holy  Spirit  had  no  resem* 
Uance  to  either  the  Father  or  the  son,  but  was  only  a  merfe 
creature,  one  of  God's  ministers,  ***d  somewhat  more  e»- 
jsellent  than  the  angels.  ThetHsaffeeted  bishops  subscribed 
at  once  to  this  opinion  ;  and  to  the  Arians  it  e4Uid  not  bt 
unacceptable.    According  to  St.  Jerome,  even  the  Donatists 
of  Africa  joined  with  them :  for  he  says,  that  Dftnatus  of 
Carthage  wrote  a  treatise  upon  the  Holy  Ghost,  agreeable 
to  the  doctrine  of  the  Arians;  and  the  outward  shew  of 
piety,  which  the  Macedonians  observed,  drew  over  to  their 
party  many  other*     One  Maratorus,  who  had  been  for* 
meriy  a  treasurer,  having  amassed  vast  riches,  forsook  Ms 
secular  life,  devoted  himself  entirely  to  the  seraoe  of *tfcte 
poor  and  sick,  became  a  monk;  and  afeiast  adopted  *he 
Macedonian  heresy,  which  he  disseminated  veey  extent 
a+veiy,  >  In  this  he  succeeded  in  most  cases  by  hit  rictp*^ 
which,  being  freely  and  properly  distributed,  ware  found 
of  mono  force  in  effecting  conversions  than-  all  his  Argu- 
ments i  mud  from  this,m*n,  as  Socrates  relates,  the  Mac«*> 
dpnians  were  called  Maratoriaas.    They  were  also  called 
Pnenmatomachi,  4W  persons  who  were  .enemies  of  the  Hoty 
Ghost.  The  report  of  the  Macedonian  heresy  being  spread 
over  fcgypty   Use  bishop  Serapsoo  advertised  Afchatjasiti* 
m£  ity  who  then  was  leading  a  maaastie  life,  and  lay  hid  i* 
She  desert;   and  this  celebrated  saint  vras  the  first  wb|> 
confoted  iuJ  j 

MACER  {JEmum)9  an  ancient  Latin  poet,  was  bore 
at  Verooa,  and  flourished  about  the  year  24  B.  G.  Etoifr- 
bcus  relates,  that  be  died  a  few  year*  after  Virgil.  •  Ovid 
speaks  of  a  poem  by  him,  en  the  nature  and  qtiality  of 
birds,  serpents,  and  herbs;  which,  he  says,  Macer,  being 
•hen.  very  oidt  had  often  read  to  him,  a  ad  he  is  said  also  tfr 
iWe  written  a  supplement  to  Hosher;  bqt  the  work  by 

*  MbffecidL— Socrat.  Hist.  Ecclel.  lib.  ii.-~ftftreri. 


H  .   »  M  A  C  E  R.  . 

which  his  name  is  chiefly  known,  first  printed  at  Naples  in 
1477,  4to,  and  often  since  under  the  tide  "  De  virtu  tibus 
Herbarum,"  is  unquestionably,  spurious,  and  the  produc- 
tion of  a  much  later  writer.     By  some  it  is  ascribed  to 
Odo  or  Odobonus,  a  French  physician  of  the  ninth  cen- 
tury.    This  barbarous  poem  is  in  Leonine  verse,  and  va- 
rious manuscripts  of  it  are  in  our  public  libraries  of  Ox? 
ford,  Cambridge,  the  British  Museum,  &c.     It  was,  ac- 
cording to  Dr.  Pulteney,  in  common  use  in  England  before  * 
the  sera  of  printing,  and  was  translated  into  English  by 
John  Lelamar,  master  of  Hereford-school,  who  lived  about 
1473.     Even  Linacre  did. not  disdain  to  employ  himself  on 
this  work,  as  in  "  Macer's  Herbal  practysed  by  Dr.  Linacro, 
translated  out  of  Latin  into  English."  Lond.  J  542,-  12 mo. 
This  jejune  performance,  adds  Dr.  Pulteney,  which  is  writ- 
ten wholly  on  Galenical  principles,  treats  on  the  virtues  of 
not  more  than  eighty- eight  simples. 1 
. .  MACFAKLANE   (Robert),   a  political  and  miscella- 
neous writer,  was  born  in  Scotland  in  1734,  and  educated 
in  the  university  of  Edinburgh.     He  came  to  London  at 
an  early  period  of  life,  and  for  many  years  kept  an  aca- 
demy of  considerable  reputation  at  Walthamstow.  ,  He  was 
also. much  engaged  in  the  political  disputes  at  the  begin* 
<ning  of  the  reign  of  his  present  majesty,  and  concentrated 
bi$* sentiments  on  them,  in  a  "  History  of  the  Reign  of 
fJeorge  III."  an  octavo  volume,  which  was  published  in 
1770.     A  dispute  occurring  between  him  and  his  book- 
seller,   the  late.  Mr.  Thomas  Evans  of   Paternoster- row, 
the  latter  employed  another  person  to  continue  the  history, 
of  which  vol.  II    appeared  in   1782,  and  vol.   III.  about 
•J 794.     Mr.  Macfarlane  being  then  reconciled  to  his  em- 
ployer, published  a  fourth  volume.     The  whole  is  com- 
piled from  the  journals  of  the  day,  and  cannot,  either  in 
<ppiht  of  style  or  matter,  entitle  Mr.  Mactarlane,  or  the 
other  writers,  to  the  character  of  historians.    In  early  life, 
also,  he  was  editor  of  the  Morning  Chroniclq  and  London 
Packet,  in  which  he  gave  the  debates  with  great  accuracy 
and  at.  considerable  length,  and  wrote  many,  letters  and 
papers  under  fictitious  names,  in  favour.of  the  politics  of 
the  opposition      Being  an  enthusiastic  admirer  of  Ossian, 
and  an  assistant,  as  has  been  said,  to  Mr.  Macpherson  in  the 
arranging  and  publishing  of  these  poems,  he>conceived  the 

1  Vossius  Hist.  Lat.  —  Fabric,  Bib].  Lat.— Haller  Bibl.  Bot.  —  Pulteney'i 

M  A  C  F  A  R  L  A  N  E.  55 

very  preposterous  design  of  translating  tberh  into  Latin 
verse.  Accordingly,  in  1769,  he  published  "  Temdra,"  as 
a  specimen,  and  issued,  at  the  same  time;  proposals  -for 
publishing,  the  whole  by  subscription,  in  one  vol u toe,  4to1 
but  few  subscribers  appearing,  he  desisted:  from  -hts  plarf, 
During  the  latter  years  of  his  life,  he  resumed  it,  and 
was  employed  in  it  at  the  time  of  his  death:  Curiosity  ted 
him  one  evening  to  witness  the  triumphs  of  an  election* 
mob  coming  from  Brentford,  when  he  fell  under  a  carriage* 
and  was  so  much  hurt  as  to  survive  only  half  an  hour. 
This  happened  on  Augusts,  1304.  He  had  at  this  time 
in'  the  press,  an  "  Essay  on  the  authenticity  ofOssian  anp 
his  Poems.0 

In  1797,  Mr.  Macfaflane  published  "Ah  Address  to  the 
people  of  the  British  Empire,  on  the  present  posture  and 
future  prospect  of  public  affaire,"  by  which  it  appears  thai 
he  bad  got  rid  of  most  of  his  former  politicalpr^judiees. 
He  likewise  formally  disclaim  the  second  and  third  vo- 
lumes of  the  "  History  of  George  III."  'and  says,  that  eteft 
tbe  first  h£s  been  so  disfigured  ill  a  third  edition,  that' fife 
Will  no  longer  claim  it  as  his  own.  In  ISOl,  he  published 
"  George  Buchanan's  Dialogue,  concerning  the  rights  of 
tbe  crown  of  Scotland.  Translated  iftto  'English  :  with  two 
dissertations  prefixed:  one  archaeological,  inquiring  into 
the  pretended  identity  of  the  Getes  and  Scythians,  of  thi 
Getes  and  Goths,  and  of  the. Goths  and  Scots :  arid  the 
other  historical,  vindicating  tbe  character  of  Buchanan 
as  a  historian  :  and  containing  some  specimens  of  his  poetry 
in  English  verse,'*  8vo.  In  this  work  there  is  much  curious 
discussion. ' 

MACHAULT  (John  de),  a  Jesuit,  was  born  at  Paristiti 
J  65!,  and  was  professor  of  rhetoric  in  his  society,  doctor 
of  divinity,  and  rector  of  the  Jesuits  college  at  Rouen," 
then  of  the  college  de  Clermont  at  Paris.  He  died  March 
15,  1619,  aged  58.  He  published  under  the*  name  of 
Gall  us,  or  Le  Cocq,  which  was  bis  mother's  name,  "Jo. 
Galli  jurisconsulti  uotationes  in  Historian)  Thuani,"  In- 
goldstadt,  1614,  4to,  a  scarce  volume,  because  suppressed 
in  that  year,  as  pernicious,  seditious,  and  full,  of  falsehoods 
and  calumnies  against  the  magistrates  and  officers  of  the 
king.  Machault  also  translated  from  the  Italian,  a*"  His- 
tory of  transactions  in  China  and  Japan,  taken  from  letters 

*  Gent  Ma*   vol.  1XX1V.  he. 


piittpn  J  $24  and  1622,"  Paris,  1627,  ftvo.— Job*  Baf* 
TIST  D£  MACHAfrvr,  another  Parisian  Jesuit,  who  died  May 
$$,  1640,  aged  29,  after  having  been  rector  of  the  colleges 
at  Nevers  aod  Rouen,  left  "  Gesta  i.Soe.  Jes.  in  Regno 
Sinen^i,  jEthiopico,  et  Tibetano;"  *nd  some  other  works  of 
the  historical  kind,  but  of  little  reputation.-^-JAME8  B* 
jMUcwwvr,  a  Jesuit  also,  born  1600,  at  Paris,  taught  ethics 
apd  philosophy,  and  was  afterwards  rector  at  Alencon,  Or* 
Jean?,  and  Caen.   He  died  1690,  at  Paris.    His  works  are, 

#  J)e  Missionibus  Paraguariae  et  aliis  in  America  meridio* 

Kli  ;"  «  Pe  rebus  Japonicis ;"  "  De  Provinciis  Goana, 
al^btrica,  et  aliis  ;"  "  De  Regno  Cochineinensi ;"  "  De 
Missione  Religiosorum  Societatis  J.  in  Perside ;"  **  De 
Ifogno  Madurensi,  Tangoreosi,"  &c* 

MACHIAVEL  (Nicholas),  a  celebrated  political  writer 
?nd  historian,  was  born  of  a  good  family,  at  Florence,  in 
1469.  He  first  distinguished  himself  as  a  dramatic  writer, 
bpt  bis  comedies  are  not  formed  on  the  purest  moralr,  nor 
lire  the  verses  by  which  he  gained  some  reputation  about 
the  samp  time,  entitled  to  much  praise,  Sodn  after  he 
Jjad  entered  public  life,  either  from  the  love  of  liberty,  or 

*  spirit  of  faction,  he  displayed  a  restless  and  turbulent 
disposition,  which  not  only  diminished  the  respect  due  to 
tys  abilities,  but  frequently  endangered  his  personal  safety. 
De  iovplved  himself  in  the  conspiracy  of  Capponi  and  Bos- 
coli,  in  consequence  of  which  he  was  put  to  the  torture, 
fcufepdured  it  without  uttering  any  confession,  and  was 
set  qt  liberty  by  Leo  X.  against  whose  house  that  conspi- 
racy had  been  formed.  Immediately  after  the  death  of 
Leo,  be  entered  into  another  plot  to  expel  the 'cardinal  de 
J^edici  from  Florence-  Afterwards,  however,  he  was  raised, 
to  high  honours  in  the  state,  and  became  secretary  to  the 
republic  of  Florence,  the  duties  of  which  office  be  per* 
formed  with  great  fidelity.  He  was  likewise  employed  in 
embassies  to  king  Lewis  XII.  of  France ;  to  the  emperor 
Afa*imilian ;  to  the  college  of  cardinals;  to  the  pope, 
Julius  IL,  and  to  other  Italian  princes.  Notwithstanding 
the  revenues  which  mint  have  accrued  to  him  in  these  im-t 
portant  situations,  it  would  appear  that  the  love  of  money 
fcad  no  influence. on  his  mind,  as  he  died  in  extreme  f>o» 
-**rty  in  June  1527.  Besides  his  plays,  his  chief  works 
*re,  h  "The  Golden  Ass,"  in  imitation  of  Lucian  an4 

1  Mpreri.— Diet.  Bi&U-^Lp  Lgpf  BibL  Hptqriqae. 


Aptdeiuj ;  2.  "  ^Discourses  on  the  fcnt  Decade  of  hmy  ?*. 
3,  «  A  History  of  Florence  ;"  4.  u  The  life  of  Castruccie  , 
Gaatracani ;"  *< "  A  Treatise  on  the  Military  Art  >"  *.  "  A 
Treatise  on  the  Emigration  of  the  Northern  Nations  ;n 
7.  Another  entitled  »  Del  Principe^,"  die  Prince.  Tbia 
famous  treatise,  which  was  first  published  in  15 i 5,  audio* 
leaded  as  a  sequel  to  hi*,  discourses  on  the,  first  decad* 
pf  Livy,  ha*  created  very  discordant  opinions  between 
critics  of  apparently  equal  skill  and  judgment,  some  her* 
iag  considered  bkn  as  the  friend  of  truth,  liberty,  and  *ir> 
tuet  »d  others  as  the  Jfedrocat*  of  fraud  and.  tyranny. 
Moat  generally  "the  Prince''  has  been  viewed  in  the 
fetter  light,  ail  its  maxims  and  counsels  being  directed  to 
the  maintenance  of  power,  however  acquired,  and  by  any 
wean*;  and  one  .reason  for.  this  opinion  is  perhaps  natural 
enough,  namely,  its  being  dedicated  to  a  nephew  of  pope 
Leo  X,  printed  at  Rome,  re-paUisbed  in,  other  Italian 
pities*  and  long  read  with  attention,  and  even  applause* 
without  censure  or  reply.  On  the  other,  hand  it  has  been 
thought  impossible  that  Nechiavel,  who  was  bom  under  a 
republic*  who  was  employed  aa  one  of  its.  sateetaries,  who 
performed  so  many  important  embassies,  and  who  in  bit 
pepversatiee  always  dwelt  en  the  gloinoos  actions  ef  Sratns 
and  Cassiua,  should  have  foamed  sneb  a  system  against  the 
liberty  and  happiness,  of  .mankind.  Hence  it  has  frequently 
^een  urged  on  his  behalf,  that  it  was  not  .his  intention  ttf 
•Uggest  wise  and  faithful  counsels,  ibut  to  represent  in.  the 
darkest  oolouis  the  schemes  of.  a  tyrant,  and  thereby  ea~ 
oitfe  odium  against  biro.  Even  lord  Bacon  seems  .to  be  ef 
this  opinion.  The  historian  of  ■  Leo ,  constdem  bis  conv 
duot  in  a  different  point,  of  view;  and  indeed  all  idea 
of  his  being  ironical  in  this  work  k  dissipated  by  thf 
feet,  mentioned  by  Mr.  Rpaooe,  that  ?  many  of  the  most 
exceptionable  doctrines  in  M  The  Prince, M  are  also  to  be 
found  in  bis  "Discourses,"  where  it  cannot  ba. pretended 
that  be  had  any-  indicect  pqcpeae  in  -view ;  and  in  the  .latter 
fett  baa  in  .some  iastannes  referred  fca  the  former  for  the 
fartber  elucidation  of  bis  opinions*  In  popular  opiate* 
11  The  JPrincen  has.  affixed  ta  bis  naoae  a  lasting  stigma^ 
ajtd  Maohiaaeltsm  haa  long  been  a  received  appellation 
for  perfidious  and  •  infamous,  politics.  Of  the  biatowcai 
writings  of  Machiavel,  the  "  Life  of  Castmccio  Castracani" 
is  considered  as  partaking  too  much  of  the  character  off 
romance  »  but  his  "  History  of  Florence/'  comprising  the 


events  of  that  republic,  between  1205  and  1494,  Which 
was  written  while  the  author  sustained  the  office  of-  histo- 
riographer of  the  republic,  although,  not  always  accurate 
in  point  of  fact,  may  upon  the  whole  be  reaa  with  both 
pleasure  and  advantage.  It  has  been  of  late  years  disco- 
vered that  the  diary  of  the  most  important  events  in  Italy 
from  1492  to  1512,  published  by  the  Giunti  in  1568, 
under  the  name  of  Biagio  Buonaccorsi,  is  in  fact  a  part  of 
the  notes  of  Machiavel,  which  he  had  intended  for  a  con- 
tinuation, of  his  history;  but  which,  after  his  death,  re- 
mained io  the  bands  of  his  friend  Buonaccorsi.  >  This  is  a 
circumstance  of  which  we  were  not  aware  when  we  drew 
up  the  account  of  this  author  under  the  name  EsPERiENTfe. 

In  English  we  have  a  translation  of  the  whole  of  Ma* 
chiavel's  works  by  Farneworth,  and  editions  of  them  are 
common  in  almost  every  language.1 

MACKENZIE  (Sir  George),  an  ingenious  and  learned 
writer,  and  eminent  lawyer  of  Scotland,  was  descended 
from  an  ancient  and  noble  family,  his  father  Simon,  Mac* 
kenzie  being  brother  to  the  earl  of  Seaforth.  He  was 
born  at  Dundee,  in  the  county  of  Angus,  in  1636,  and 
gave  early  proofs  of  an  extraordinary  genius,  having  gone 
through  the  usual  classic  authors,  at  ten  years  of  age.  He 
was  then  sent  to  the  universities  of  Aberdeen  and  St.  An<* 
drew's,  where  he  finished. his  studies  in  logic  and  philoso- 
phy before  he  had  attained  his  sixteenth  year.  After  this, 
he  turned  his  thoughts  to  the  civil  law,  and  to  increase  his 
knowledge  of  it,  travelled  into  France,  and  became  a  close 
student  in  the  university  of  Bourges,  for  about  three  years. 
On  his  return  home,  he  was  called  to  the  bar,  became  an 
advocate  in  1656,  and  gained  the  character  of  an  eminent 
pleader  in  a  few  years. 

While  he  made  the  law  his  profession  and  chief  study, 
he  cultivated  a  taste  for  polite  literature ;  and  produced 
some  works  which  added  not  a  little  to  his  reputation.  In 
U560,  came  out  his  "Aretino,  or  serious  Romance,"  in 
which  he  shewed  a  gay  and  exuberant  fancy.  In  1663,  he 
published  his  "  Religio  Stoici;"  or  a  short  discourse  upon 
several  divine  and  moral  subjects,  with  a  friendly -address 
to  the  fanatics  of  all  sects  and  sorts.     This  was  followed, 

in  1665,  by  "  A  Moral  Essay,"  preferring  solitude  to  pub^ 


i  Tiraboschi.— . Moreri.— Gioguent  Hist.  Litt,  D'lulic— Roscoe's  Leo.— Suit 


tie  employment,  and  all  its  advantages;  such  as  fame, 
command,  riches,  pleasures,  conversation,  &c.    This  was 
answered  by  John  Evelyn,  esq.  in  another  essay,  in  which 
the  preference  was  given  to  public  employment.     Irfl667, 
he  printed  his  w  Moral  gallantry ;"  a  discourse,  in  which 
he  endeavours  to  prove,  that  the  point  of  honour,  setting 
afcide  all  other  ties,  obliges  men  to  be  virtuous ;  and  that 
there  is  nothing  so  mean  and  unworthy  of  a  gentleman,  as 
vice :  to  which  is  added,  a  consolation  against  calumnies, 
shewing  how  to  bear  them  with  chearfulness  and  patience. 
Afterwards  be  published  "The  moral  history  of  frugality," 
with  its  opposite  vices,  covetousness,  niggardliness,  pro- 
digality, and  luxury,  dedicated  to  the  university  of  Ox- 
ford;   and  M  Reason,"  an  essay,  dedicated  to  the  hon. 
Robert  Boyte,  .esq.     All  these  works,  except  "Aretino," 
were  collected  and  printed  together  at  London,  in  1713, 
Svo,  under  the  title  of  "  Essays  upon  several  moral  sub- 
jects:"'and  have  been  ^regarded  as  abounding  in   good 
sense  and  wit,  although  upon  the  whole  the  reasoning  is 
rather  superficial/    Besides  these  essays,  which  were  the 
production  of  such  hours  as  could  be  spared  from  his  pro- 
fession, be  was  the  author  of  a  play  and  a  poem.    The 
poem  is  entitled    "  Caelia's  country-house  and   closet;'* 
and  in  it  are  the  following  lines  upon  the  earl  of  Montrose: 

€<  Montrose,  his  country's  glory,  and  its  shame, 
Ctesar  in  all  things  equall'd,  but  his  fame,  &C." 

Which  our  predecessor  quoted  principally  to  shew,  that 
Pope  himself,  infinitely  superior  as  his  talents  in  poetry 
were,  did  not  disdain  to  imitate  this  author,  in  his  "  Essay 
on  Criticism :" 

"  At  length  Erasmus,  that  great  injur'd  name, 
The  glory  of  the  priesthood,  and  the  shame,  &c.' 

--•  Soon  after  Mr.  Mackenzie  had  been  employed  as  coun- 
sel for  the  marquis  of  Argyle,  he  was  promoted  to  the 
office  of  a  judge  in  the  criminal  court',  which  he  discharged 
with  so  much  credit  and  reputation,  that  he  was  made 
king's  advocate  in  1674,  and  one  of  the  lords  of  the  privy, 
council  in  Scotland.  He  was  also  knighted  by  bis  majesty. 
In  these  offices  he  met  with  a  great  deal  of  trouble  on  ac- 
count of  the  rebellions  whichftiappened  in  his  time ;  and 
'  his  office  of  advocate  requiring  him  to  act  with  severity, 
he  did  not  escape  being  censured  for  having,  in  the  deaths 
of  some  particular  persons  who  were  executed,  stretched 

$9  M  A  C  K  E  N  Z  I  & 


tbe  tows  too  (p.  Tbi*  alludes  to  t^e  tutted  trials  of  B^illie 
of  Jerviswoo^  that  of  the  $arl  of  Argyle,  and  the  prcffeptH 
tipns  Against  MitcheJ  and  Learmonth,  events  winch  make 
a  great  figure  in  the  history  of  that  unhappy  period  ;  but 
in  the  opinion  of  the  late  lord  Woodhoaselet,  "  hi*  own 
defence  will  fully  justify  bis  conduct  io  the  breast  of  every 
man  whose  judgment  is  not  perverted  by  tbe  same  preju- 
dices, hostile  to  all  good  government,  which  led  those  uh 
fatuated  offenders  to  the  doom  they  merited/'  .  (See 
Mackenzie's  Works,  Vindication  of  the  government  of 
Charles  II.) 

Opon  tbe  abrogation  of  tbe  penal  laws  by  James  II.  sir 
George,  though  he  had  always  been  remarkable  for  bis 
loyalty,  and  censured  for  bis  zeal,  thought  himself  obliged 
to  resign  bis  post ;  being  convinced  that  be  could -not  dis- 
charge the  duties  of  it  at  ttoat  .crisis  with  a  good  conscience* 
Be  wfis  succeeded  by  sir  John  Dalrymple,  who,  however, 
did  not  long  continue  in  it ;  fqt  that  unfortunate  prince 
being  convinced  of  bis  error,  restored  sir  George  to  bis 
post,  in  which  he  continued  until  tbe  revolution,  and  then 
resigned  it  He  could  no*;  agree  to  tbe  measures  and  terms 
pf  the  revolution ;  be  hoped  that  the  prince  of  Orange 
would  have  returned  to  bis  own  country*  when  matters  were 
adjusted  between  the  king  and  bis  subjects;  but  finding 
that  the  event  proved  otherwise,  he  cjuitted  all  bis  em- 
ployments in  Scotland,  and  retired  to  England,  revolving 
to  spend  the  remainder  of  bis  days  in  the  university  of  Ox- 
ford. He  accordingly  arrived  there  in  September  1689, 
and  prosecuted  his  studies  in  the  Bodleian  library,  being 
admitted  a  student  there  by  a  grace  passed  in  the  congre- 
gation June  2,  1690.  In  tbe  spring  following  he  went  to 
London,  where  he  contracted  a  dtsbfder,  of  which  be  died 
May  2,  lfcfrl.  His  bodyHvas  conveyed  by  land  to  Scot- 
)and,  and  interred  with  great  pomp  a«d  solemnity  at  Edin- 
burgh, his  fuueraLbeing  attended  by  aH  tbe  council,  no* 
bility,  college, of  justice,  eotlegeof  physicians*  university* 
cte*$y*  g^Hry*  end  a  jpeater  concourse  of  people  than 
e*er  was  w^n  on  any  -similar  o  ocas  ion.  • 

Besides  the  moral  piece*  me*uioaed  above,  be  wtotese* 
feral  works  to  illustrate  the  laws  aed  customs  of  his  eount 
try,  to  vindicate  tbe  monarchy  from  tbe  restless  centri* 
*ances  and  attacks  of  those  whoas  be  esteemed  its  enemies, 
%nd  to  maintain  tbe  honour  and  glory  of  Scotteadi  To  tl» 
lustrate  the  laws  and  wttpma  of  his  country,  be  pabsiafaed 


•V  A  Discourse  upon  the  laws  and  customs  of  $c$*l*fltt  iri; 
raattcm  erimittaV*  1GT4,  *to.  ••  Ide*  ekquenti*  fertensi* 
hodterose,  una  cum  actione  forensi  e*  maqtraque  jari* 
parte,"  1681)  dvo.  "  Invitations  of  Che  Itotf**  of  Scot* 
land,"  1684,  8vo.  "  Observations  upon  the  WW  of  par* 
liaikieiit,"  1 086,  folio.  Besides  these,  several  other  ttigak 
use*  of  law  are  inserted  in  his  works,  printed  <tt  Edinburgh; 
1716,  in  9  vol*  folio.  In  Vindication  <rf  nrtmttrchyj  hef 
wrote  his  "  Jtis  regiurto ;  or  the  just  arid  solid>  fouridatldrt* 
of  monarchy  in  general,  and*  more*  especially-  of  the  mo- 
narohy  of  Scotland ;  maintained  agaitot  Btichanan,  Naph- 
tfarii,  l>oieman, Milton,  &c.,v  Land.  16S4; 8*o.-  Thif 
book  being  dedicated  and  presented  by  tlieaiicfafor  to  the 
university  of  Oxford*  he  received  a1  letter  of  thanks  from 
the  convocation.  With  the  same  view  he  puMifehetf  hi* 
*  Discovery  of  the  fanatic  plot,"  printed' at  Edinburgh;  in 
1684,  folio  J  and  his  «< Vindication  of  the  government  *f 
Scotland  during  the  reign  of  Charles-  II.'9  AUothe  w  Me- 
thod of  Proceeding  against  Criminals  and  Fariatieal  Cove* 
nanters,"  1694,  4to.  The  piece*  which  he  pubfahed  in 
honour  of  Ms  nation,  were  as  follow  i  w  OttteiHtttioh*  oft 
the  Lawsand  Customs  of  Nations  as  to  Precedency,  with  the 
Science  of  heraldry,  treated  as  a  part'  df  the  divillkw  of 
nations  ;  wherein  reason*  are  given  for  its  principles,  and 
etymologies  for  its  harder  terms,"  1680,  folio.  "  A  De* 
fence  of  the  Antiquity  of  the' Royal  Line  of  Scotland-,  with 
a  trtre  account  when  the' Scots  were  governed  by  the  kings 
in  the  Isle  of  Britain,"  1685,  8vo.  This  was  Written  in 
answer  to  "  An  historical  Account  of  Churcb-Gorernment 
as  it  was  in  Great  Britain  and  Ireland,  when  they  Art t  re- 
ceived  the  Christian  religion, "  by  Lloyd,  bisbdjp  of :  Sfc 
Asapto  Str  George's  defence  was  published  in  Jwife  1888; 
but  before  it  came  out  it  was.  animadverted  tfpon;  by  0ft 
Stillmgfleet,  who  had  seen  it  in  maflqtfertyt  in  the* preface 
to  his  "'Origines  Britannic*."  Sir  George  refilled  the 
year  following,  in  a1  piece  entitled  "The  Anti^rtty  of  the 
Royal  Line  of  Scotland  farther  delved  And  defended 
against  the  exceptions  lately  offered  by  Dt.  StiHingfleet, 
in  his  Vindication  of  the  Bishop  of  St.  Afcafph;**  and  here 
the  controversy  appears  to 'have  ended.1  Itr  is  rerriatkaMe; 
however,  that  sir  George>  books  were  translated  into  Latin, 
printed  at  Utrecht  in  1689,  and  then  presented  to  W\U 
liam-Henry  prince  of  Orange,  who  wrote  twtyir^ry  polite 
letters  of  thanks  to  him  for  his  perfortunartce. 


Among  the  instances  of  this  author's  zeal  for  his  Country,* 
it  is  necessary  to  mention  his  founding  of  the  lawyer's  li-- 
brary  at  Edinburgh}  an  1689.     This,  which  is  now  known: 
by  the  name  of  the  advocate's  library,  was  afterwards  stored-  - 
with  variety  of  manuscripts,  relating  particularly  to  the 
antiquities  of  Scotland,  and  with  a  fine  collection  of  books/ 
in  all  sciences,  classed  in  that  excellent  order,  which  he- 
prescribed  in  an.  elegant  Latin  oration,  pronounced  upqn 
the  opening  of  it,  and  printed  apiong  bis  works. 
.  Judging,  says  a  late,  elegant  and  judicious  writer,  from 
the  writings  of  sir  .George  Mackenzie,  his  talents  appear 
to  have,  been  rather  splendid  than  solid.     He  certainly 
possessed  uncommon  assiduity  and  activity  of  mind,  as  the 
number  and  variety  of  his  compositions  testify ;  and  per- 
haps the  superficial  manner  in  which  be  has  treated  many 
of  those  subjects  foreign  to  his  profession,  is  the  less  to 
^e  wondered  at,  in  a  man  whose  thne  was  so  occupied  in 
professional  duties.     The  obscurity  and  confusion  that  are 
discernible  in  some  of  his  juridical  discussibns,  may- have 
arisen  in  a  great  measure  from  the  rude,  unmethodized, 
and  almost  chaotic  state  of  the  law  of  Scotland,  both  civil 
and  criminal,  in  his  days.     On  one  account  alone,  although 
every  other  merit  were  forgotten,  sir  George  Mackenzie 
is  entitled  to  respect  as  a  lawyer.     Re  was  the  first  who 
exploded  from  the  practice  of  the  crimiual  courts  of  Scot- 
land that  most  absurd  and  iniquitous  doctrine,  that  no  de- 
fence was  to  be  admitted  in  exculpation  from  a  criminal 
indictment  which  was  contrary  to  the  libel  (indictment) ;  as, 
if  John  were  accused  of  having  murdered  James,  by  giving 
him  a  mortal  wound  with  a  sword,  it  was  not  allowable  for* 
John  to  prove  in  his  defence,  that  the  wound  was  not  given 
in  any  vital  part,  and  that  James  died  of  a  fever  caught 
afterwards  by  contagion* 

As  an.  elegant  scholar,  lord  Woodhouselee  ranks  sir 
George  among  the  ornaments  of  his  country.  His  Latin 
compositions  are  correct  and  ornate  in  no  common  degree. 
His  style  is  evidently  formed  on  the  writings  of  Cicero, 
and  the  young  Pliny ;  and  though  a  little  tinctured  with 
the  more  florid  eloquence  of  Quinctilian,  is  entirely  free 
from  the  false  embellishments  and  barbarisms  of  the  writers 
of  the  lower  ages.  His  "  Idea  Eloquentiae  forensis,"  is  a 
masterly  tractate,  which  enumerates  and  eloquently  de- 
scribes all  the  important  requisites  of  a  pleader,  and  gives 
the  most  judicious  precepts  for   the  cultivation  of  the 

M  A  C  K  E  N  Z  I  E.  ■„.     65 

various  excellencies  and  the  avoiding  of  theordtnary  defects 
of  forensic  eloquence.  His  "  Cbaracteres  quorundam  apud 
Scotos  Advocatorum,"  evince  a  happy  talent  of  painting, 
not  only  the  groat  and  prominent  differences  of  ndanaer  in 
ttje  pleaders  of  his  age,  but  of  discriminating,  with  sin* 
gular  nicety,  and  in  tbe  most  appropriate  terms,  the  more 
minute  and  delicate  shades  of  distinction,  which  a  critical 
judgment  alone  could  perceive,  and  which  could  be  de- 
lineated only  by  a  master's  band.  It  is,  adds  lord  Wood- 
houselee,  <  highly  to  the  honour  of  this  eminent  man,,  that 
he  appears  to  have  possessed  a  true  sense  of  the  dignity  of 
his  profession ;  and  that  he  perpetually  endeavoured,  as 
much  by  bis  example  as  by  bis  precepts,  to  mark  the  con- 
trast between  tbe  prosecution  of  the  law,  as  a  liberal  and 
ingenuous  occupation,  and  its  exercise  (too  common)  as  a 
mercenary  trust.1 

.MACKENZIE  (George),   viscount  Tarbat,   and  first 
earl*  of  Cromerty,  a  person  eminent  for  bis  learning  and 
for  his  abilities  as  a  statesman,  was  descended  from  a  branch 
of  the  family  of  Seaforth.     He  succeeded  to  the  family 
esbpe  on  the  death  of  his  father  sir  John  Mackenzie,  and 
also  to. his  unshaken^  fealty  for  Charles II.  during  whose 
exile  he  had  a  commission  to  levy  what  forces  be  could 
procure,  to  promote  the  restoration.     After  that  event,  heA 
was  made  one  of  the  senators  of  the  college  of  justice,  clerk 
register  of  the  privy  council,  and  justice-general,  an  office 
which  had  been  hereditary  in  the  family  of  Argyle,  till  it 
was  surrendered  in  the  preceding  reign.     James  II.  made 
him  a  baron  and  viscount,  but  on  the  abdication  of  that 
monarch,  whom  it  would  appear  he  had  favoured  too  much, 
he  lost  his  office  of  lord-register  for  some  time*  until  king 
William  III.  was  pleased  to  restore  it  in  1692,  being  no 
stranger  to  his  abilities.     In  queen  Anne's  reign,  1702,  he 
was  constituted  secretary  of  state,  and  the  following  year 
was  advanced  to  the  dignity  of  earl  of  Cromerty.     He  died 
in  1714,  at  the  age  of  eighty-three,  or,  according  to  ano- 
ther account,  eighty-eight. 

Douglas  describes  him  as  a  man  of  singular  endowment*} 
great  learning,  well  versed  in  the  laws  and  antiquities  of 
his  country,  and  an  able  statesman.  Macky,  or-  rather 
Davis,  adds,  that  "  he  had  a  gjteat  deal  of  wit,  and  was  the 

1  Life  prefixed  to  his  Works,  fol.— - Lord  Woodhouselee's  Life  of  Lord  Karnes. 
*— Laing^  History  of  ScoUaud.— -Burnet's  Own  Timet. —Gent.  Mas*  toLLXM. 
p.  519. 

44  M  A  C  K  £  tt  t  I  t. 

pieasaiitett  coiftpanion  in-  the  work! ;  had  been  very  Hand* 
iotoe  ill  his  perto* ;  was  tall  and  ftur  complexioned ;  rtmch 
esteemed  fey  die  rOyal  SOtoiety,  &  great  rta^te*  in  philoso- 
phy* and  weH  revived  as  a  writer  try  men  of  lettefs:'* 
Bishop  Nicoldon  notices  a  copy  of  the  Continuation  of 
Fonkm's  "  Seotichronicob"  in  the  band- Writing  6f  tbii 
faobleman,  whom  he  terms  "a  judicious  preserver  of  the 
antiquities  of  bis*  Country*'  He  wfote,  I.  "  A  Vindica-* 
tion  of  Robert,  the  third  king  of  Scotland,  from  the!  impu- 
tation of  bastardy,  &c."  Edit).  1695,  4to.  2.  "  Synopsis 
Apocaty  ptica ;  or  a  short  and  plain  Explication  and  Appfi* 
cation  of  DaftiePs  Prophecy,  and  St.  John's  Revelation,  irt 
convent  with  it,  and  consequential  to  it;  by  6.  E.  of  C. 
tracing  in  the  steps  of  the  admirable  lord  Napier  of  Mer^ 
chttton,"  Edin.  1 708.  3.  «  An  historical  Account  of  tb* 
Conspiracies,  by  the  earls  of  Gourie,  and  Robert  Logan 
*>f  Beatalrig,  against  king  James  VI.  of  glorious  memory, 
&*."  Edin.  1713,  Svo.  Mr.GdUgh  has  pointed  out  ttire* 
papers  on  natural  curiosities,  by .  lord  Cromerty,  in  the 
*  Philosophical Transactions  ;"  and"  A  Vindication,^  bf 
him,  of  the  reformation  of  the  church  of  Scotland,  #itH 
•ofitto  accoont  of  the  Records,  was  printed  in  the  Scoti* 
Magazine,  for  A tigtitt  1802,  front  a  MS.  in  the  possession 
*tf  Mr.  Constable,  bookseller,  of  Edinburgh.1 
■'  MACKLIN  (Charles),  the  oldest  actor,  and  perhaps 
the  oldest  man  of  his  time,  is  entitled  to  some  notice  in 
this  woric,  although  his  fame  seems  to  have  been  derived 
principally  from  his  longevity.  He  is  said  to  have  been 
born  in  the  county  of  West  Meath  in  Ireland,  May  1, 
1690.  His  family  name  was  Mac-Laughlin,  which,  on  his 
coming  to  London,  he  changed  to  Mackliti.  He  was  em- 
ployed in  early-  life,  as  badgeman  in  Trinity  college,  Dub- 
lin, until  his  twenty-first  year,  when  he  came  to  England, 
wid  associated  With' some  strolling  comedians,  after  which 
he  werit  back  to  his  situation  in  Trinity  college.  In  1716 
be  again  came  to  England,  and  appeared  as  an  actor  in  the 
theatre,  Lincoln's-inn-fields,  where,  in  Feb.  1741,  he  esta- 
blished his  fame  by  his  performance  of  Shy  lock  in  the 
u  Merchant  of  Venice,'*  in  which  he  followed  nature,  truth, 
and  propriety,  with  such  effect,  as  to  distance  all  other 
performers  through  the  whole  course  of  his  long  life.    It 

1  Park's  edition  of  lord  Orford's  Royal  and  Noble  Author*. — EJougUs'i  Pair* 

M  A  C  K  L  1  N.  65 

ftas*  however),  the  only  character  in  which  be  was  pre-emi-* 
Dent,  and  jail  bis  subsequent*  attempts  in  characters  of  im- 
portance, particularly  in  tragedy,  were  unsuccessful,  or;  at 
least,  displayed, no  exclusive  merit     The  remainder  of  his 
life  consists  of  a  series  of  tragi-comic  adventures,  involving1 
the  history  of  the  stage  for  a  considerable  period*  of  Which 
it  would  be  impossible  to  give  a  satisfactory  abridgment; 
We  therefore  refer  to  our  authorities,  where  his  life  is  de^ 
tailed-  with  great  minuteness,  and  In  a  manner  highly  in- 
teresting to  those,  to  whom  the  vicissitudes  of  the  theatres/ 
and  the  wit  of  the  greenroom,  are  matters  of  importance. 
He  continued  on  the  stage  until  1789,  when  a  decay  of 
memory  obliged  him  to  take  a  last  leave  of  it.     In  1791,  a 
sum  of  money  Was  collected  by  public  subscription  for  thg 
purchase  of  an  annuity,  which  rendered  his  circumstances 
easy.     During  the  last  years  of  his  life,  his  understanding 
became  more  and  more  impaired,  and  in  this  state  be  died 
July  1 1,  1797,  at  the  very  great  age  of  lot,  if  the  date 
usually  given  of  his  birth  be  correct.  As  a  dramatic  writer* 
he  appears  to  much  advantage  in  his  "  Man  of  the  World'* 
and  "  Love  Alaitfode,"  which  still  retain  their  popularity* 
He  was  a  man  of  goopV  understanding,  which  he  had  im- 
proved by  a  course  of  reading,  perhaps  desultory,  but  suffi- 
cient to  enable  him  to  bear  his  part  in  conversation  very  satis- 
factorily. While  his  memory  remained,  his  fund  of  anecdote 
was  immense*  and  rendered  bis  company  highly  agreeable. 
His  age*  however,  had  in  his  opinion,  conferred  a  dictatorial 
power,  and  it  was  not  easy  to  argue  with  him,  without  ex- 
citing his  irascible  temper,  which  shewed  itself  in  much 
coarseness  of  expression.     He  is  said  to  have  been  in  his 
better  days,  a  tender  husband,  a  good  father,  and  a  steady 
friend.  .  By  his  firmness  and  resolution  in  supporting  the 
rights  of  his  theatrical  brethren,  they  were  long  relieved 
from^a  species  of  oppression  to  which  they  bad  been  igno- 
miniously  subjected  for  many  years,  whenever  the  caprice 
or  malice  of  their  enemies  chose  to  exert  itself.     We  al-» 
lude,    says  one  of  his  biographers,  "to  the  prosecution! 
which  be  commenced  and  carried  on  against  a  certain!  set 
of  insignificant  beings,  who,  calling  themselves  The  Towtf, 
used  frequently  to  disturb  the  entertainments  of  the  theatre, 
to  the  terror  of  the  actors,  as  well  as  to  the  annoyance  and 
disgrace  of  the  publick."     It  is  almost  needless  to  add  that 
this  advantage  has  been  again  lost  to  his  brethren,  by  the 
loieration   recently  granted   to  scenes  #f  brutality  in  the 
Vol,  XXL  F 

66  M  A  C  K  L  I  N. 

theatres  both  of  London  and  Dublin,  and  which  has  placed 
them  at  the  mercy  of  the  lowest  and  most  unprincipled  of 
the  populace.1 

MAC  KNIGHT  (James),  a  learned  Scotch  clergyman, 
was  born  at  Irvine,  in  Argyleshire,  in  1721,  educated  at 
the  university  of  Glasgow,  and  afterwards,  as  was  the  cus-  » 
torn  at  that  time,  heard  a  course  of  lectures  at  Leyden. 
After  his  return  he  was  admitted  into  the  church,  and  in  v 
May  1753,  was  ordained  minister  of  Maybole,  on  which 
living  he  continued  during  sixteen  years.     Here  he  com- 
4  posed  his  two  celebrated  works,  the  "  Harmony  of  the  Gos- 
pels,9' and  his  "  New  Translation  of  the  Epistles,"  both 
which  were  very  favourably  received,  and  greatly  advanced 
his  reputation  in  the  theological  world.     In  1763  he  pub- 
lished a  second  edition  of  the  "  Harmony,"  with  the  addi- 
tion of  six  discourses  on  Jewish  antiquities ;  and  a  third 
appeared  in  1804,  in  2  vols,  8vo.     In  1763  also  be  pub-  % 
lished  another  work  of  great  merit,  entitled  "  The  Truth 
of  the  Gospel  History."   On  account  of  these  publications, 
the  university  of  Edinburgh  conferred  upon  him  the  de- 
gree of  D.J).     In  1769  he  was  translated  to  the  living  of 
Jedburgh,  and  after  three  years,  became  one  of  the  mi* 
nisters  of  Edinburgh,  which  situation  he  retained  during 
the  remainder  of  his  useful  life.     He  was  particularly  ac- 
tive and  zealous  in  promoting  charitable  institutions,  es- 
pecially the  fund  established  by  act  of  parliament,  for  a 
provision  to  the  widows  and  fatherless  children  of  ministers 
in  the  church  of  Scotland.     As  an  author,  Dr.  Macknight 
occupied  a  considerable  portion  of  his  time  in  the  execu- 
tion of  his  last  and  greatest  work  on  the  apostolical  epistles. 
This  was  the  result  of  an  almost  unremitting  labour  during 
thirty  years :  he  is  said  to  have  studied  eleven  hours  in 
each  day,  and  before  the  work  was  sent  to  the  press,  the 
whole  MS.  had  been  written  five  times  with  his  own  hand. 
A  specimen  was  puhlished  in  1787,  containing  his  version 
of  the  epistles  to  tbeThessalonians;  and  in  1795  the  whole 
appeared  in  four  vols.  4to,  under  the  title  of  "  A  New  Li- 
teral Translation  from  the  original  Greek  of  all  the  Apos- 
tolical Epistles ;  with  a  commentary,  and  notes,  philoso- 
phical, critical,  explanatory,  and  practical,"- with  esjsays  on 
several  important  subjects,  and  a  life  of  the  apostle  Paul, 
which  includes  a  compendium  of  the  apostolical  history. 

\  Bfof«r.J)rama!ica.— Mfe,  by  Kirkman — and  C<wk«. 

MACKNIGHT.        t  67 


Having  finished  this  great1  work,  he  was  desirous  of  enjoy* 
ing  the  remainder  of  his  days  free  from  laborious  pursuits, 
and  refused,  though  earnestly  solicited,  to  undertake  a 
similar  work  with  regard  to  the  Acts  of  the  apostles.  In  a 
rery  short  time  after,  the  decline  of  his  faculties  became 
manifest,  and  about  the  close  of  1799  be  caught  a  violent 
cold,  the  forerunner  of  other  complaints  that  put  an  end 
to  his  life  in  January  1800. .  Having  early  acquired  a  taste 
for  classical  literature,  he  studied  the  writers  of  antiquity 
with  critical  skill,  and  was  well  acquainted  with  metaphy- 
sical, moral,  and  mathematical  science.  As  a  preacher, 
without  possessing  the  graces  of  elocution,  he  was  much 
admired  for  his  earnestness  of  manner,  which  rendered  his 
discourses  highly  interesting  and  useful.1 

MACLAINE  (Archibald),  a  pious  and  learned  clergy- 
man, and  for  fifty  years  minister  of  the  English  church  at 
the  Hague,  was  born  at  Monachan  in  Ireland,  in  1722, 
and  educated  at  Glasgow  under  the  celebrated  Mr.  Hutcbe- 
son,  for  the  presbyterian  ministry.  His  youth  was  spent 
in  Belfast,  where  he  was  long  remembered  with  delight 
by  a  numerous  circle  of  friends,  now  nearly  extinct.  About 
the  time  of  the  rebellion  in.  1745,  when  in  his  twenty- 
second  year,  he  was  invited  to  Holland,  and  succeeded 
his  venerable  uncle  Dr.  Milling,  as  pastor  of  the  English 
church  at  the  Hague,  and  remained  in  that  situation  until 
the  invasion  of  the  country  by  the  French,  io  179-4,  com- 
pelled him  to  take  refuge  in  England.  He  had  not  been 
here  long  when  an  only  sister,  whom  he  had  not  seen  for 
fifty  years,  joined  him>in  consequence  of  the  rebellion  in 
Ireland.  During  his  residence  at  the  Hague  he  was  known 
and  highly  respected  by  all  English  travellers,  and  not 
unfrequently  consulted,  on  account  of  his  extensive  eru- 
dition and  knowledge  of  political  history,  by  official  men 
of  the  highest  rank.  On  his  arrival  in  England  he  fixed  his 
residence  at  Bath,  as  affording  the  best  opportunities  of 
union  with  many  of  those  numerous  friends  he  had  known 
on  the  continent,  and  here  he  died,  Nov.  25,  1804,  aged 

During  this  long  course,  Dr.  Maclaine's  superior  endow- 
ments of  mind  and  heart,  his  genius,  learning,  and  indus- 
try, constantly  directed  by  a  love  of  virtue  and  truth,  by 
piety  and  charity,  diffused  a  beneficial  influence  over  the 

1  Life  by  bis  Son,  prefixed  to  the  "  Epistles." 

F  2 


whole  of  his  professional  and  domestic  sphere.  As  a  scho* 
lar,  a  gentleman,  and  a  divine,  uniformly  displaying  a 
judicious  taste,  an  amiable  deportment,  and  instructive 
example,  be  was  admired  and  loved  by  all  who  courted 
and  enjoyed  his  society ;  especially  those  of  whom  he  was 
a  distinguished  archetype  —  the  man  of  education,  the 
polished  companion,  the  benevolent  friend,  and  pious 

Dr.  Maclaine  published  in  1752  a  sermon  on  the  death 
of  the  prince  of  Orange.     In  1765  his  masterly  translation 
of  Mosheim's  Ecclesiastical  History  made  its  first  appear- 
ance, in  2  vols.  4to,  dedicated  to  William  Prince  of  Orange*. 
It  experienced  a  most  favourable  reception,  and  was  re- 
printed,  1758,  in  six  vols.  8vo,  in  which  form  it  has  had 
several  subsequent  editions,  particularly  one  published  in 
1811,  with  valuable  additions  by   Dr.  Coote,  the  editor; 
and  the  Rev.  Dr.  Gleig,  of  Stirling.     Few  publications, 
on  their  first  appearance,  having  been  more  generally  read 
than  Mr.  Soame  Jenyns's  '«  View  of  the  internal  Evidence 
of  the  Christian  Religion,"  Dr.  Maclaine  addressed  to  that 
gentleman  a  series  of  letters,  1777,  in  12 mo,  written  to 
serve  the  best  purposes  of  Christianity,  on  a  due  conside- 
ration of  the  distinguished  eminence  of  Mr.  Jenyns  as  a 
writer,  of  the  singular  mixture  of  piety,  wit,  error,  wis* 
dom,  and  paradox,  exhibited  in  his  publication,  and  of  his 
defence  of  Christianity  on  principles  which  would  lead 
men  to  enthusiasm  or;  to  scepticism,  according  to  their  dif- 
ferent dispositions.     His  only  publications  since  were  two 
fast  sermons,  1793   and  1797,  anti  a  volume  of  setmons 
preached  at  the  Hague.     He  was  interred  in  the  abbey 
church  of  Bath,  where  a  monument  has  been  since  erected 
to  his  memory  by  his  friend  Henry  Hope,  esq.  * 

MACLAURIN  (Colin),  an, eminent  mathematician  and 
philosopher,  was  the  son  of  a  clergyman,  and  born  at  Kil* 
modan,  near  Inverary,  in  Scotland,  Feb.  1698.  His  fa- 
mily was  originally  from  Tirey,  one  of  the  western  islands. 
He  was  sent  to  the  university  of  Glasgow  in  1709,  where 
he  continued  five  years,  and  applied  himself  to  study  in  t 
most  intense  manner,  particularly  to  the  mathematics.  His 
great  genius  for  this  science  discovered  itself  so  early  as  at 

•  For  this  work,  by  which  thousands  have  been  realized,  Dr.  Maclaine  re- 
ceived only  the  small  sum  of  130/. 

i  From  materials  obligingly  furnished  by  his  son,  a  merchant  in  Load**.?— 
Funeral  Sermon,  by  Dr.  Gardiner,  Bath,  1805,  8vo. 


twelve  years  of  age ;  when,  having  accidentally  met  with 
a  copy  of  Euclid* s  Elements  in  a  friend's  chamber,  he 
became  in  a  few  days  master  of  the  first  six  books  without 
any  assistance:  and  it  is„certai«,  that  in  his  sixteenth  year 
he  had  invented  many  of  the  propositions,  which  were 
afterwards  published  as  part  of  his  work  entitled  "  Geo- 
metria  Organica."     In  his  .fifteenth  year,  he  took  the  de- 
.  gree  of  master  of  arts ;  on  which  occasion  be  composed 
and  publicly  defended  a  thesis  "  On  the  power  of  gravity," 
with  great  applause.     After  this  he  quitted  the  university, 
and  retired  to  a  country-seat  of  bis  uncle,  who  had  the  care 
of  bis  education,  his  parents,  being  dead  some  time.     Here 
he  spent  two  or  three  years  in  pursuing  his  favourite  studies ; 
and  such  was  his  acknowledged  merit,  that  having  in  1717 
offered  himself  a  candidate  for  the  professorship  of  mathe- 
matics in  the  Marischal  college  of  Aberdeen,  he  obtained 
it  after  a  ten  days  trial  against  a  very  able  competitor.     In 
1719  he  went  to  London,  where  be  left  his  "  Geometria 
Organica"  in  the  press,  and  where  he  became  acquainted 
with  Dr.-Hoadly,  bishop  of  Bangor,  Dr.  Clarke,  sir  Isaac 
Newton,  and  other  eminent  men.    At  the  same  time  he  was 
admitted  a  member  of  the  royal  society ;  and  in  another 
journey  in  1721,  he  contracted  an  intimacy  with  Martin 
Folkes,  esq.  the  president  of  it,  which  lasted  to  his  death. 
In  1722,  lord  Polwartb,  plenipotentiary  of  the  king  of 
Great  Britain  at  the  congress  of  Cambray,  engaged  him  to 
go  as  tutor  and  companion  to  bis  eldest  son,  who  was  then 
to  set  out  on  bis  travels.     After  a  short  stay  at  Paris,  and 
visiting  other  cities  in*  France,  they  fixed  in  Lorrain  ;  where 
Madaurin  wrote   his  treatise   "On    the    percussion    of 
Bodies,"  which  gained  the  prize  of  the  royal  academy  of 
sciences,  for  1 724 ;  but  his  pupil  dying  soon  after  at  Mont- 
pelidr,  he  returned  immediately   to  bis  professorship  at 
Aberdeen.     He  was  hardly  settled  here  when  he  received 
an  invitation  to  Edinburgh ;  the  patrons  of  that  university 
being  desirous  that  he  should ,  supply  the  place  of  Mr. 
James  Gregory,  whose  great  age  and  infirmities  had  ren- 
dered him  incapable  of  teaching.     On  this  occasion  he  had 
some  difficulties  to  encounter,  arising  from  competitors, 
who  bad  great  interest  with  the  patrons  of  the  university, 
and  also  from  the  want  of  an  additional  fund  for  the  new 
professor;  all  which,  however,  at  length  were  surmounted, 
id  consequence  of  two  letters  from  sir  Isaac  Newton.     In 
one,  addressed,  to  himself,  with  allowance,  to  shew  it  to 


the  patrons  of  the  university,  sir  Isaac  expresses  himself 
thus:  "I  am  very  glad  to  hear  that  you:  have  a  prospect 
of  being  joined  to  Mr.  James  Gregory,  -in  the  professorship 
of  the  mathematics  at  Edinburgh,  not  only  because  you 
are  my  friend,  but  principally  because  of  your  abilities  ; 
you  being  acquainted  as  well  with  the  new  improvements, 
of  mathematics,  as  with  the  former  state  of  those  sciences. 
I  heartily  wish  you  good  success,  and  shall  be  very  glad  to 
hear  of  your  being  elected."  In  a  second  letter  to  the  lord 
provost  of  Edinburgh,  he  writes  thus  :  "  I  am  glad  to  un- 
derstand that  Mr.  Maclaurin  is  in  good  repute  amongst  you 
for  his  skill  in  mathematics,  for  I  think  he  deserves  it  very 
well ;  and  to  satisfy  you  that  I  do  not  flatter  him,  and  also 
to  encourage  him  to  accept  the  place  of  assisting  Mr. 
Gregory,  in  order  to  succeed  him,  I  am  ready,  if  you 
please  to  give  me  leaver  to  contribute  20/.  per  annum 
towards  a  provision  for  him,  till  Mr.  Gregory's  place  be- 
comes void,  if  I  live  so  long,  and  I  will  pay  it  to  his  order 
in  London." 

In  Nov.  1725,  he  was  introduced  into  the  university  at 
the  same  time  with  his  learned  colleague  and  intimate 
friend,  Dr.  Alexander  Monro,  professor  of  anatomy.  After 
this,  the  mathematical  classes  soon  became  very  numerous, 
there  being  generally  upwards  of  100  students  attending 
his  lectures  every  year.  These  being  of  different  standing 
and  proficiency,  he  was  obliged  to  divide  them  into  four 
or  five  classes,  in  each  of  which  he  employed  a  full  hour 
every  day,  from  the  first  of  Nov.  to  the  first  of  June.  In 
the  first  class  he  taught  the  first  sixjbooks  of  "  Euclid's 
Elements,'*  plain  trigonometry,  practical  geometry,  the 
elements  of  fortification,  and  an  introduction  to  algebra. 
The  second  studied  algebra,  the  11th  and  12th  books  of 
Euclid,  spherical  trigonometry,  conic  sections,  and  the 
general  principles  of  astronomy.  The  third  went  on  in 
astronomy  and  perspective,  read  a  part  of  sir  Isaac  New- 
ton's "  Frincipia,"  and  saw  a  course  of  experiments  for 
illustrating:  them  performed :  he  afterwards  read  and  de- 
monstrated  the  elements  of  fluxions.  Those  in  tmr fourth 
class  read  a  system  of  fluxions,  the  doctrine  of  chances, 
and  the  rest  of  NewXon's  "  Principia."  Besides  these  la- 
bours belonging  to  his  professorship,  he  had  frequently 
other  employments  and  avocations.  If  an  uncommon  ex- 
periment was  said  to  have  been  made  any  where,  the 
curious  were  desirous  of  having  it  repeated  by  him ;  and  if 


an  eclipse  or  comet  was  to  be  observed,  his  telescopes  were 
always  in  readiness. 

He  lived  a  bachelor  to  the  year  1733 ;  but  being  formed 
for  society,    as  well  as  contemplation,   he  then  married 
Anne,  the  daughter  of  Mr.  Walter  Stewart,  solicitor-gene- 
ral to  his  late  majesty  for  Scotland.     By  this  lady  be  had 
seven  children,  of  which,  two  sons  and  three  daughters, 
together  with  his  wife,  survived  him.     In  1734,  Berkeley, 
bishop  of  Cloyne,  published  a  piece  called  "  The  Ana- 
lyst ;"  in  which  be  took  occasion,  from  some  disputes  that 
had  arisen  concerning  the  grounds  of  the  fluxionary  me- 
thod, to  explode  the  method  itself,  and  also  to  charge 
mathematicians  in  general  with  infidelity  in  religion.   Mac- 
laurin  thought  hifmself  included  in  this  charge,  and  began 
an  answer  to  Berkeley's  book :  but,  as  he  proceeded,  so 
many  discoveries,  so  many  new  theories  and  problems  oc- 
curred to  him,  that,  instead  of  a  vindicatory  pamphlet,  it    ' 
increased  to  "  A  complete  system  of  Fluxions,  with  their 
application  to  the  most  considerable  problems  in  geome- 
try and  natural  philosophy.9'     This  work,  which  was  pub-^ 
lished  at  Edinburgh  in  1742,  2  vols*  4to,  cost  him  infinite 
pains,  and  will  do  him  immortal  honour,  being  indeed  the 
most  complete  treatise  on  that  science  that  has  yet  ap'- 
peared  *.     In  the  mean  time,  be  was  continually  gratifying 
the  public  with  6ome  performance  or  observation  of  his  own, 
many  of  which  were  published  in  the  fifth  and  sixth  vo- 
lumes of  the  "  Medical  Essays,"  at  Edinburgh.     Some  of 
them  appeared  likewise  in  "  The  Philosophical  Transac- 
tions;"   as  the  following:    1.  "Of  the  construction  and 
measure  of  Curves."     2.  "  A  new  method  of  describing  all 
kinds  of  Curves."     3.  "  A  letter  to  Martin  Folkes,  esq.  on 
Equations  with  impossible  Roots,  May  1726."     4.  "  Con- 
tinuation of  the  same,  March  1729."    5.  "  December  the 
21st,  1732,  On  the  description  of  Curves ;  with  an  account 
of  farther  improvements,   and  a  paper  dated  at  Nancy, 


*  Dr.  Thomson,  however*,  remarks  acknowledged    by  every  person  wbo 
that  hje  demonstrations  are  often  so  peruses  the  book,  that  all  the  ebjec- 
long    and  complicated,    and    require  tions  of  Dr.  Berkeley  against  the  doc- 
such  severe  attention  to  follow  them,  trine  of  fluxions  are  completely  refuted, 
that  he  believes  they  are  seldom  perused  and  whatever  doubts  the  most  captious 
by  the 'mathematicians  of  the  present  metaphysicians  may  think  proper  here- 
day,  who,   having  turned  almost  the  after  to  start  about  the  nature  of  infi- 
whole  of  their  attention  to  the  analyti-  nities,  the  mathematician  has  no  more 
cal  method,  are  not  so  capable  as  their  concern  with  them  than  with  the  famous, 
predecessors  of  following  long  synthe-  sophisms  about  space  and  motion, 
tieal  demonstrations.    But  it  will  be  Thomson's  Hist,  of  the  Royal  Society. 

«  M  A  C  L  A  U  R  I  N. 

JJor.  27,  1722."  6.  "  An  account  of  the  treatise  of  Flux- 
ions, Jan  27,  1742."  7.  "  The  same  continued,  March 
10,  1742  "  8.  "  A  Rule  for  finding  the  meridional  parts 
of  a  Spheroid  with,  the  same  exactness  as  of  a*  Sphere,  Aug. 
1741."  9.  "  Of  the  Basis  of  the  Cells  wherein  the  Bees  de- 
posit their  honey,  Nov.  3,   1734." 

'.  In  the  midst  of  these  studies  he  was  always  ready  to 
promote  any  scheme  which  might  contribute  to  the  service 
of  his  country.  When  the  earl  of  Morton  set  ctat,  in  1739, 
for  Orkney  and  Shetland,  to  visit  his  estates  there,  he  de- 
sired Mr.  Maclaurjn  to  assist  him  in  settling  the  geography 
of  those  countries,  which  is  very  erroneous  in  all  oar  maps, 
to  examine  their  natural  history,  to  survey  the  coasts,  and 
to  talfe  the  measure  of  a  degree  of  the  meridian.  Maclau- 
rin's  family  affairs,  and  other  connections,  however,  not 
allowing  of  his  absence,  he  drew  up  a  memorial  of  what 
he  thought  necessary  to  be  observed,  furnished  the  proper 
instruments,  and  recommended  Mr.  Short,  the  famous  op- 
tician, as  a  fit  operator  for  the  management  of  thefo;  He 
had  still  another  scheme  for  the  improvement  of  geography 
and  navigation,  of  a  more  extensive  nature;  which  was, 
the  opening  a  passage  from  Greenland  to  the  South  Sea 
by  the  North  pole;  That  such  a  passage  might  be  fouttd, 
he  was  so  fully  persuaded,  that  he  has  been  heard  to  say,  if 
his  situation  could  admit  of  such  adventures,  he  would  un- 
dertake  the  voyage,  even  at  his  own  charge.  But  when 
schemes  for  finding  it  were  laid  before  the  parliament  in 
1744,  and  himself  consulted  by  several  persons  of  high 
rank  concerning  them,  before  he  could  finish  the  memorial? 
Jie  proposed  to  send,  the  premium  was  limited  to  the 
discovery  of  a  North- West  passage  :  and  he  used  to  re- 
gret, that  the  word  West  was  inserted,  because  he  thought 
that  passage,  if  at  all  to  be  found,  must  lie  not  far  from 
the  pole. 

In  1745,  having  been  yery  active  in  fortifying  the  city 
of  Edinburgh  against  the  rebel  army,  he  was  obliged  to  fly 
to  the  north  of  England ;  where  he  was  invited  by  Her- 
ring, then  archbishop  of  York,  to  reside  with  him  during 
his  stay  in  this  country.  "  Here,"  says  he,  in  a  letter  to 
one  of  his  friends,  "  I  live  as  happy  as  a  man  can  do,  who 
is  ignorant  of  the  state  of  bis  family,  and  who  sees  the  ruin 
cif  his  country.'*  We  regret  to  add,  that  in  this  expedition 
being  exposed  to  cold  and  hardships,  and  naturally  of  a 
.weak  and  tender  constitution,  be  laid  the  foundation  of  a 

M  A  C  L  A  U  R  I  N.  7S 

dropsfcal  disorder,  which  pot  an  end  to  his  life  Jane  14, 
1746,  aged  48.  There  is  a  circumstance  recorded  of  him 
during  his  last  moments,  which  shows  that  he  was  the  in- 
quiring philosopher  to  the  last :  He  desired  his  friend  Dr. 
Monro  to  account  for  a  phenomenon  he  then  observed  in 
himself,  viz.  flashes  of  fire  seeming  to  dart  from  his  eyes, 
while  in  the  mean  time  his  sight  was  failing,  so  that  he  could 
scarcely  distinguish  one  object  from  another." 

BJr.  Maclaurin  is  said  to  have  been  a  very  good,  as  well 
as  a  very  great  man,  and  worthy  of  affection  as  well  as  ad- 
miration. His  peculiar  merit  as  a  philosopher  was,  that  all 
his  studies  were  accommodated  to  general  utility;  and  we 
find,  in  many  places  of  bis  works,  an  application  even  of 
the  most  abstruse  theories,  to  the  perfection  of  mechanical 
arts.  He  had  resolved,  for  the  same  purpose,  to  compose 
a  course  of  practical  mathematics,  .and  to  rescue  several 
useful  branches  of  the  science  from  the  bad  treatment  they 
often  meet  with  in  less  skilful  bands.  But  all  this  his  death 
prevented ;  unless,  we  should  reckon,  as  a  part  of  his  in- 
tended work,  the  translation  of  Dr.  David  Gregory's  "Prac- 
tical Geometry,9*  which  he  revised,  and  published  with 
additions,  1745.  He  had,  however,  frequent  opportuni- 
ties of  serving  his  friends  and  his  country  by  his  great  skill. 
Whatever  difficulty  occurred  concerning  the  constructing 
or  perfecting  of  machines,  the  working  of  mines,  the  im- 
proving of  manufactures,  the  conveying  of  water,  or  the 
execution  of  any  other  public  work,  he  was  at  band  to  re- 
solve it.  He  was  likewise  employed  to  terminate  some  dis- 
putes of  consequence  that  bad  arisen  at  Glasgow  concern- 
ing the  gauging  of  vessels;  and  for  that  purpose  presented 
to  the  commissioners  of  excise  two  elaborate  memorials, 
with  their  demonstrations,  containing  rules  by  which  the 
officers  now  act.  He  made  also  calculations  relating  to  the 
provision,  now  established  by  law,  for  the  children  and  wi- 
dows of  the  Scotch  clergy,  and  of  the  professors  in  the 
universities,  entitling  them  to  certain  annuities  and  sums, 
upon  the  voluntary  annual  payment  of  a  certain  sum  by 
the  incumbent.  In  contriving  and  adjusting  this  wise 
and  useful  scheme,  he  bestowed  a  great  deal  of  labour,  and 
contributed,  not  a  little,  towards  bringing  it  to  perfection. 

Among  his  works,  we  have  mentioned  his  "  Geometria 
Organica,"  in  which  he  treats  of  the  description  of  curve 
lines  by  continued  motion  :  and  that  which  gained  the 
prize  of  the  royal  academy  of  sciences  in  1724.     In  1740, 


he  likewise  shared  the  prize  of  the  same  academy,  with  the 
celebrated  Bernouilli  and  Euler,  for  resolving  the  motion 
of  the  tides  from  the  theory  of  gravity ;  a  question  which 
had  been  given  out  the  former  year,  without  receiving  any 
solution.     He  had  only  ten  days  for  composing  this  paper, 
and  could  not  find  leisure  to  transcribe  a  fair  copy  ;  so  that 
the  Paris  edition  of  it  is  incorrect.  He  afterwards  revised  the 
whole,  and  inserted  it  in  his  "Treatise  of  Fluxions,"  as  he 
did  also  the  substance  of  the  former  piece.     These,  with  the 
"  Treatise  of  Fhixions,"  and  the  pieces  printed  in  the  "Phi- 
losophical Transactions,"  of  which  we  have  given  a  fist,  are 
all  the  writings  which  he  lived  to  publish.     Since  his  death, 
two  volumes  more  have  appeared ;  his  "Algebra,"  and  his 
'*  Account  of  sir  Isaac  Newton's  Philosophical  discoveries.** 
His   "Algebra,"  though  not  finished  by  himself,  is  yet 
allowed  to  be  excellent  in  its  kind  ;  containing,  in  no  large 
volume,  a  complete  elementary  treatise  of  that  science,  as 
far  as  it  has  hitherto  been  carried ;  besides  some  neat  analy- 
tical papers  on  curve  lines.    His  "  Account  of  sir  Isaac  New- 
ton's Philosophy"  was  occasioned  by  the  following  circum- 
stances :  sir  Isaac  dying  in   the  beginning  of  1728,  his 
nephew,  Mr.  Conduitt,  proposed  to  publish  an  account  of 
his  life,  and  desired  Mr.  Maclaurin's  assistance.     The  lat- 
ter, out  of  gratitude  to   his  great  benefactor,  chearfully 
undertook,  and  soon  finished,  the  history  of  the  progress 
which  philosophy  had  made  before  sir  Isaac's  time:  and 
this  was  the  first  draught  of  the  work  in  hand,  which  not 
going  forward,  on  account  of  Mr.  Conduitt's  death,  was 
returned  to  Mr.  Maclaurin.     To  this  he  afterwards  made 
great  additions,  and  left  it  in  the  state  in  which  it  now  ap- 
pears.    His  main  design  seems  to  have  been,  to  ex  pram 
only  those  parts  of  sir  Isaac's  philosophy  which  have  been, 
and  still  are,  controverted :  and  this  is  supposed  to  be  the 
reason,  why  his  grand  discoveries  concerning  light  and 
colours  are  but  transiently  and  generally  touched.     For  it  is 
known,  that  ever  since  the  experiments  on  which  his  doc- 
trine of  light  and  colours  is  founded,  have  been  repeated 
with  due  care,  this  doctrine  had  not  been  contested ;  whereas 
his  theory  of  celestial  phenomena,  founded  on  gravitation, 
had  been  misunderstood,  and  even  ridiculed.     The  weak 
charge  of  introducing  occult  qualities  has  been  frequently 
repeated ;  foreign  professors  still  amuse  themselves  with 
imaginary  triumphs;  and  even  the  polite  and  ingenious 


cardinal  de  Polignac  has  been  seduced  to  lend  them  the 
harmony  of  his  numbers. 

To  the  last  mentioned  of  his  works  is  prefixed  "An  Ac- 
count of  the  Life  and  Writings  of  Mr.  Maclaurin  :"  from 
which  we  have  taken  the  substance  of  the  present  memoir.1 
MACLAURIN  (John,  Lord  Dreghorn),  son  of  the 
preceding,  was  born  at  Edinburgh  in   December   1734, 
and  educated  at  the  grammar-school   and   university  of 
Edinburgh.     Having  applied  to  the  study  of  the  law,  he 
was  admitted  a  member  of  the  faculty  of  advocates  at 
Edinburgh  in  1756.      In  1782,  a   royal  society  was  esta- 
blished in  Edinburgh,  of  which  Mr.  Maclaurin  was  one  of 
the  original  constituent  members,  and  at  an  early  period 
of  the  institution  he  read  an  essay  to  prove  that  Troy  was 
not  taken  by  the  Greeks.     In  1787  he  was  raised  from  the 
Scottish  bar,  at  which  he  had  practised  long  and  success- 
fully, to  the  bench,  by  the  title  of  lord  Dreghorn.     He 
died  in  1796.  .  As  an  author  we  have  "  An  Essay  on  Literary 
Property ;"    "  A  Collection  of  Criminal  Cases ;"    "  An 
Essay  on  *  Patronage ;"  and  some  poetical   pieces,    with 
three  dramas,  entitled  "Hampden,"   "The   Public,"  and 
"The  Philosopher's  Opera."     During  the  years  179&,  3, 
4,  and  5,  lord  Dreghorn  kept  a  journal,  or  diary,  in  which 
he  recorded  the  various  events  that  happened  in  Europe 
during  those  years.     From  this  journal  he  made  a  selection 
for  publication :  and  in  1799  a  selection  of  his  lordship's 
works  was  printed  in  tivo  vols.  Svo,  containing  most  of  the 
pieces  mentioned  above.     It  has,  however,  been  generally 
thought  that  these  added  very  little  to  his  reputation,  the 
character  of  his  poetry  being  that  of  mediocrity,  and  his 
prose  neither  very  lively  nor  profound,  though  he  occasion- 
ally exhibits  learning  and  acuteness,  and  always  an  ardent 
love  of  liberty."1 

MACPHEKSON  (James),  an  author  whose  fame  rests 
chiefly  on  his  being  the  editor  of  Ossian's  poems,  was  de- 
scended from  one  of  the  most  ancient  families  in  the  North 
of  Scotland,  being  cousin-german  to  the  chief  of  the  clan 
of  the  Macphersons,  who  deduce  their  origin  from  the  an- 
cient Catti  of  Germany.  His  father,  however,  was  a  farmer 
of  no  great  affluence.  He  was  born  in  the  parish  of  King* 
cusie,  Inverness-shire,  in  the  latter  end  of  1738,  and  re* 

1  Life  as  above. — Ty tier's  Life  of  Kames. — Biog.  Brit. 
*  Lift  prefixed  to  bis  Works. 


ceived  the  first  rudiments  of  bis  education  at  one  of  the 
parish  schools  in  the  district  called  Badenoch,  from  which, 
in  1752,  he  entered  King's  college,  Aberdeen,  where  he 
displayed ,  more  genius  than  learning,  entertaining  the 
society  of  which  he  was  a  member,  and  diverting  the 
younger  part  of  it  from  their  studies  by  his  humorous  and 
doggrel  rhimes.  About  two  months  after  his  .admission 
into  the  university,  the.King's  college  added  two  months 
totbe  length, of  its  amaual  session  or  term,  which  induced 
Macpherson,  with  nany  other  young  men,  to  remove  to 
Marisobal  college,  where  the  session  continued  short :  and 
this  circumstance  has  led  the  biographer,  from  whom  we 
borrow  it,  <o  .suppose  that  his  father  was  not  opulent. 
Soon  after  he  left  college,  or  perhaps  before,  he  was 
schoolmaster  of  Ruthven  or  Riven,  of  Badenoch,  and  after- 
wards is  said  to  have  delighted  as  little  as  his  antagonist 
Johnson,  in  the  recollection  of  that  period,  when  he  was 
compelled,  by  the  narrowness  of  his  fortune,  to  teach  boys 
in  an  obscure  school. 

It  was  here,  however,  about  1758,  that  he  published 
the  "  Highlander,9'  an  heroic  poem  in  six  cantos,  12mo. 
Of  this  poem,  which  has  not  fallen  in  our  way,  we  have 
seen  two  opinions,  the  one,  that  it  indicated  considerable 
genius  in  so  young  an  author  ;  the  other  that  it  is  a  tissue 
of  fustian,  and  absurdity,  feeble,  and  in  some  parts  ridicu- 
lous, and  shews  little  or  no  talent  in  the  art. of  versification. 
This  last  we  take  to  be  the  opinion  of  the  late  Isaac  Reed, 
who  had  a  copy  of  the  poem,  which  was  purchased  at  his 
sale, by:  George  Chalmers,  esq.  Mr.  Reed  adds,  that  in  a 
short  time  the  author  became  sensible  of  its  faults,  and 
-endeavoured  to  suppress  it.  About  the  same  time  he 
jwrote  an  "  Ode  on  the  arrival  of  the  Earl  Marischal  in 
Scotland,"  which  he  called  an  attempt  in  the  manner  of 
Pindar,  how  justly,  the  reader  may  determine,  as  it  was 
published  in  the  European  Magazine  for  1796. 

.  It  was  intended  that  he  should  enter  into  the  service  of 
(the  church,  but  whether  be  ever  took  orders  is  uncertain. 
Mr., Gray  speaks  of  him  as  a  young  clergyman ;  but  David 
Home  probably  more  truly  describes  him  as  "  a  modest 
-sensible  young  man,  not  settled  in  any  living,  but  em- 
ployed as  a  private  tutor  in  Mr.  Graham  of  Balgowan's 
family,  a  way  of  life  which  he  is  not  fond  of:"  This  was 
in  1760,  when  he  surprized  the  world  by  the  publication 
of  "  Fragments  of  Ancient  Poetry,  collected  in  the  High- 


lands  of  Scotland,  and  translated  from  the  Galic  or.  Erse 
language,"  8vo.  These  fragments,  which  were  declared 
to  be  genuine  remains  of  ancient  Scottish*  poetry,  at  their 
first  appearance  delighted  every  reader;  and  some:  very 
good  judges,  and  amongst  the  rest  Mr.  Gray,  werfe  ex- 
tremely warm  in  their  praises.  Macpberson  had  intended 
to  bury  them  in  a  Scotch  magazine,  but-  was  prevented 
from  so  injudicious  a  step  by  the  advice  of  his  friend,  Mr. 
Home,  the  auther  of  "  Douglas."  As  other  specimens 
were  said  to  be  recoverable,  a  subscription  was  set  on  foot 
to  enable  our  author  to  quit  the  family  he  was  theq  in,  and 
undertake  a  mission  into  the  Highlands,  to  secure  them. 
He  engaged  in  the  undertaking,  and  soon  after  produced 
the  works  whose  authenticity  has  since  occasioned  so  much 

In  1762  he  published  "  Fingal,  an  aucient  epic  poem, 
in  six  books,"  together  with  several  other  poems,  corn*- 
posed  by  'Ossian,  the  son  of  Fingal,  translated  from  the 
Galic  language,  4to.  The  subject  of  this  epic  poem  is  an 
invasion  of  Ireland  by  Swaran,  king  of  Lochlm.  CuchuU 
lin,  general  of  the  Irish  tribes  during  the  minority  of  Cor* 
mac  king  of  Ireland,  upon  intelligence  of  the  invasion, 
assembled  his  forces  near  Tura,  a  castle  on  the  coast  of 
Ulster.  The  poem  opens  with  the  landing  of  Swmran; 
councils  are  held,  battles  fought,  and  Cuebullin  is  at  last 
totally  defeated.  In  the  mean  time  Fingal,  king  of  the 
Highlands  of  Scotland,  whose  aid  had  been  solicited  before 
the  enemy  landed,  arrived,  and  expelled  them  from  the 
country.  This  war,  which  continued  but  six  days  and  as 
many  nights,  is,  including  the  episodes,  the  story  of  the 
poem:  the  scene,  the  heath  of  Lena,  near  a  mountain 
called  Cromleach  in  Ulster.  This  poem  also  was  received 
with  equal  applause  as  the  preceding  fragments. 

The  next  year  he  produced  "  Temora,"  an  ancient  epic 
poem,  in  eight  books :  together  with  several  other  poems 
composed  by  Ossian,  son  of  Fingal,  4to,  which,  though 
well  received,  found  the  public  somewhat  less  disposed  to 
bestow  the  same  measure  of  applause.  Though  these 
poems  had  been  examined  by  Dr.  Blair  and  others,  and 
tbeir  authenticity  asserted,  there  were  not  wanting  some  of 
equal  reputation  for  critical  abilities,  who  either  doubted 
or  declared  their  disbelief  of  the  genuineness  of  them. 
After  their  publication,  by  which  he  is  said  to  have  gained 
twelve  hundred  pounds,   Mr.  Macpberson  was  called  to 



an  employment  which  withdrew  him  for  some  time  from 
the  muses  and  his  country.  In  1764,  governor  Johns tpne 
was  appointed  chief  of  Pensacola,  and  Mr.  Macpherson 
accompanied  him  as  his  secretary;  but  some  difference 
having  arisen  between  them,  they  parted  before  their  re- 
turn to  England.  Having  contributed  his  aid  to  the  set- 
tlement of  the  civil  government  of  that  colony,  he  visited 
several  of  the  West- India  islands,  and  some  of  the  pro- 
vinces of  North  America,  and  returned  to  England  in  1766. 

He  now  resumed  bis  studies,  and  in  1771  produced 
"  An  Introduction  to  the  History  of  Great  Britain  and  Ire- 
land," 4to,  a  work  which,  be  says,  "  without  any  of  the 
ordinary  incitements  to  literary  labour,  he  was  induced  to 
proceed  in  by  the  sole  motive  of  private  amusement.19 
This  work  is  not  inelegantly  written,  but  his  hypotheses  on 
Celtic  origin  brought  upon  him  the  resentment  of  some 
critics,  who  preserved,  very  little  decency  on  a  subject  that 
might  certainly  have  been  discussed  in  an  amicable  man- 
ner. His  next  performance  was  more  justly  entitled  to 
contempt,  as  it  showed  him  to  be  utterly  destitute  of  taste, 
and  consequently  produced  him  neither  reputation  nor 
profit.  This  was  "  The  Iliad  of  Homer"  translated,  in  two 
volumes  4to,  1773,  a  work  fraught  with  vanity  and  self- 
consequence,  and  which  met  with  the  most  mortifying  re- 
ception from  the  public.  It  was  condemned  by  the  critics, 
ridiculed  by  the  wits,  and  neglected  by  the  world.  Some 
of  his  friends,  and  particularly  sir  John  Elliott,  endea- 
voured to  rescue  it  from  contempt,  and  force  it  into  notice, 
but  their  success  was  not  equal  to  their  efforts.  After  a 
very  acute,  learned,  and  witty  critique,  inserted  in  the 
Critical  Review,  the  new  translation  was  confessed  to 
possess  no  merit,  and  ever  since  has  been  consigned  to 

About  this  time  seems  to  be  the  period  of  Mr.  Macpher- 
son's  literary  mortifications.  In.  1773,  Dr.  Johnson  and 
Mr.  Boswell  made  the  tour  to  the  Hebrides;  and  in  the 
course  of  it,  the  former  took  some  pains  to  examine  into 
the  proofs  of  the  authenticity  of  Ossian.  The  result  of  his 
inquiries  he  gave  to  the  public  in  1775,  in  his  narrative  of 
the  tour,  and  his  opinion  was  unfavourable.  "  I  believe 
they  (i.  e.  the  poems,  says  he)  never  existed  in  any  other 
form  than  that  which  we  have  seen.  The  editor  or  author 
never  could  shew  the  original ;  nor  can  it  be  shewn  by  any 
other.     To  revenge    reasonable  incredulity  by  refusing 


evidence  is  a  degree  of  insolence  with  which  the  world  is 
not  yet  acquainted ;  and  stubborn  audacity  is  the  last  re- 
fuge of  guilt.     It  would  be  easy  to  shew  it  if  he  'had  it ; 
but  whence  could  it  be  had  ?     It  is  too  long  to  be  remem- 
bered, and  the  language  had  formerly  nothing  written.  He 
has  doubtless  inserted   names  that  circulate  in  popular 
stories,  and  may  have  translated  some  wandering  ballads, ' 
if  any  can  be  found ;  and  the  names  and  some  of  the 
images   being  recollected,    make    an  inaccurate   auditor 
imagine,  by  the  help  of  Caledonian  bigotry,  that  he  has 
formerly  heard  the  whole."     Again,  "  I  have  yet  supposed 
no  imposture  but  in  the  publisher,  yet  1  am  far  from  cer- 
tainty, that  some  translations  have  not  been  lately  made, 
that  may  now  be  obtruded  as  parts  of  the  original  work. 
Credulity  on  one  part  is  a  strong  temptation  to  deceit  on 
the  other,  especially  to  deceit  of  which  no  personal  injury 
is  the  consequence,  and  which  flatters  the  author  with  his 
own  ingenuity.     The  Scots  have  something  to  plead  for 
their  easy  reception  of  an  improbable  fiction :  they  are 
seduced  by  their  fondness  for  their  supposed  ancestors.    A 
Scotchman  must  be  a  sturdy  moralist  who  does  not  love 
Scotland  better  than  truth ;  he  will  always  love  it  better 
than  inquiry,  and,  if  falsehood  flatters  his  vanity,  will  not 
be  very  diligent  to  detect  it     Neither  ought  the  English 
to  be  much  influenced  by  Scotch  authority  ;  for  of  the 
past  and  present  state  of  the  whole  Erse  nation,  the  Low* 
landers  are  at  least  as  ignorant  as  ourselves.     To  be  igno- 
rant is  painful ;  but  it  is  dangerous  to  quiet  our  uneasiness 
by  the  delusive  opiate  of  hasty  persuasion." 

The  opinions  above  declared  by  Dr.  Johnson  incensed 
our  author  so  much,  that  he  was  prompted  by  his  evil 
genius  to  send  a  menaeing  letter  to  his  antagonist,  which 
produced  the  most  severe,  spirited,  and  sarcastic  reply 
ever  written  *. 

•  "  Mr.  James  M acpherson,  I  re-  opinion  I  have  given  my  reasons  to  the 

ceived  your  foolish  and  impudent  let-  public,  which  I  here  dare  you  to  re- 

ter.    Any  violenee  offered  to  me,  I  fate.    Your  rage  I  defy.    Your  abili- 

shall  do  my  best  .to  repel ;  and  what  I  ties,  since  your  Homer,    are  npt  so 

cannot  do  for  myself,  the  law  shall  do  formidable;  and  what  I  hear  of  your 

for  me.     I  hope  I  shall  never  be  de-  morals,  inclines  me  to  pay  regard  not 

terred  from  detecting  what  1  think  a  to  what  you  shall  say,  but  to  wbat  you 

cheat,  by  the  menaces  of  a  ruffian.  shall  prove.     You  may  print  this  if 

"  What  would  you  have  me  retract  ?  you  will.    S.  J." 
1  thought  your  book  an  impostor*  ;  I  lit*  we)i'*  Lfe  of  Johnson. 

think  it  an  imposture  still.    For  this 

80  MACPrlERSOtt 

Whether  his  warmth  abated,  or  whether  he  had  beeft 
made  sensible  of  his  folly  by  the  interposition  of  friends, 
we  know  not ;  but  certain  it  is,  we  hear  no  more  after* 
wards  of  this  ridiculous  affair,  except  that  our  author  is 
supposed  to  have  assisted  Mr.  Mac  Nictalki  an  Answer  to 
Dr.  Johnson's  Tour,  printed  in  1779.  Tnis  supposition, 
says  one  of  his  biographers,  we  are  inclined  to  consider  as 
well  founded,  because  we  have  been  told  by  a  gentleman  of 
veracity,  that  Mr;  Mac  Nicol  affirms,  that  the  scurrility  of 
bis  book,  which  constitutes  a  great  part, of  it,  was  inserted* 
unknown  to  bi«v  after  the  manuscript  was  sent  for  publi* 
cation  to  London. 

In  1775  Mr;  Macpherson  published  "The  History  of 
Great  Britain,  from  the  restoration  to  the  accession  of 
the  House  of  Hanover,"  in  2  vols.  4to,  a  work  which  has 
been  decried  with  much  clamour,  but  without  much  argu- 
ment or  proof;  The  author  may  perhaps  Jiave  been  in* 
fluenced  by  his  prejudices  in  favour  of  the  tory  party;  but 
he  certainly  acted  with  great  fairness,  as  along  with  it  he 
published  the  proofs  upon  which  bis  facts. were  founded, 
in  two  quarto  volumes,  entitled  "  Original  Papers,  con* 
taining  the  secret  History  of  Great  Britain,  from  the  resto- 
ration to  the  accession  of  the  House  of  Hanover.  To  which 
are  prefixed,  extracts  from  the  life  of  James  II.  as  written 
by  himself."  These  papers  were  chiefly  collected  by  Mr. 
Carte,  but  are  not  of  equal  authority.  They,  however, 
clear  up  many  obscurities,  and  set  the  characters  of  many 
persons  in  past  times  in  a  different  light  from  that  in  which 
they  have  been  usually  viewed. 

Soon  after  this  period,  the  tide  of  fortune  flowed  very 
rapidly  in  Mr.  Macpherson V  favour,  and  his  talents  and 
industry  were  amply  sufficient  to  avail  himself  of  every 
favourable  circumstance  which  arose.  The  resistance  of 
the  Colonies  called  for  the  aid  of  a  ready  writer  to  com- 
bat the  arguments  of  the  Americans,  and  to  give  force  t<* 
the  reasons  which  influenced  the  conductof  government, 
and  he  was  selected  for  the  purpose.  Among  other  things 
he  wrote  a  pamphlet,  which  was  circulated  with  much 
industry,  entitled  "  The  Rights  of  Great  Britain,  asserted 
against  the  Claims  of  the  Colonies;  being  an  answer  to 

'  the  declaration  of  the  general  congress,"  1776,  8vo,  arid  of 
which  ntany  editions  were  published.  He  also  was  the 
author  of  "  A  short  History  of  the  Opposition  during  the 

last  session  of  parliament,"  1779,  8 vo,  a  pamphlet,  which, 


on  account  of  its  merit,  was  by  many  ascribed  to  Mr* 


But  a  more  lucrative  employment  was  conferred  on  hhn 
about  this  time*  He  was  appointed  agent  to  the  nabob  of 
Arcot,  and  in  that  capacity  exerted  bis  talents  in  several 
appeals  to  the  public  in  behalf  of  his  client.  Among  others 
he  published  "  Letters  from  Mahommed  Ali  Chan,  nabob 
frf  Arcot,  to  the  Court  of  Directors.  To  which  is  annexed, 
a  state  of  facts  relative  to  Tanjore,  with  an  appendix  of  ori- 
ginal papers/'  1777,  4 to  ;  and  he  was  supposed  to  be  the 
author  of  "  The  History  and  Management  of  the  East 
India  Company,  from  its  origin  in  1600  to  the  present 
times,  vol.  I.  containing  the  affairs  of  the  Carnatic ;  in 
which  the  rights  of  the  nabob  are  explained,  and  the  injus- 
tice ojf  the  company  proved,"   1779,  4to. 

In  his  capacity  of  agent  to  the  nabob,  it  was  probably 
thought  requisite  that  he  should  have  a  seat  in  the  British 
parliament.  He  was  accordingly  in  17  80  chosen  member 
for  Camelford,  but  we  do  not  recollect  that  he  ever  at- 
tempted to  speak  in  the  house.  He  was  also  re-cbosen  in 
1784  and  1790.  He  had  purchased,  before  this  last  men- 
tioned year,  an  estate  in  the  parish  in  which  he  was  born ; 
and  changing  its  name  from  Rets  to  Belville,  built  on  it  a 
large  and  elegant  mansion,  commanding  a  very  romantic 
and  picturesque  view;  and  thither  he  retired  when  his 
health  began  to  fail,  in  expectation  of  receiving  benefit 
from  the  change  of  air.  He  continued,  however,  to  de-» 
cline;  and  after  lingering  some  time,  died  at  bis  seat  at 
Belville,  in  Inverness,  Feb.  17,  1796. 

In  Mrs.  Grant's  "  Letters  from  the  Mountains"  we  have 
some  affecting  particulars  of  bis  death.  u  Finding  some, 
inward  symptoms  of  his  approaching  dissolution,  he  sent 
for  a.  consultation,  the  result  of  which  arrived  the  day  after 
bis  confinement  Be  was  perfectly  sensible  and  collected, 
yet  refused  to  take  any  thing  prescribed  to  him  to  the  last, 
and.  that  on  this  principle,  that  bis4ime  was  come,  audit 
did  not  aiqul  He  felt  the  approaches  of  death,  and  hoped 
no  relief/ from  medicine,  though  bis  life  was  not  such  aa-s 
owe  should  like  to  look  back  on  at  that  awful  period.  H 
Indeed,  whose  is  ?  It  pleased  the  Almighty  to  render  bis' 
last  scene  most  affecting  and  exemplary.  He  died  last 
Tuesday  evening;  and  from  the  minute  he  was  confined 
tilla  very  little  before  he  expired,  never  ceased  imploring 
the  divine  mercy  in  the  most  earnest  and  pathetic  manner. 
Vol.  XXI.  G 


People  about  him  were  overawed  and  melted  by  the  fervour 
and  bitterness  of  his  penitence.  He  frequently  and 
earnestly  entreated  the  prayers  of  good  serious  people  of 
the  lower  class  who  were  admitted.  He  was  a  very  good- 
natured  man  ;  and  now  that  he  had  got  all  his  schemes  of 
interest  and  ambition  fulfilled,  he  seemed  ta  reflect  and 
grow  domestic,  and  shewed  of  late  a  great  inclination  to 
be  an  indulgent  landlord,  and  very  liberal  to  the  poor,  of 
which  I  could  relate  various  instances,  more  tender  and 
interesting  than  flashy  or  ostentatious.  His  heart  -  and 
temper  were  originally  good.  His  religious  principles 
were,  I  fear,  unfixed  and  fluctuating;  but  the  primary 
cause  that  so  much  genius,  taste,  benevolence,  and  pros- 
perity, did  not  produce  or  diffuse  more  happiness,  was  his 
living  a  stranger  to  the  comforts  of  domestic  life,  from 
which  unhappy  connexions  excluded  him,  &c." 

He  appears  to  have  died  in  very  opulent  circumstances, 
and  by  his  will,  dated  June  1793,  gave  various  annuities 
and  legacies  to  several  persons  to  a  great  amount.  He 
also  bequeathed  1000/.  to  Mr.  John  Mackensie,  of  Figtree 
court,  in  the  Temple,  to  defray  the  expence  of  printing 
and  publishing  Ossian  in  the  original.  He  directed  300/. 
to  be  laid  out  iu.  electing  a  monument  to  his.  memory,  in 
some  conspicuous  situation  at  Belville,  and  ordered  that 
his  body  should  be  carried  from  Scotland,  and  interred  in 
the  Abbey-church  of  Westminster,  the  city  in  which  he 
had  passed  the  greatest  and  best  part  of  his  life.  He  was 
accordingly  brought  from  the  place  where  he  died,  and 
-  buried  in  the  Poets-corner  of  the  church. 

On  the  subject  of  that  dispute  to  which  Mr.  Macpherson 
gave  rise,  and  which  is  not  yet,  and  probably  never  will 
be,  finally  adjusted,  it  is  not  our  purpose  to  enter.  rthe 
general  opinion,  however,-  we  may  just  mention,  is  un- 
favourable to  his  veracity ;  but  Mr.  Laing's  dissertation, 
which  has  greatly  contributed  to  this  effect,  when  com- 
pared with  the  "  Report  of  the  Highland  Society,"  will 
afford  the  reader  as  much  light  as  has  yet  been  thrown 
upotf  the  question. l 

MACQ.UER  (Philip),  a  French  lawyer,  chiefly  cele- 
brated for  his  chronological  abridgments  after  the  manner 


}  European  Magazine  for  1 796  — Report  of  the  Highland  Society.— -rLaingfe 
Hist6ry  of  Scotland,  and  his  edition  of  Ossian.— Fofbes's  Life   of'Beattie.— 
.  Warburton's  Letters,  p.  244,  346,  246.— Sheffield's  Life  pf  Gibbon,  vol*  I.  p. 
544.— Pr*  Gleig?f  Supplement  to  the  Bocyci.  Bntannica. , .     , . 


of  Henault,  was  born  at  Paris,  Feb.  15,  1720,  and  edu- 
cated at  the  university  of  that  city.  Here  he  gave  the  most 
promising  hopes  of  success  in  any  of  the  learned  profes- 
sions, and  had  in  particular  attached  himself  to  the  law ; 
but  weak  lungs  preventing  him  from  entering  into  the 
active  occupations  of  a  pleader,-  he  devoted  himself  to  ge- 
neral literature,  and  produced   the  following  works  :   1. 
"  Abr£gg   Chronoiogique   de    THistoire  Ecclesiastique," 
a  chronological  abridgment  of  Ecclesiastical  History,  in 
three  volumes,  octavo,  written  more  drily  and  less  ele- 
gantly than  that  of  Henault,  whom  the  author  followed. 
2.  "  Lea  Annales  Romaines,"  1756,  one  volume  octavo,  in 
which  the  author  has  taken  advantage  of  the  most  valuable 
remarks  of  St.  Evremond,  the  abbe  St.  R£al,  Montesquieu, 
Mably,  and  several  others,  respecting  the  Romans;  and 
the  work  is  consequently  not  so  dry  as  the  former.     In 
style,  however,  he  is  still  inferior  to  his  model.     Of  this 
we  have  an  English  translation  by  Nugent,  1759,  8vo.    3. 
"Abr6g6  Chronoiogique  de  PHistoire  d'Espagne  et  de 
Portugal,"  2  vols.  8vo,    1759—1765.     This  work,  which 
was  actually  begun  by  Henault,  is  worthy  of  him  in  point 
of  exactness;  but  neither  affords  such  striking  portraits, 
nor  such  profound  remarks.     Lacomb^^nother  author 
celebrated  for  this  kind  of  compilation,  assisted  also  in  this. 
Macquer  bad  some  share  in  writing  the  "  Dictionaire  des 
Arts  et  Metiers,"  2  vols.  8vo.     He  was  industrious,  gentle, 
modest,  sincere,  and  a  decided  enemy  to  all  quackery  and 
ostentation.     He  had  little  imagination,  but  a  sound  judg- 
ment ;  and  had  collected  a  great  abundance  and  variety  of 
useful  knowledge.     He  died  the  27th  of  January,  1770. ' 

MACQUER  (Joseph),  brother  to  the  preceding,  an 
eminent  physician  and  chemist,  was  born  at  Paris,  Oct.  9, 
17J8,  and  became  a  doctor  of  the  faculty  of  medicine  in 
the  university  of  that  metropolis,  professor  of  pharmacy, 
and  censor-royal.  He  was,  likewise,  a  member  of  the 
academies  of  sciences  of  Turin,  Stockholm,  and  Paris,  and 
conducted  the  medical  and  chemical  departments  of  the 
Journal  des  Sgavans.  He  bad  the  merit  of  pursuing  che- 
mistry as  a  department  of  natural  philosophy,  and  was 
one  of  the  most  successful  cultivators  of  the  science,  uptm 
rational  principles,  previous  to  the  new  modelling  which  it 
has  received  within  the  last  twenty-five  years*     He  died 

1  Necrelogie  des  Homme*  CelebreS)  ann6e  1771.— Diet  H&L 

G  2 


Feb.  15,  1784,  after  having  suffered  much  by  an  internal 
complaint,  which  appeared  beyond  the  reach  of  skilL  On 
this  aecount  he  desired  that  bis  body  might  be  opened, 
when  it  was  discovered  that  hfc  disorder  was  an  ossification 
of  the  aorta,  with  strong  concretions  formed  in  the  cavity 
of  the  heart.  Mr.  Macquer's  private  character  appears  to 
have  been  truly  amiable  in  every  relation,  and  few  men 
were  more  respected  by  his  contemporaries.  He  published, 

1.  "  Elemens  de  Chymie  Theorique,"  1749 — 1753,  12mo. 

2.  "  Elemens  de  Chymie  Pratique,"  2  vols.  12mo.  3.  "  Plan 
d'un  Cours  de  Chymie  experimentale  et  raisonn£e,"  1757, 

- 12 mo.  This  was  composed  in  conjunction  with  M.  Baum£, 
who  was  associated  with  him  in  his  lectures.  4.  '*  Die- 
tionnaire  de  Chymie,"  1766,  2  vols.  8vo.  These  works 
have  all  been  translated  into  English  and  German ;  the 
Dictionary  particularly,  by  Mr.  Keir,  with  great  additions 
and  improvements.  5.  "  Formulae  Medicamentorum  Ma- 
gistral ium,"  1763  ;  and  he  had  also  a  share  in  the  compo- 
position  of  the  "  Pharmacopeia  Parisiensis,"  of  1758.  * 

MACRINUS  (Salmoneus),  was  a  name  assumed  by  a 
modern  poet,  whose  true  name  was  John  Salmon ;  or,  as 
some  say,  given  to  him  on  account  of  his  excessive  thinness, 
from  the  LatuygQjective  macer.  It  became,  however,  the 
current  appellation  of  him&elf  and  Charles,  his  brother, 
who  was  also  a  writer  of  some  celebrity,  preceptor  to  Ca- 
therine of  Navarre,  sister  of  Henry  IV,  and  who  perished 
in  the  massacre  of  St.  Bartholomew.  Some  have  called 
Macrinus  the  French  Horace,  on  account  of  his  talents  for 
poetry,  particularly  the  lyric  kind.  He  was  born  at  Lou- 
don, where  he  died  in  1557,  at  an  advanced  age.  He 
wrote  hymns,  naeniae,  and  other  works,  which  appeared . 
from  1522  to  1550 :  and  was  onejof  those  who  principally 
contributed  to  restore  the  taste  for  Latin  poetry.  Van  1  has 
relates  a  story  of  his  drowning  himself  in  a  well,  in  despair, ' 
on  being  suspected  of  Lutheranism.  Bikt  this,  like  ihost 
anecdotes  of  the  same  writer,  is  a  matter  of  invention  rather 
than  fact.  * 

MACROBIUS  (Ambrosius  AureuusTheodosiits),  was 
an  ancient  Latin  writer,  who  flourished  towards  the  latter 
part  of  the  fourth  century.  What  countryman  he  was,  is 
not  clear :  Erasmus,  in  his  Ciceronianus,  seems  to  think  hfe 

,  *  Eloges  des  Academfciens,  vol.  IV. — Rees's  Cyclopaedia  from  £ioy» 
5  Gen,  Diet.— Moreri.— Diet.  Hist. 


was  a  Greek ;  and  he  himself  tells  us,  in  the  preface  to  his 

'*  Saturnalia,"  that  be  was  not  a  Roman,  but  laboured  under 

the  inconveniences  of  writing  in  a  language  which  was  not 

.native  to  him.     Of  what  religion  he  was,  Christian  or  pa- 

?an,  is  also  uncertain.  Barthius  ranks  him  among  the 
Christians ;  but  Spanheim  and  Fabricius  suppose  him  to 
have  been  a  heathen.  It  seems,  however,  agreed  that  he 
was  a  man  of  consular  dignity,  and  on£  of  the  chamber* 
lains,  or  masters  of  the  wardrobe  to  Theodosius ;  as  appears 
from  a  rescript  directed  to  Florentius,  concerning  those 
who  were  to  obtain  that  office.  He  wrote  "  A  Commentary 
upon  Cicero's  Somnium  Scipionis,"  full  of  Platonic  notions, 
and  seven  books  of  "  Saturnalia  ;"  which  resemble  in  plan 
the  "  Noctes  Atticae"  of  Aulus  Gellius.  He  termed  them 
"  Saturnalia,"  because,  during  the  vacation  observed  on 
these  feasts  of  Saturn,  he  collected  the  principal  literati  of 
Rome,  in  his  house,  and  conversed  with  them  on  all  kinds 
of  subjects,  and  afterwards  set  down  what  appeared  to  him 
most  interesting  in  their  discourses.  His  Latinity  is  far 
from  being  pure,  but  as  a  collector  of  facts,  opinions,  and 
criticism,  his  works  are  valuable.  The  "  Somnium  Sci- 
pipnis,"  and  "Saturnalia,"  have  been  often  printed;  to 
which  has  been  added,  in  the  later  editions,  a  piece  en- 
titled "  De  differentiis  &  societatibus  Crfaeci  Latinique 
verbi."  The  best  editions  are  those  of  the  Variorum ;  of 
Gronovius  in  1670,  and  Leipsic  in  1777.  There  is  a  spe- 
cimen ef  an  English  translation  of  the  "  Saturnalia"  in  the 
Gent.  Mag.  for  1760,  but  it  does  not  appear  to  have  been 

MA  DAN  (Martin),  a  celebrated  preacher  and  writer, 
was  the  son  of  Martin  Madan,  esq.  of  Hertingfordbury  near 
Hertford,  member  of  parliament  for  Wootton  Basset,  and 
groom  of  the  bedchamber  to  Frederick  prince  of  Wales. 
His  mother  was  daughter  of  Spencer  Cowper,  esq.  and 
niece  of  the  lord  chancellor  Cowper,  an  accomplished 
lady,  and  author  of  several  poems  of  considerable  merit* 
He  was  born  in  1726,  and  was  bred  originally  to  the  law, 
and  had  been  called  to  the  bar;  but  being  fond  of  die 
study  of  theology,  well  versed  in  Hebrew,  and  becoming  in- 
timate with  Mr,  Jones  and  Mr.  Romaine,  two  clergymen  of 
great  popularity  at  that  time,  by  their  advice  he  left  th^ 
law  for  the  pulpit,  and  was  admitted  into  orders.  His  first 
sermon  is  said  to  have  been  preached  in  the  church  of  All- 

*  Care,  vol.  I.— Moreri.— Sa*ii  Oaomast. — Clarke's  Bibliogr.  Diet.  , 

66  MADAN. 

hallows,  Lombard -street,  and  to  have  attracted  immediate 
attention  and  applause.  Being  appointed  chaplain  to  the 
Lock-hospital,  his  zeal  led  him  to  attend  diligently,  and 
to  preach  to  the  unfortunate  patients  assembled  in  the  par- 
lour :  his  fame  also  brought  many  others  thither,  till  the 
rooms  and  avenues  were  crowded.  This  led  to  a  proposal 
for  &  chapel,  which  was  finished  in  1761,  and  opened  with 
a  sermon  from  the  chaplain.  He  subjected  himself  to  much 
obloquy,  abbut  the  year  1767,  by  the  advice  he  gave  to  his 
friend  Mr.  Havveis,  to  retain  the  rectory  of  Aldwincle,  and 
several  pamphlets  were  written  on  the  subject;  but  lord 
Apsley  (afterwards  Bathurst)  did  not  seem  to  consider  the 
affair  in  an  unfavourable  light,  as  he  afterwards  appointed 
him  his  chaplain.  Mr.  Madan  became  an  author  in  1761, 
when  he  published,  1.  *'  A  sermon  on  Justification  by 
Works.9'  2.  "A  small  treatise  on  the  Christian  Faith/'  1761 , 
12mo.  3.  "  Sermon  at  the  opening  of  the  Lock  Hospital, 
1762.'*  4.  «  Answer  to  the  capital  errors  of  W.  Law,"  1 7  63, 
6vo.  5.  "  Answer  to  the  narrative  of  facts  respecting  the 
rectory  of  Aldwinckle,"  1767,  8vo.  6.  "  A  comment  on  the 
Thirty-nine  Articles,"  1772,8vo.  7."Thelyphthora,"  1780» 
2  vols.  £vo.  In  this  book  the  aijthor  justifies  polygamy, 
upon  the  notion  that  the  first  cohabitation  with  a  woman  is 
a  virtual  marriage ;  and  supports  his  doctrine  by  many 
acute  arguments.  The  intention  of  the  work  was  to  lessen, 
or  remove  the  causes  of  seduction ;  but  it  met  with  much 
opposition,  many  very  severe  animadversions,  and  cost  the 
author  his  reputation  among  the  religious  world.  He, 
however,  was  not  discouraged;  and  in  1781,  published  a 
third  volume,  after  which  the  work  sunk  into  oblivion,  a 
fate  to  which  the  masterly  criticism  on  it  in  the  Monthly 
Review,  by  the  rev.  Mr.  Bad  cock,  very  greatly  contributed* 
It  is  somewhat  remarkable  that  Mrs.  Manley  in  the  "  Ata- 
lantis"  speaks  of  lord  chancellor  Cowper,  as  maintaining 
the  same  tenets  on  polygamy.  Mr.  Madan  next  produced; 
8.  "  Letters  to  Dr.  Priestley,"  1787,  l£mo.  9.  A  literal 
version  of  "  Juvenal  and  Persius,"  with  notes,  1789*  2 
vols.  Svo  :  and  some  controversial  tracts  on  the  subject  of 
his  Theiyphthora.  Mr.  Madan  died  at  Epsom  in  May, 
1790,  at  the  "age  of  64,  after  a  short  illness,  and  was 
buried  at  Kensington.  The  late  Or.  Spencer  Madan,  bi- 
shop of  Peterborough,  was  brother  to  our  author.1 

1  Preceding  edit,  of  this  Diet.— Lysons's  Environs,  vol.  HI.— Month.  Rer. 

MADDEN.  *1 

MADDEN  (Samuel),  D.  D.  ("  a  name,"  saya  Dr.  Jdkn~ 
son,  "  which  Ireland  ought  to  honour,")  was  born  in  1687, 
and  received  his  education,  at  Dublin.  He  appears,  how- 
ever, to  have  been  in  England  in  1729;  and  having. writ- 
ten a  tragedy  called  "  Themistocles,  or  the.  Lover  of  his 
country,"  was,  as  he  himself  says,  tempted  to. let  it  appear, 
by  the  offer  of  a  noble  study  of  books  from  the  profits  of  it. 
In  172*  1,  he  projected  a  scheme  for  promoting  learning  in 
the  college  of  Dublin  by  premiums,  at  the  quarterly  ex-> 
animations,  which  has  proved  highly  beneficial.  .  In  1732, 
he  published  his  "  Memoirs  of  the  Twentieth  Century ; 
being  original  Letters  of  State  under  George  the  Sixth, 
relating  to, the  most,  important  events  in  Great- Britain, 
apd  Europe,  as  to  church  and  state,  arts-  and  sciences, 
trade,  taxes,  and  treaties,  peace  and  war,  and  characters 
of  the  greatest  persons  of  those  times,  from  the  middle  of 
the  eighteenth  to  the  end  of  the  twentieth  century,  and  the 
world.  Received  and  revealed  in  the  year  1728 ;  and  now 
published,  for  the  instruction  of  all  eminent  statesmen, 
churchmen,. patriots,  politicians,  projectors,  papists,  and 
protestauts."  In  6  vols.  Land.  1733,  8vo.  *  In  1740,  we 
find  him  in  his  native  country,  and  in  that  year  setting 
apart  the  annual  sum  of  one  hundred  pounds,  to  be  distri- 
buted, by  way  of  premium,  to  the  inhabitants  of  Ireland 
only;  namely,  50/.  to  the  author  of  the  best  invention  for 
improving  any  useful  art  or  manufacture ;  25/.  to  the  per? 
son  who  should  execute  the  best  statue  or  piece  of  sculp- 
ture ;  and  25/.  to  the  person  who  should  finish  the  best 
piece  of  painting,  either-  in  history  or  landscape ;  the  pre- 
miums to  be  decided  by  the  Dublin  society,  of  which  Dr. 
Madden  was  the  institutor.  The  good  effects  of  these  well 
applied  benefactions  have  not  only  been  felt  to  advantage 
in  the  kingdom  where  they  were  given,  but  have  even 

*  There  is  something  mysterious  in  business  was  transacted  by  Mr.  Bow- 

the  history  of  this  work,  of  which  only  yer,  without  either  of  the  other  prin- 

oue  volume  na*  appeared,  and  whether  ters  ever  seeing  the  author ;  a  number 

any  more  were  really  intended  is  un-  of  them  was  delivered  to  the  several 

certain.    A  thousand  copies  were  print-  booksellers  mentioned  in  the  title-page; 

ed  with  such  Very  great  ditpatcb,  that  and  in  four  days  after,  all  that  were 

three  printers  were  employed  on    it  unsold  were  recalled,  and  890  of  then) 

(Bowyer,  Woodfall,  and  Roberts);  and  .  were  given  up  to  Dr.  Maddeu%  to  be 

the  names  of  an  uncommon  number  of  destroyed.     Mr.  Tutet,  who  had  a  copy 

tep*jfe&>le  booksellers  in  the  title-page-  of  this  curiosity,  never  beard  but  of  one 

The  current  report  is,  that  the  edition  other,  though  he  frequently  inquired 

was  suppressed  on  the  day  of  publica-  after  it.     Mr.  Bindley,  however,  has 

Hon ;  and  that  it  is  pow  exceedingly  a  copy, 

scaipe,  itf  certain.    The  whole  of  the  ' 


extended  their  influence  to  it*  sister  country,  having  given 
rise  to  the  society  for  tfat  encouragement  of  arts  and 
sciences  in  London.  In  1743  or  4,  he  published-  a  long 
poem,  called  '<  Boulter's  Monument ;"  which  was  corrected 
for  the  press  by  Dr.  Johnson ;  and  an  epistle  of  about  20O 
lines  by  him  is  prefixed  to  the  second  edition  of  Leland's 
"Life  of  Philip  of  Macedon."  In  an  oration  spoken  at 
Dublin,  Dec.  6,  1757,  by  Mr.  Sheridan,  that  gentlemau 
took  occasion  to  mention*  Dr.  Madden's  bounty,  and  yw 
tended  to  have  proceeded  in  the  following  manner,  but 
was  prevented  by  observing  the  doctor  to  be  then  present. 
Speaking  of  the  admirable  institutions  of  premiums,  he 
went  on,  "  Whose  author,  bad  be  never  contributed  any 
thing  farther  to  the  good  of  his  country,  would  have  de- 
serted immortal  honour,  and  toust  have  been  held  in  re- 
Terence  by  the  latest  posterity.  But  the  unwearied  and 
disinterested  endeavours,  during  a  long  course  of  years, 
of  this  truly  good  man,  in  a  variety  of  branches,  to  promote 
industry,  and  consequently  the  welfare  of  this  kingdom, 
and  the  mighty  benefits  which  have  tbence  resulted  to  the 
community,  have  made  many  of  the  good  people  of  Ire- 
land  sorry,  that  a  long-talked  of  scheme  has  not  hitherto 
been  put  in  execution  :  that  we  might  not  appear  inferior 
in  point  of  gratitude  to  the  citifceos  of  London,  with  re- 
spect to  a  fellow-citizen  [sir  John  Barnard],  (surely  not 
with  more  reason,)  and  that  like  them  we  might  be  able 
to  address  our  patriot,  Praesenti  tibi  matures  iargimur 

Dr.  Madden  had  some  gobd  church  preferment  in  Ire* 
land,  particularly  a  deanery,  we  know  not  which,  and  the 
living  of  Drumtoully,  worth  about  400/.  a  year,  tile  right 
of  presentation  to  which  was  divided  between  his  own 
fgnuiy,  and  another.  As  his  family  had  presented  on  the 
last  vacancy,  the  other  of  course  had  a  right  to  present 
now ;  but  the  Maddens  offering  .to  give  up  all  right  of 
presentation  in  future,  if  allowed  to  present  on  the  present 
occasion,  this  was  agreed,  to,  and  thus  the  Doctor  got  the 
living.  At  what  time  this  occurred  we  are  not  told,  but 
he  was  then  a  colonel  of  militia,  and  was  in  Dublin  dressed 
an  scarlet.  Besides  this  living,  he  had  a  very  good  estate; 
but  as  he  was  almost  entirely  devoted  to  books,  or  acts  of 
charity  and  public  good,  be  left  the-  management  of  his 
income,  both  ecclesiastical  and  temporal,  to  his  wife,  a 
lady  of  a  somewhat  different  turn  of  m'rnd.     They  lived  '*t. 

MADDEN.  49 

Manor- water*hoa?e,  three  miles  from  Newtown -Butler;  , 
and  the  celebrated  rev.  Philip  Skelton  lived  with  them  for 
tome  time,  as  tutor  to  the  children.    Dr.  Madden  also 
gave  him  the  curacy  of  Newtow&~Butler. 

Dt  Madden  died  Dec.  30,  1765.  There  is  a  fine  mez« 
zotinto  of  him,  a  whole  length  by  J.  Brooks,  and  a  later, 
by  Richard  Purcell,  from  a  painting  by  Robert  Hunter. 

Mom.  Grosley,  a  lively  French  traveller,  speaking  of  a 
elty  in  the  centre  of  France,  "  which  at  the  beginning  of 
the  fifteenth  century  served  as  a  theatre  to  the  grandest 
scene  that  England  ever  acted  in  that  kingdom,"  mentions 
'several  English  families  as  lately  extinct,  or  still  subsisting 
there.  "  This  city,"  he  adds,  "  in  return,  has  given  the 
British  dominions  an  illustrious  personage,  to  whom  they 
are  indebted  for  the  first  prizes  which  have  been  there 
distributed  for  die  encouragement  of  agriculture  and  arts. 
His  name  was  Madain  :  being  thrown  upon  the  coast  of 
Ireland  by  events  of  which  I  could  never  hear  any  satis* 
factory  account,  be  settled  in  Dublin  by  the  name  of 
Madden,  there  made  a  fortune,  dedicated  part  of  his  estate, 
which  amounted  to  four  or  five  thousand  pounds  a  year,  to 
the  prizes  which  I  have  spoken  of,  and  left  a  rich  succession  t 
part  of  this  succession  went  over  to  France  to  the  Madain* 
his  relations,  who  commenced  a  law-suit  for  the  recovery 
of  it,  and  caused  ecclesiastical  censures  to  be  published 
against  a  merchant,  to  whom  they  had  sent  a  letter  of  at* 
torney  to  act  for  them,  and  whom  they  accused  of  having 
appropriated  to  himself  a  share  of  their  inheritance."  ' 

MADOX  (Isaac),  a  famous  English  prelate,  born  at 
London,  July  27,  1 697,  of  obscure  parents,  whom  he  lost 
while  he  was  young,  was  taken  care  of  by  an  aunt,  who 
placed  him  in  *  charity-school,  and  afterwards  put  jbim  on 
trial  to  a  pastry-cook ;  but,  before  he  was  bound  appren- 
tice, the  master  told  her  that  the  boy  was  not  fit  for  trade; 
that  he  was  continually  reading  books  of  learning  above  bis 
(the  master's)  comprehension,  and  therefore  advised  that 
she  should  take  him  away,  and  send  him  back  to  school,  to 
follow  the  bent  of  his  inclination.  He  was  On  this  sent,  by 
*n  exhibition  of  some  dissenting  friends,  to, one  of  the 
universities  of  Scotland,  Cole  says,  that  of  Aberdeen ;  but, 
not  caring  to  take  orders  in  that  church,  was  afterwards, 
through  the  patronage   of  bishop    Gibson,    admitted   to 

*  Nichols's  Bowyer.— BpswetV*  Life  of  Johnf<m.-<-Burdy?s  Life  of  Skelton, 
K>.  28,  32—39: 

90  M  A  D  O  X. 

QueenVcollege,  Cambridge,  and  was  favoured  with  a 
doctor's  degree  at  Lambeth.  After  entering  into  orders,, 
he  first  was  curate  of  St.  Bride's,  then  domestic  chaplain 
to  Dr.  Waddington,  bishop  of  Chichester,  whose  niece  he 
married,  and  was  afterwards  promoted  to  the  rectory  of  St. 
Vedast,  in  Foster-lane,  London.  In  1729,  he.  was  ap- 
pointed .clerk  of  the  closet  to  queen  Caroline.  In  1733, 
he  became  dean  of  Wells,  and  was  consecrated  bishop  of 
St.  Asaph,  in  1736.  He  was  translated  to  the  see  of  Wor- 
cester, in  1743.  In  1733  he  published  the  first  part  of 
the  *  Review  of  Neal's  History  of  the  Puritans,"  under 
the  title  of,  "  A  Vindication  of  the  Government,  Doctrine, 
and  Worship  of  the  Church  of  England,  established  in  the 
reign  of  queen  Elizabeth  :"  of  which  the  late  bishop  Hal- 
ifax said,  "  a  better  vindication  of  the  reformed  church 
of  England,  I  never  read."  He  was  a  great  benefactor  to 
the  London  hospitals,  and  the  first  promoter  of  the  Wor- 
cester Infirmary  in  1745,  which  has  proved  of  singular 
benefit  to  the  poor,  and  a  great  advantage  to  medical  and 
surgical  knowledge  in  that  neighbourhood.  He  was  also  a 
great  encourager  of  trade,  engaging  in  the  British  fishery, 
by  which  he  lost  some  money.  He  likewise  was  a  strong 
advocate  for  the  act  against  vending  spirituous  liquor* 
He  piarried  Elizabeth  daughter  of  Richard  Price,  esq.  of 
Hayes  in  Middlesex,  in  1 73 1 ;  and  had  two  daughters  and 
a  son,  of  whom  only  one  daughter  survived  him,  and  was 
afterwards  married  to  the  hon.  James  Yorke,  bishop  of 
Gloucester,  and  late  bishop  of  Ely.  He  died  Sept.  27, 
1739.  Bishop  Madox  published  fourteen  occasional  ser- 
mons preached  between  the  years  1734  and  1752.  Among 
other  instances  of  his  benevolence,  we  may  mention  his  as- 
signing 2QQLperann.  during  his  life,  for  the  augmentation  of 
the  smaller  benefices  of  his  diocese.  He  corresponded  with 
Dr.  Doddridge  with  affectionate  familiarity,  and  visited  him 
when  at  Bristol,  offering  in  the  most  obliging  manner  to  coo* 
yey  him  to  the  Wells  in  bis  chariot,  at  the  stated  times  of 
drinking.  He  used  to  anticipate  any  hints  respecting  his 
origin  by  a  joke  which  he  was  fond  of  repeating.  When 
tarts  were  on  his  table,  he  pressed  the  company  to  partake, 
saying  "  that  he  believed  they  were  very  good,  but  that  they 
were  not  of his  own  making"  This  he  varied,  when  John 
Whiston  dined  with  him,  into,  "  some  people  reckon  me  a. 
good  judge  of  that  article  !"  Upon  the  whole  he  appears 
to  have  been  an  amiable  and  benevolent  man,  and  to  have 

M  A  D  O  X.  91, 

employed'  his  wealth  as.  wclL  as  his  talents  to  the  best,  pur* 
poses.  His  widow  survived  him  thirty  years,  dying  Feb. 
19,    1789,1 

MADOX  (Thomas),  the  learned  exchequer  antiquary, 
and  historiographer  royal,  of  whose  personal  history  we 
have  no  information,  is  well  known  among  antiquaries  and 
lawyers  for  his  valuable  collection  of  records  relating  to  the 
ancient  laws  and  constitution  of  this  country ;  the  know- 
ledge of  which  tends  greatly  to  the  illustration  of  English 
history.  In  1702,  under  the  patronage  of  the  learned 
lord  Somers,  he  published  the  first  fruits  of  his  researches, 
under  the  title  of  "  A  Collection  of  antique  Charters  and 
Instruments  of  divers  kinds  taken  from  the  originals,  placed 
under  several  heads,  and  deduced  (in  a  series  according  to 
the  order  of  time)  from  the  Norman  conquest,  to  the  end 
of  the  reign  of  king  Henry  VIIL"  This  is  known  by  the 
name  of  the  "  Formulare  Anglicanuni."  To  it  is  prefixed 
a  dissertation  concerning  "  Ancient  Charters  and  Instru- 
ments,"  replete  with  useful  learning  upon  that  subject. 
He  was  prompted  to  this  work,  by  considering  that  there 
was  no  methodical  history  or  system  of  ancient  charters 
and  instruments  of  this  nation  then  extant ;  and  that  it 
would  be  acceptable  to  curious  persons,  and  useful  to  the 
public,  if  something  were  done  for  supplying  that  defect 
Having  entertained  such  a  design,  and  being  furnished 
with  proper  materials  from  the  archives  of  the  late  court  of 
augmentations,  he  was  encouraged  to  proceed  in  it,  espe- 
cially by  lord  Somers.;  and  prosecuted  it  with  so  much  ap- 
plication, that  out  of  an  immense  heap  of  original  charters 
and  writhigs,  remaining  in  that,  repository,  he  selected 
and  digested  the  chief  substance  of  this  volume.  In  171  J, 
he  proceeded  to  a  work  of  still  greater  importance  than  the 
foregoing,  "  The  History  and  Antiquities  of  the  Exche- 
quer of  the  Kings  of  England,  in  two  periods,  viz.  from 
the  Norman  conquest,  to  the  end  of  tbe  reign  of  king 
John;  and  from  the  end  of  the  reign  of  king  John,  to 
the  end  of  the  reign  of  king  Edward  II.  Taken  from, 
records.  Together  with  a  correct  copy  of  the  ancient 
dialogue  concerning  the  Exchequer,  generally  ascribed 
to  Gervasius  Tilburiensis ;  and  a  Dissertation  concern* 
ipg  the  most  ancient  great  roil  of  the  exchequer,  com- 
monly styled  the  roll  of  Quinto  Regis  Stephani,"   folio; 

}  Nichols's  Bowyer.— Orton's  Life  of  Doddridge,  p.  328.— Doddridge's  Let- 
tors.,  p.  452— 454.— -MS  notss  by  John  Whiston  iu  his  copy  of  the  first  eJitiou 
of  this  Dictionary. 

m  u  A  d  a  x. 

reprinted  in  If  69,  in  4ta    This  was  dedicated  to  oui 
Anne ;  but;  there  is  likewise  prefixed  to  it  a  long  prefatory 
epistle  to  the  lord  Somers,  in  which  he  gives  that  illustrious 
patroq  some  account  of  this  unprecedented  undertaking. 
He  observes,  thai  though  some  treatises  bad  been  written 
concerning  the  exchequer,  yet  no  history  [of  it  had  been 
yet  attempted  by  any  man ;  that  he  had  pursued  his  sub- 
ject to  those  ancient  times,  to  which,  he  thinks,  the  ori- 
ginal of  the  exchequer  in  England  may  properly  be  as- 
signed ;  and  thence  had  drawn  down  an  .orderly  account  of 
H  through  a  long  course  of  years ;  and,  having  consulted, 
as  well  the  books  necessary  to  be  perused  upon  this  occa- 
sion, as  a  very  great  number  of  records  and  manuscripts, 
he  had  endeavoured  all  along  to  confirm  what  he  offered 
by  proper  vouchers,  which  are  subjoined  column-wise  in 
each  page,  except  where  their  extraordinary  length  made 
it  impracticable.     The  records  which  he  here  attests  were, 
as  he  adds,  taken  by  his  own   pen  from  the  authentic 
parchments,  unless  where  it  appears  by  his  references  to 
be  otherwise.     He  has  contrived  throughout  the  whole  (as 
far  as  the  subject-matter  would  permit)  to  make  use  of 
such  memorials  as  serve  either  to  make  ,known  or  fo  ex- 
plain the  ancient  laws  and  usages  of  this  kingdom.     For 
which  reason,  as  he  notes,  this  work  may  be  deemed,  not 
merely  a  history  of  the  exchequer,  but  likewise  a  promp- 
tuary  towards  a  history  of  the  ancient  law  of  England.  .   He 
afterwards  acquaints  his  lordship  in  what  method  he  began 
and  proceeded  in  compiling  thjs  work.     First,  he  made  as 
full  a  collection  from  records  as  he  could,  of  materials  re- 
lating to  the  subject.     Those  materials  being  regularly 
arranged  in  several  books  of  collectanea,  he  reviewed  them, 
and,  weighing  what  they  imported,  and  how  they  might 
be  applied,  he  drew  from  thence  a  general  scheme  of  his 
design.     When  he  had  pitched  upon  the  heads  of  his  dis- 
course, he  took  materials  for  them  out  of  the  aforesaid: 
fund,  and  digested  them  into  their  proper  rank  and  order.  ' 
In  doing  this,  it  was  his  practice  for  the  most  part  to  write  " 
down,  in  the  draught  of  his  book,  the  respective  records 
or  testimonies  first  of  all ;  i.  e.  before  he  wrote  his  own 
text  or  composition  ;  and  from  them  formed  his  history  or 
account  of  things;  connecting  and  applying  them -after- 
wards, as  the  case  would  admit.     At  the  <end  of  this  his- 
tory  (as  we  have  expressed  it  in  the  title)  Mr.  Maddox  has 
published  a  copy  of.  the  treatise  concerning  the  exchequer, 

M  A  D  O  X.  *3 

written  in  the  way  of  dialogue,  and  generally  ascribed  to     ' 
Genrasius  Tilburiensis*    This  treatise  is  certainly  vety 
ancient,  and  intrinsically  valuable.     Our  author  introduces 
it  by  an  epistolary  dissertation,  in  Latin,  to  the  then  lord. 
Halifax.    The  dialogue  is  followed  by  another  epistolary 
dissertation,  in  the  same  language,  addressed  to  She  lord 
Somerc,  relating  to  the  great  roll  of  the  exchequer*  com- 
monly styled  the  "  Roll  of  Qttinto  Regis  Stephatti."     No 
historical  account  has  been  given;  in  thib  volume,  of  the 
records  reposited  in  the  exchequer.     Mr.  Madox  thought 
that  it  might  be  more  properly  done  if  there  was  occasion 
for  it,  hereafter,  in  a  continuation  of  this  work ;  tohieh  he 
seems  to  have  had  some  intention  of  performing  himself 
when  he  published  this  part ;  or  hoped  some  other  hand 
would  supply,  if  he  did  not*.    The  concluding  chapter 
of  the  history  is  a  list  of  the  barons  of  this  court  from  the 
first  year  ef  William  the  Conqueror  to  the  20th  of  Edward 
II.     The  last  work  this  laborious  historiographer  published 
himself,  was  the  "  Ffrma  Burgi,  or  historical  essay  con- 
cerning the  cities*  towns,  And  boroughs  of  England.  Taken 
from  records/*    This  treatise  was  inscribed  to  king  George 
I.    The  author  warns  his  readers  against  expecting  to  find 
any  curious  or  refined  learning  in  it ;  in  regard  the  matter 
of  it  is  low.     It  is  only  one  part  of  a  subject,  which,  how- 
ever, is  extensive  and  difltotilt,  concerning  which,  he  tells 
us,  much  has  been  skid  by  English  writers  to  very  littU 
purpose,  serving  rather  to  entangle  than  to  clear  it    When 
he  first  entered  upon  the  discussion  of  it,  be  found  himself 
encompassed  with  doubts,  which  it  hath  been  his  endea- 
vour, as  he  says,  to  remove  or  lessen  as  he  went  along. 
~  He  has  throughout  mixed  history  and  dissertation  together, 
making  these  two  strengthen  and  diversify  each  other. 
However  modestly  Mr.  Madox  might  express  himself  con- 
cerning the  learning  of  this  work,  it  is  in  reality  both  cu- 
rious and  profound)  and  bis  inquiries  very  useful.    The 
civil  antiquities  of  this  country  would,  in  all  probability, 
have  been  further  obliged  than  they  are  to  this  industrious 
pef*bn,  if  his  life  had  been  of  a  somewhat  longer  con- 
tinuances fof  it  May  be  presumed,  from  two  or  three  . 
passages  in  the  prefaces  of  th&se  books  he  published  him- 

_  m  a  letter  from  him  to  Dr.  Char-  sold,  he  would  be  but  just  able  to  pay 

leit,  we  find  that  the  printing  and  paper  the  charges  with  a  trilling  overplus.1' — 

of  this  work  cost  him  400/.  and  when  Letters    by  eminent    Persons,  J813, 

the  whole  impression  of  480  should  be  3  vols.  4*>* 

84  M  A  D  O  X. 


self,  that  he  meditated  and  intended  some  others  to  follow 
them,  different  from  this  posthumous  History  of  Baronies^ 
which  his  advertisement  of  it  apparently  suggests  to  be 
the  only  manuscript  left  finished  by  the. author.  This  is 
compiled  much. in  the  manner  of  his  other  writings.  In 
the  first  book  he  discourses  largely  of  land  baronies;  in 
the  second  book  he  treats  briefly  of  titular  baronies ;  and 
in  the  third' of  feudal  tenure  in  capite. 

Mr.  Madox's  large  and  valuable  collection  of  transcripts, 
in  ninety -four  volumes  in  folio  and  quarto,  consisting  chiefly 
.  of  extracts  from  records  in  the  exchequer,  the  patent  and 
clause  rolls  in  the  Tower,  the  Cotton  library,  the  archives 
of  Canterbury  and  Westminster,  the  collections  ol  Christ's 
College,  Cambridge,  &c.  made  by  him,  and  intended  as 
materials  for  a  feudal  history  of  England  from  the  earliest 
times,  were  presented  by  his  widow  to  the  British  museum, 
where  they  are  now  preserved.  They  were  the  labour  of 
thirty  years;  and  Mr.  Madox  frequently  declared,  that 
when  young  he  would  have  given  1500  guineas;  for  them. 
Fifty-nine  volumes  of  Rymer's  Collection  of  Public  Acts 
relating  to  the  history  and  government  of  England  from 
1115  to  1698  (not  printed  in  his  Foadera,  but  of  which 
there  is  a  catalogue  in  vol.  XVII.)  are  also  deposited  in  the 
Museum  by  an  order  of  the  House  of  Lords; 1      ■ 

MAECENAS  (Caius  Cilmus),  the  great  friend  and 
«  counsellor  of  Augustus  Caesar,  was  himself  a  polite  scholar, 
but  is  chiefly  memorable  for  having  been  the  patron  and 
protector  of  men  of  letters.  He  was  descended -from  a 
most  ancient  and  illustrious  origin,  even  from  the  kings  of 
Hetruria,  as  Horace  often  tells  us ;  but  his  immediate  fore- 
fathers were  only  of  the  equestrian  order.  He  is  supposed 
to  have  been  born  at  Rome,  because  his.  family  lived  there ; 
but  in  what  year  antiquity  does  not  tell  us.  His  educa- 
tion is  supposed  to  have  been  of  the  most  liberal  kind,  and 
agreeable  to  the  dignity  and  splendour  of  his  birth,  as  he 
excelled  in  every  thing  that  related  to  arms,  politics,  and 
letters.  How  he  spent  his  younger  years  is.  also  unknown, 
there  being  no  mention  made  of  him,  by  ttfiy  writer,  before 
the  death  of  Julius  Caesar,  which  happened  in  the  year  of 
Rome  709.  Then  Octavius  Caesar,  who  was  afterwards 
called  Augustus,  went  to  Rome  to  take  possession  of  his 
uncle's  inheritance ;  and,  at  the  same  time,  ^Maecenas  l>e- 

*  Nichols**  Bowyer.    ,_  '. 

M  JE  C  E  N  A  S.  95 

Came  first  publicly  known ;  though  he  appear*  to  have  been 
Augustus's  friend,  and,  as  it  should  seem,  guardian,  from 
bis  childhood.  From  that  time  he  accompanied  him 
through  all  his  fortunes,  and  was  his  counsellor  and  ad- 
viser upon  all  occasions ;  so  that  Pedo  Albinovanus,  or 
rather  the  unknown  author  whose  elegy  has  been  ascribed 
to  him,  justly  calls  him  "  Caesaris  dextram,"  Caesar's  right 

A.  U.  C.  710,  the  year  that  Cicero  was  killed,  and  Ovid 
born,  Maecenas  distinguished  himself  by  his  courage  and 
military  skill  at  the  battle  of  Modena,  Where  the  consuls 
Hirtius  and  Pansa  were  killed  in  fighting  against  Antony  ; 
as  he  did  afterwards  at  Philippi.  After  this  last  battle, 
began  the  memorable  friendship  between  him  and  Horace. 
Horace,  as  Suetonius  relates,  was  a  trib&ne  in  the  army  of 
Brutus  and  Cassius,  and,  upon  the  defeat  of  those  generals, 
made  a  prisoner  of  war.  Maecenas,  finding  him  an  accom- 
plished man,  became  immediately  his  friend  and  protector, 
and  afterwards  recommended  him  to  Augustus,  who  re- 
stored him  to  his  estate,  with  no  small  additions.  In  the 
mean  time,  though  Maecenas  behaved  himself  well  as  a 
soldier  in  these  and  other  *  battles,  yet  his  principal  pro- 
vince was  that  of  a  minister  and  counsellor.  He  was  the 
adviser,  •  the  manager,  the  negotiator,  in  every  thing  that 
related  to  civil  affairs.  When  the  league  was  made  at 
Brundusium  betwen  Antony  and  Augustus,  he  was  sent  to 
act:  on  the  part  of  Augustus,  and  afterwards,  when  this 
league  was  about  to  be  broken,  through  the  suspicions  of 
each  party,  he  was  sent  to  Antony  to  ratify  it  anew. 

U.  C.  717,  when  Augustus  and  Agrippa  went  to  Sicily, 
to  fight  Sextus  Pompeius  by  sea,  Maecenas  went  with 
them ;  but  soon  after  returned,  to  appease  some  commo- 
tions which  were  rising  at  Rome :  for  though  he  usually 
attended  Augustus  in  all  his  military  expeditions,  yet 
whenever  there  was  any  thing  to  be  done  at  Rome,  either 
with  the  senate  or  people,  he  was  also  dispatched  thither 
for  that. purpose.  He  was  indeed  invested  with  the  go- 
vernment while  Augustus  and  Agrippa  were  employed  in 
the  wars.  Thus  Dion  Cassius,  speaking  of  the  year  718, 
says. that. Maecenas  "  had  then,  and  some  time  after,  the 
administration  of  civil  affairs,  not  only  at  Rome,  but 
throughout  all  Italy,"  .and  V.  Paterculus  relates,  that  after 
then  battle  of  Actium,  which  happened  in  the  year  724; 
">fcfae  government  of  the  city  was  committed  to  Maecenas,  a 
man  of  equestrian  rank,  but  of  an  illustrious  family." 

96  M  M  C  E  N  A  S* 

Upon  the  total  defeat  of  Antony  at  Actium,  he  returned 
to  Rome,  to  take  the  government  into  his  hands,  till  Au- 
gustus could  settle  some  necessary  affairs  in  Greece  and 
Asia.  Agrippa  soon  followed  Maecenas ;  and,  when  Au- 
gustus arrived,  he  placed  these  two  great  men  and  faithful 
adherents,  the  one  over  his  civil,  the  other  over  his  military 
concerns.  While  Augustus  was  extinguishing  the  remains 
of  the  civil  war  in  Asia  and  Egypt,  young  Lepidus,  the 
son  of  the  triumvir,  was  forming  a  scheme  to  assassinate 
him  at  his  return  to  Rome.  This  conspiracy  was  discovered 
at  Once  by  the  extraordinary  vigilance  of  Maecenas  ;  who, 
as  Paterculus  says,  "observing  the  rash  councils  of  the 
headstrong  youth*  with  the  same  tranquillity  and  calratiesa 
as  if  uothing  at  all  had  been  doing,  instantly  pat  him  to 
death,  without  the  least  noise  and  tumult,  and  by  that 
means  extinguished  another  civil  war  in  its  very  beginning." 

The  civil  wars  being  now  at  an  end,  Augustus  returned 
to  Rome ;  and  after  he  had  triumphed  according  to  cus- 
tom, he  began  to  talk  of  restoring  the  commonwealth. 
Whether  he  was  in  earnest,  or  did  it  only  to  try  the  judg- 
ment pf  his  friends,  we  do  not  presume  to  determine : 
however  he  consulted  Maecenas  and  Agrippa  about  it* 
Agrippa  advised  him  to  it ;  but  Maecenas  dissuaded  him, 
saying,  that  it  was  not  only  impossible  for  him  to  live  in 
safety  as  a  private  man,  after  what  had  passed,  but  that 
the  government  would  be  better  administered,  and  flou- 
rish more  in  his  hands  than  if  he  was  to  deliver  it.  up  to 
the  senate  and  people.  The  author  of  the  "Life  of 
Virgil"  says  that  Augustus,  "  wavering  what  he  should  do, 
consulted  that  poet  upon  the  occasion."  But  this  life  is 
not  of  sufficient  authority ;  for,  though  it  has  usually  beeli 
ascribed  to  Servius  or  Donatus*  yet  the  critics  agree,  that 
it  was  not  written  by  either  of  them.  Augustus,  in  the 
mean  time,  followed  Maecenas's  advice,  and  retained  the 
government :  and  from  this  time  Maecenas  indulged  him- 
self, at  vacant  hours,  in  literary  alnusemtnts,  and  the  con- 
versation of  the  men  of  letters.  In  the  year  734  Virgil 
died,  and  left  Augustus  and  Maecenas  heirs  to  his  posses* 
sious.  Maecenas  was  excessively  fond  of  this  poet,  who, 
of  ell  the  wits  of  the  Augustan  age,  stood  highest  in  his 
esteem ;  and,  if  the  "  Georgics"  and  the  "  JEtaeid"  be 
owing  to  the  good  taste  and  encouragement  of  this  patron, 
as  there  is  some  reason  to  think,  posterity  eaimot'comussv 
morate  htm.  with  too  much  gratitude.   ■  The  anther  of  khe 

•  -*♦ 

M  M  C  E  N  A  S.  97 

* <  Life  of  Virgil*'  tells  us  that  the  poet  "  published  the 
Georgics  in  honour  of  Maecenas,  to  whom  they  are  ad- 
dressed ;M  and  adds,  that  "  they  were  recited  to  Augustus 
four  days  together  at  Atella,  where  he  rested  himself  for 
some  time,  in  his  return  from  Actium,  Maecenas  taking 
upon  him  the  office  of  reciting,  as  oft  as  Virgil's  voice 
failed  him."     Horace  may  be  ranked   next  to  Virgil  in 
Maecenas's  good  graces :  we  have  already  mentioned  how 
and.  what  time  their  friendship  commenced.     Propertius 
also  acknowledges  Maecenas  for  his  favourer  and  protector  : 
nor  must  Varins  be  forgot,  though  we  have  nothing  of  his 
remaining;  since  we  find  him  highly  praised  by  both  Vir- 
gil and  Horace.     He  was  a  writer  of  tragedies:  and  Quin- 
tilian  thinks  he  may  be  compared  with  any  of  the  ancients. 
In   a  word,  Maecenas's  house  was  a  place  of  refuge  and 
welcome  to  all  the  learned  of  his  time  ■,  not  only  to  Virgil, 
Horace,  Propertius,  and  Varius,  but  to  Fundanius,  whom 
Horace  extols  as  an  admirable  writer  of  comedies ;  to  Fus- 
cus  Aristius,  a  noble  grammarian,  and  Horace's  intimate 
friencV;  to  Plotius  Tueca,  who  assisted  Varius  in  correcting 
the  "  ^Eneid"  after  the  death  of  Virgil ;  to  Valgius,  a  poet 
and  very  learned  man,  who,  as  Pliny  tells  us,  dedicated  a 
took  to  Augustus  "  De  usu  Herbarum  ;"  to  Asinius  Pollio, 
an  excellent  tragic  writer,  and  to  several  others,  whom  it 
would  be  tedious  to  mention.     All  these  dedicated  their 
works,  or  some  part  of  them  at  least,  to  Maecenas,  and 
repeatedly  celebrated  his  praises  in  them;  and  we  may 
observe  further,   what  Plutarch  tells  us,    that   even  Au- 
gustus himself  inscribed  his  "  Commentaries"  to  him  and 
to  Agrippa. 

Maecenas  continued  in  Augustus's  favour  to  the  end  of 
his  life,  but  not  uninterruptedly.  Augustus  had  an  intrigue 
with  Maecenas's  wife ;  and  though  the  minister  bore  this 
liberty  of  his  master's  very  patiently,  yet  there  wag  once  a 
coldness  on  the  part  of  Augustus,  although  not  of  long 
continuance.  Maecenas  died  in  the  year  745,  as  is  sup- 
posed, at  an  advanced  age.  He  must  have  been  older  than 
Augustus,  because  he  was  a  kind  of  tutor  to  him  in  his 
youth.  Horace  did  not  probably  long  survive  liim,  as 
there  is  no  elegy  of  his  upon  Maecenas  extant,  nor  any 
account  of  one  having  ever  been  written,  which  would 
probably  have  been  the  case,  had  Horace  survived  him  any 
time.  Sanadon,  -the  French  editor  of  Horace,  insists  that 
the  poet  died  before  his  patron  ;  and  that  the  recommen- 

Voj..  XXL  H 

98  M  JE  C  E  N  A  8. 


dation  of  him  to  Augustus  was  found  only  ia  Maecenas's 
will,  which  had  not  been  altered. 

Maecenas  is  said  never  to  have  enjoyed  a  good  state  of 
health  in  any  part  of  his  life ;  and  many  singularities  are 
related  of  his  bodily  constitution.  Thus  Pliny  tells  us, 
that  he  was  always  in  a  fever;  and  that,  for  three  years 
before  his  death,  he  had  not  a  moment's  sleep.  Though  he 
was  certainly  an  extraordinary  man,  and  possessed  many 
admirable  virtues  and  qualities,  yet  it  is  agreed  on  all 
bands  that  he  was  very  luxurious  and  effeminate.  Seneca 
has  allowed  him  to  have  been  a  great  man,  yet  censures 
him  very  severely  on  this  head,  and  thinks  that  his  effemi- 
nacy has  infected  even  his  style.  "  Every  body  knows," 
says  he,  "  how  Maecenas  lived,  nor  is  there  any  occasion 
for  me  to  describe  it :  the  effeminacy  of  his  walk,  the  de- 
licacy of  his  manner,  and  the  pride  he  took  in  shewing 
himself  publicly,  are  things  too  notorious  for  me  to  insist 
on.  But  what !  Is  not  his  style  as  effeminate  as  l\imself } 
Are  not  his  words  as  soft  and  affected  as  his  dress,  his 

Suipage,  the  furniture  of  his  house,  and  his  wife  ?"  Then, 
;er  quoting  some  of  his  poetry,  "  who  does  not  perceive," 
says  he,  "  that  the  author  of  these  verses  must  have  been 
the  man,  who  was  perpetually  walking  about  the  city  with 
his  tunic  loose,  and  all  the  other  symptoms  of  the  most 
effeminate  mind  ?"  V.  Paterculus  does  not  represent 
him  as  less  effeminate  than  Seneca,  but  dwells  more  on 
his  good  qualities.  "  Maecenas,"  says  he,  "  was  of  the 
equestrian  order,  but  sprung  from  a  most  illustrious  origin. 
He  was  a  man,  who,  when  business  required,  was  able  to 
undergo  any  fatigue  and  watching;  who  consulted  pro- 
perly upon  all  occasions,  and  knew  as  well  how  to  execute 
what  he  had  consulted ;  yet  a  man,  who  in  seasons  of  lei* 
sure  was  luxurious,  soft,  and  effeminate,  almost  beyond  a 
woman.  He  was  no  less  dear  to  Caesar  than  to  Agrippa, 
but  distinguished  by  him  with  fewer  honours ;  for  he  al- 
ways continued  of  the  equestrian  rank,  in  which  he  was 
born  ;  not  that  he  could  not  have  been  advanced  upon  the 
least  intimation,  but  be  never  solicited  it."  His  patronage 
of  men  of  letters  is,  after  all,  the  foundation  of  his  fame  ; 
and  having  by  general  consent  given  a  name  to  the  patron$ 
of  literature,  bis  own  can  never  be  forgotten. * 

1  Maecenas  Meib6mii. — Life,  by  Schomberg,  compiled  from  Meibouius  and 
the  abbe  Richer.— Gent  Mag.  vol.  LXXVL— Saarii  Onomast. 


MjESTLINUS  (Michael),  a  celebrated  astronomer  of 
Germany,  whose  name  deserves  to  be  preserved,  was  born 
about  1542,  in  the  dutchy  of  Wirtemberg,  and  spent  his 
youth  in  Italy,  where  he  made  a  public  speech  in  favour  of 
Copernicus,  which  served  to  wean  Galileo  from  Aristotle  and 
Ptolemy,  to  whom  he  had  been  hitherto  entirely  devoted. 
He  returned  afterwards  to  Germany,  and  became  professor 
of  mathematics  at  Tubingen ;  where  he  had  among  bis 
scholars  the  great  Kepler.  Tycho  Brahe,  though  be  did  not 
assent  to  Msestlin,  has  yet  allowed  him  to  be  an  extra- 
ordinary person,  and  well  acquainted  with  the  science  of 
astronomy.  Kepler  has  praised  several  ingenious  inven- 
tions of  Msestlin's,  in  his  "  Astronomia  Optica."  He  died 
in  1 590,  after  having  published  many  works  in  mathema- 
tics and  astronomy,  among  which  were  his  treatises  "  De 
Stella  nova  Cassiopeia  ;"  "  Ephemerides,"  according  to  the 
Prutenic  Tables,  which  were  first  published  by  Erasmus 
Reinoldus  in  1551.  He  published  likewise  "Thesis  d§ 
Eclipsibus  ;v  and  an  "  Epitome  of  Astronomy,"  &c.  * 


MAFFEI  (Francis  Scipio),  a  celebrated  Italian  writer, 
and  a  marquis,  was  born  of  an  illustrious  family  at  Verona, 
in  1675,  and  was  very  early  associated  to  the  academy  of 
the  Arcadi  at  Rome.  At  the  age  of  twenty -seven,  he  dis- 
tinguished himself  at  Verona,  by  supporting  publicly  a  thesis 
on  love,  in  which  the  ladies  were  the  judges  and  assessors; 
and  displayed  at  once  his  talents  for  gallantry,  eloquence, 
and  poetry.  Anxious  for  glory  of  all  kinds,  he  made  his 
next  effort  in  the  army,  and  served  as  a  volunteer  at  the 
battle  of  Donawert,  in  1704;  but  the  love  of  letters  pre* 
vailed,  and  he  returned  into  Italy.  There  his  first  literary 
enterprise,  occasioned  by  an  affair  of  honour,  in  which  his 
elder  brother  was  involved,  was  an  earnest  attack  upon  the 
practise  of  duelling.  He  brought  against  it  all  the  argu- 
ments to  which  it  is  so  evidently  exposed ;  the  opposite 
practice  of  the  ancients,  the  suggestions  of  good  sense,  the 
interests  of  social  life,  and  the  injunctions  of  religion.  He 
proceeded  then  to  the  drama,  and  produced  his  "Merope," 
which  was  acted  with  the  most  brilliant  success.  Having 
thus  purified  tragedy,  he  proceeded  to  render  the  same 
service  to  comedy,  and  wrote  one  entitled  "  La  Ceremo- 
nia,"  which  was  much  applauded.     Jn   1732,  he   visited 

\  Martini  Bio;.  Philos.— Diet,  Hist. 

H   2 

*<to  M  A  F  F  EI. 

France,  where  be  passed  four  years,  caressed  itr  thfc  gwfct-. 
est  degree  for  bis  talents  and  learning ;  and  then  Wettt 
into  England,  where  he  was  much  esteemed,  to  Hoi* 
fend,  and  finally  td  Vienna,  and  was  most  hotiourabry  *fe-* 
eeived  by  the  emperor  Charles  VI.  After  setferal  ye*t* 
thus  employed,  he  returned  into  Italy,  and  in  litertrry  ac* 
tivity,  extended  his  attention  to  altoost  every  subject  of  btr-« 
than  knowledge.  He  died  in  1755,  at  the  age  of  eighty. 
He  was  gifted  with  a  cornprehensiVe  genius,  a  lively  wit, 
and  a  penetrating  mind,  eaget  for  discoveries,  and  Well 
dalcolated  for  miking  them.  His  disposition  was  cheerful, 
sincere,  and  disinterested,  full  of  zeal  for  religion,  and 
&tthftfi  in  performing  its  duties.  The  people  of  Verona 
almost  idolized  him.  During  bis  last  illness  they  offered 
public  prayers  for  his  recovery,  and  the  council  of  state 
decreed  solemn  obsequies  after  his  death,  with  th£  cere- 
mony of  a  funeral  oration  ht  the  cathedral  of  Verona. 
:  Lady  Mary  Wortley  Montague,  in  her  letters  lately  pub- 
lished, has  given  a  very  lively  description  of  Maffei's  em- 
ployments: "After  having  made  the  tour  of  Europe  in 
search  6f  antiquities,  he  fixed  his  residence  in  his  native 
t&toti  of  Verona,  where  he  erected  himself  a  little  empire, 
from  the  general  esteem,  and  a  conversation  (so  they  Call 
an  assembly)  which  he  established  in  his  palace,  one  of 
the  largest  in  that  place,  and  so  lu'ckily  situated,  that  it 
is  between  the  theatre  and  the  ancient  amphitheatre.  He 
made  piazzas  heading  to  each  of  them,  filled  with  shops, 
frfrere  were  sold  coffee,  tea,  chocolate,  all  sorts  of  street- 
meats,  and  in  the  midst,  a  court  well  kept,  and  sartded, 
for  the  use  of  those  young  gentlemen  who  would  exercise 
tfaeir  managed  horses,  or  show  their  mistresses  their  sftfll  in 
fiding.  His  gallery  was  open  every  evening  at  five  o'clock, 
inhere  he  had  a  fine  collection  of  antiquities,  and  two  large 
cabinets  of  medals,  intaglios,  and  cameos,  arranged  ift 
exact  order.  His  library  joined  to  it :  and  on  the  other  sidfe 
a  suite  of  five  rooms,  the  first  of  which  was  destined  to 
dancing,  the  second  to  cards  (but  all  games  of  hazard  ex- 
cluded), and  the  others  (where  he  himself  presided  in  an 
easy  chair),  sacred  to  conversation,  which  always  turned 
upon  some  point  of  learning,  either  historical  or  poetical. 
Controversy  and  politics  being  utterly  prohibited,  he  ge- 
nerally proposed  the  subject,  and  took  great  delight  in  in- 
structing the  young  people,  who  were  obliged  to  seek  the 


•medal,  or  explain  the  inspription  that  iHustjpteel  any  fact 
they  discoursed  of.  Those  who  chose  the  diversion  Df  the 
public  walks,  or  theatre,  went  thither,  but  never  failed  ' 
returning  to  give  an  account  of  the  drama,  which  produced 
a  critical  dissertation  on  that  st*bject^  the  marquis  having 
given  shining  proofs  of  his  skill  in  that  art.  His  tragedy 
of  "  Merope,"  which  is  much  injured  by  Voltaire's  trans- 
lation*, being  esteemed  a  master -piece ;  and  his  <con»edy  of 
*he  "  Ceremonies,"  being  a  just  ridicule  of  those  formal 
fopperies*  it  has  gone  a  great  way  in  helping  to  banish 
them  out  of  Italy.  The  walkers  contributed  to  the  enteiv 
taiMaeAt  by  an  account  of  some  herb,  or  Bower,  which  led 
the  tray  to  a  botanical  conversation  *,  or,  if  they  were  such 
inaccurate  observers  as  to  have  nothing  of  that  kind  to 
offer,  they  repeated  some  pastoral  description.  One  day 
in  the  week  was  set  apart  for  music,  vocal  and  instrument- 
tal,  but  no  mercenaries  were  admitted  to  the  concert. 
Thus,  at  a  very  little  expence  (his  fortune  not  permitting  a 
-large  one),  he  had  the'  happiness  of  giving  his  countrymen 
a  taste  of  polite  pleasure,  and  shewing  the  youth  how  to 
pass  their  time  agreeably  without  debauchery." 

The  complete  catalogue  of  his  works  would  resemble 
•that  of  a  library  ;  the  chief  of  them  are  these:  1.  "  Rime 
e  prose,"  Venice,  1719,  4to.  2.  "La  scienza  Cavalle- 
resca,"  Rome,  1710,  4to.  This  is  against  duelling,  and 
has  passed  through  six  editions.  3.  "  Merope,"  of  which 
there  have  been  many  more  editions,  and  several  foreign 
versions.  4.  "  Traduttori  Italiani,"  &c.  Venice,  1720, 
Svg9  contains  an  account  of  the  Italian  translations  from 
£he  classics.  5.  "  Theatre  Italiano,"  a  selection  of  Ita- 
lian tragedies,  in  3  vols.  8vo.  6.  "  Cassiodori  complexi- 
ties, in  Epistplas  <et  Acta  Apostolorum,"  &c.  Flor.  1721. 
ff.  *'  Istoria  Diploipatica,"  or  a  critical  introduction  to 
djpknaaus  knowledge.  8.  w  Degli  Anfoeatri,"  on  amphi- 
theatres, particularly  that  of  Verona,  1723,  9.  "Sup- 
ptefigHHum  Acaciarum,"  Venice,  1728.  10.  "  Museum 
Vejronense,"  1789,  folio.  Ih  «' Verona  11  lustrata,"  17  $2, 
folio.  12.  An  Italian  translation  of  the  first  book  of 
Homer,  in  blank  verse,  printed  at  London,  in  1737. 
1&  <(La  fteligione  di  Gentili  Del  morire,"  1736,  4to. 
.14.  "  Osservationi  Letterarie,"  intended  to  serve  as  a  conti- 
nuation of  the  Giornale  de'  Leterati  d'  Italia.  He  published 
tdse  a  work  on  grace,  some  editions  of  the  fathers,  apd 

102  MA  FFEt. 

other  matters.     A  complete  edition  of  his  works  was  pub5* 
lished  at' Venice  in  1790,  in  18  vols.  8vo. l 

MAFFEI,  or  MAFFjEUS  (John  Peter),  a  learned  Je- 
suit, was  born  at  Bergamo  in  1536,  and  was  instructed  by 
his  uncles  Basil  and   Chrysostom  Zanchi,  canons  regular 
of  that  city,  in   Greek,  Latin,  philosophy   and  theology. 
His  studies  being  finished  he  went  to  Rome,  where  his 
talents  became  so  well  known  that  several  princes  invited 
him  to  settle  in  their  dominions,  but  he  gave  the  prefer- 
ence to  Genoa,  where  in  1563  he  was  appointed  professor 
of  eloquence,  with  an  ample  salary.     He  continued  in  that 
office  two  years,  and  was  chosen  to  the  office,  of  secretary 
of  state;  but  iix  1565,  he  returned  to  Rome,  where  he 
entered  into  the  society  of  Jesuits.     He  spent  six  years  as 
professor  of  eloquence  in  the  Roman  college,  during  which 
he  translated,  into  the  Latin  language,  the  history  of  the 
Indies  by  Acosta,  which  was  published  in  1570.     He  then 
went  to  Lisbon  at  the  request  of  cardinal  Henry,  and  com- 
piled from  papers  and  other  documents  with  which  he  was 
'to  be  furnished,  a  complete  history  of 'the  Portuguese  con- 
quests in  the  Indies,  and  of  the  progress  of  the  Christian 
religion  in  that  quarter.     He  returned  to  Italy  in  1581, 
and  some  years  after  was  placed,  by  Clement  VIII.  in  the 
Vatican,  for  the  purpose  of  continuing,  in  the  Latin  lan- 
guage, the  annals  of  Gregory  XIII.  begun  by  him  in  the 
Italian  ;  of  this  he  had  finished  three  books  at  the  time  of 
his  death,  which  happened  at  Tivoli  Oct.  20,   1603.     Soon 
after  he  entered  among  the  Jesuits  he  wrote  the  life  of 
Ignatius  Loyola;  but  his  principal  work  is  entitled  '*  Histo- 
riarum  Indicarum,"  lib.  XVI.  written  in  a  very  pure  style, 
which  has  been  frequently  reprinted.     The  best  edition  is 
in  two  volumes  4to,  printed   at  Bergamo  in  1747.     The 
purity  of  his  style  was  the  effect  of  great  labour.     Few 
men  ever  wrote  so  slowly ;  nothing  seemed  to  please  him, 
and  he  used  to  pass  whole  hours  in  polishing  his  periods ; 
but  we  cannot  readily  credit  all  that  has  been  reported  on 
this  subject,  as  that  be  never  could  finish  above  twelve  or 
fifteen  lines  in  a  day;  that  he  was  twelve  years  in  writing 
his  history  of  the  Indies,  and  that,  to  prevent  his  mind 
being  tainted  with  bad  Latin,  he  read  his  bretiiary  in  Greek. 
There  are,  however,  some  other  particulars  of  his  personal 

1  Fabreni  Vitae  Italorum.— Moreri,— .Diet,  Hist,— Lady.  M.  W.  Mootqgne'ft 
Works,  vol.  IV.  p.  266,  edit.  1803. 

M  A  F  F  E'L  IDS 

history  which  correspond  a  little  with  all  this.  He  disliked 
the  ordinary  commons  of  the  Jesuits9  college,  and  had  al- 
ways something  very  nice  and  delicate  provided  for  hitri, 
considering  more  substantial  and  gross  food  as  incompati- 
ble with  elegant  writing ;  yet  with  all  this  care,  he  was  of 
such  an  irascible  temper  as  to  be  perpetually  giving  offence, 
and  perpetually  asking  pardon.1 

MAGALHAENS  (Ferdinand  de),  better  known  by  the 
name  of  Magellan,  an  eminent  navigator,  was  by  birth  a 
Portuguese.  He  served  with  much  reputatiou  during  five 
years  under  Albuquerque,  in  the  East  Indies,  particularly 
at  the  conquest  of  Malacca  in  1510,  but  as  his  services 
were  not  well  repaid,  he  accepted  from  Charles  V.  king  of 
Spain,  the  command  of  a  fleet,  with  which,  in  1519,  he 
discovered  the  straits  called  after  himself  at  the  extremity 
of  South  America.  Soon  after  this  he  took  possession  of 
the  Ladrone  and  Philippine  islands  in  the  name  of  Charles 
V. ;  and  had  be  acted  with  prudence,  might  have  had  the 
honour  of  being  accounted  the  first  circumnavigator  of  the 
globe.  His  severities,  however,  towards  the  natives  of 
Matan,  compelled  them  to  resist ;  aqd  in  the  contest  Ma- 
galhaens  received  a  wound  from  an  arrow  in  the  leg,  and 
being  ill  supported  by  his  men,  he  was  killed  by  a  lance,  in 

MAGALHAENS  (John  Hyacinth  de),  said  to  be  a 
lineal  descendant  (Mr.  Nichols  says  great-grandson)  of  the 
preceding,  was  born  in  1723,  and  became  an  Augustine 
monk  at  Lisbon,  but,  having  renounced  the  Roman  Catho- 
lic religion,  came  to  reside  in  England,  about  1764.  He 
was  an  able  linguist,  and  well  versed  in  chemistry  and 
other  branches  of  natural  philosophy.  He  published  seve- 
ral treatises  in  that  science,  particularly  a  work  on  mine- 
ralogy,' taken  principally  from  Cronstadt ;  an  account  of 
various  philosophical  instruments ;  and  a  narrative  of  the 
last  days  of  Rousseau,  to  which  his  name  is  not  affixed. 
He  was  elected  a  fellow  of  the  Royal  Society  in  1774,  and 
was  a  member  of.  several  foreign  academies.  He  died  at 
his  lodgings  at  Islington,  Feb.  7,  1790. 3 

MAGALOTTI  (Laurence),  a  celebrated  philosopher 
and  mathematician,  Waft  born  at  Rome  October  23,  1637. 

1  Niceron,  vol.  V.— Moreri. — BibK  Do  Maine  et  Du  Verdier,  vol.  IT; 

*  Jtallart's  Academic  des  Sciences,  vol.  II.— Rees's  Cyclopaedia. — Buroey's 
Ifrooveries  in  the  South  Safe 

*  Nichols's  fiowyer,  vol.  Vill.^Lvioos'a  Eotfroas,  toJ.  {11. 

104  MAG  A  L  O  TT  L 

After  studying  jurisprudence,  in  which  he  made  a  great 
and  very  rapid  progress  at  Pisa,  be  begail  to  devote  bis 
main   attention   to   mathematics   and   natural  philosophy, 
which  he  cultivated  at  Florence,  during  three  years,  under 
the  celebrated  Vincent  Viviani,  and  was  made  secretary  to 
the  academy  del  Cimento,  the  duties  of  which  office  be 
discharged  with  the  utmost  assiduity  and  care.     Being  di- 
rected by  the  prince  to  draw  up  an  account  of  the  experi- 
ments made  there,  he  published  it  in   1666,  when  it  was 
received  with  universal  applause  by  men  of  science.    While 
engaged  on  this  work,  he  obtained  leave  from  Leopold  to 
pay  a  visit  to  his  father  at  Rome,  and  with  a  view  to  obtain 
some  ecclesiastical  promotion.     Having  failed  in  this  ob- 
ject, he  returned  to  Florence,  and  obtained  a  place  at  the 
court  of  the  grand  duke  Ferdinand  II. ;  and  shortly  after  a 
pension  was  given   him  by  pope  Alexander  VII.     About 
1666  he  drew  up  and  published  a  small  volume  relative  to 
the  history  of  China,  which  was  received  with  great  ap- 
plause ;  and  at  the  same  time  he  published  a  small,  but 
elegant  compendium  of  the  Moral  Doctrine  of  Confucius. 
Having  considerable  poetical  talents,  he  was  the  first  per- 
son who  published  a  good  translation  of  the  Odes  of  Ana - 
creon  in  Italian  verse.     He  was  very  conversant  in  many 
of  the    modern    languages,    and   could    write   and   speak 
French,  Spanish,  and  English,  with   the  correctness  and 
ease  of  the  natives  of  those  countries.     When  in  England 
he  became  the  intimate  friend  of  the  illustrious  Mr.  Robert 
Boyle,  whom   he  vainly  attempted  to   convert  from  the 
errors  of  the  protestant  faith.     After  being  employed  in 
several  missions  to  foreign  princes,  he  was  in    1674  ap- 
pointed ambassador  to  the  imperial  court,  where  he  ac- 
quired the  particular  favour  of  the  emperor,  and  formed 
connections  with  the  men  most  eminent  for  science  and 
literature  ;  but,  finding  a  very  inconvenient  delay  of  the 
necessary  pecuniary  remittances  from  his  court,  he  deter- 
mined to  return  to  Florence  without  waiting  the  permission 
of  the  duke      Shortly  after,  that  prince  recalled  him,  and 
gave  him  apartments  in  his  palace,  with  a  considerable 
pension,  but  Magalotti  preferred  retirement,  and  the  c^tttet 
prosecution  of  his  studies.     I»  1684  he  c  composed  fifteen 
Italian  odes,  in  which  he  has  drawn  the  picture  of  a  wq- 
man  of  noble  .birth  and  exqpisite  .  beauty,  distinguished 
not  only  by  every  personal,  but  by  every  mental  charm, 
and  yet  rendering  herself  chiefly  the  object  of  admiration 

M  A  G  A  L  O  T  T  I.  101 

and  delight  by  her  manners  and  conduct,  whom,  with  no 
great  gallantly,  he  entitled  "  The  Imaginary  Lady."  His 
next  work  consisted  of  Letters  against  Atheists,  in  which 
bis  learning  and  philosophy  appear  to  great  advantage.  la 
1689  be  was  appointed  a  counsellor  of  state  to  the  grand 
duke,  who  sent  him  "his  ambassador  into  Spain  to  nego- 
tiate a  marriage  between  one  of  his  daughters  and  king 
Charles  II. ;  but  soon  after  be  had  accomplished  the  object 
of  this  mission,  he  sunk  into  a  temporary  melancholy.  Afteif 
recovering  in  about  a  year,  he  resumed  his  literary  labours, 
and  published  works  upon  various  subjects,  and  left  others 
which  were  given  to  the  world  after  his  decease,  which 
happened  in  1712,  when  he  had  attained  the  age  of  75. 
Magalotti  was  as  eminent  for  his  piety  as  he  was  for  his 
literary  talents  ;  unimpeachable  in  his  mprela,  liberal,  be- 
neficent, friendly,  polite,  and  a  lively  and  cheerful,  as 
well  as  very  instructive  companion.  His  house  was  the 
constant  resort  of  men  of  letters  from  all  countries,  whom 
he  treated  with  elegant  hospitality.  He  was  deeply  con- 
versant with  the  writings  of  the  ancient  philosophers,  and 
was  a  follower  of  the  Platonic  doctrine  in  his  poems.  In  bis 
natural  and  philosophical  investigations  he  discarded  all 
authority,  and  submitted  to  no  other  guide  but  experiment. 
Among  the  moderns  he  was  particularly  attached  to  Gali- 
leo. After  his  death  a  medal  was  struck  in  honour  of  his 
memory,  with  the  figure  of  Apollo  raised  on  the  reverse, 
and  the  inscription  Omkia  Lustrat. 

His  principal  works  are,  1.  "  Saggi  di  naturali^sperienne 
fatte  nel  academia  de  Cimento,"  &c.  1666,  fol.  reprinted 
in  1691.  2.  "  Lettera  proemiale  per  la  traduzione  della 
ooncordia  dei  quattro  'Evangeliste  di  Giansenio,,t  &c.  1680, 
with  various  other  translations,  the  titles  of  which  may  be 
seen  in  Fabroni.  3.  "  Lettere  familiare,**  Venice,  1761, 
4te,  written  against  the  Atheists.  A  second  volume  ap- 
peared in  1 768.  4:  M  Lettere  scientificfee,"  Florence,  1721, 
4to.  6.  ,c  danzonette  AnacreoMichfcdi  Lindoro  Eleato" 
(his  academical  name),  Florence,  1723,  &c.  A  long  list  is 
given  fey  Fabroni  of  hw  unpublished  #<jrk«;'  but  neither 
these  no*  his  printed  works  ate  much  known  in  England  or 

MAGGI,    or  MAGIUS   {tft/ROfttE),    an   ingenious  an* 

learned  tottta  bf^ttte  sixteentffr<eentury,  was  born  at  Anghi- 

106  M  A  G  G  I. 

ari  in  Tuscany.     He  was  educated  in  the  Italian  universi- 
ties, where  his  genius'  and  application  carried  him  almost 
through  the  whole  circle  of  sciences ;  for,  besides  the  belies 
lettres  and  law,  he  applied  to  the  study  of  war,  and  even 
wrote  books  upon  the  subject.     In  this  also  he  afterwards 
distinguished  himself:  for  he  was  sent  by  the  Venetians  to 
the  isle  of  Cyprus,  with  the  commission  of  judge-martial ; 
.and  when  the  Turks  besieged  Famagosta,  he  performed  all 
the  services  to  the  place  that  could  have  been  expected 
from  a  skilful  engineer.     He  contrived  a  kind  of  mine  and 
fire-engines,  by  which  he  laid  the  labours  of  the  Turks  in 
ruins :  and  he  destroyed  in  a  moment  works  which  had 
Cost  them  no  small  time  and  pains.     But  they  had  too 
good  an  opportunity  of  revenging  themselves  on  him ;  for 
the  city  falling  at  last  into  their  hands,  in  1571,  Magius 
became  their  slave,  and  was  used  very  barbarously.     His 
comfort  lay  altogether,  in  the  stock  of  learning  with  which 
he  was  provided  ;  and  so  prodigious  was  his  memory,  that 
he  did  not  think  himself  unqualified,  though  deprived  en- 
tirely of  books,  to  compose. treatises  full  of  quotations*     As 
he  was  obliged  all  the  day  to  do  the  drudgery  of  the 
meanest  slave,  he  spent  a  great  part  of  the  night  in  writ- 
ing.    He  wrote  in  prison  a  treatise  upon  bells,  "  De  tin- 
tinnabulis,"  and   another  upon  the  wooden  horse,  "  De 
equuleo,"     He  was  determined  to  the  first  of  these  sub- 
jects by  observing,  that  the  Turks  had  no  bells ;  and  to, 
the  second,  by  ruminating  upon  the  various  kinds  of  tor- 
ture to  which  his  dismal  situation   exposed   him,  which 
brought  to  his  reflection,  that  the  equukus  had  never  been 
thoroughly  explained.     He  dedicated  the  first  of  these 
treatises  to  the  emperor's  ambassador  at  Constantinople,  and 
the  other  to  the  French  ambassador -at  the  same  place. 
He  conjured  these  ambassadors  to  use  their  interest  for  his 
liberty  ;  which  while  they  attempted  to  procure  him,  they 
only  hastened  bis  death :  for  the  bashaw  Mahoiqet,  whQ 
had  not  forgot  the  mischief* which  Magius  had  done  the 
Tyrks  at  the  siege  of  Famagosta,  being  informed  that  he 
had  been  at  the  Imperial  ambassador's  house,  wbitber  they 
had  indiscreetly  carried  him,   caused  him  to.  be  seized 
again,  and  strangled  that  night  in  prison.     This  happened 
in  1572,  or  1573,  it  is  not  certain  which. 

The  books  which  he  published  before  he  went  to  Cyprus, 
are,  1.  "  De  mundi  exitio  per  exustionem  libri  quinque," 
Basil,  1562,  folio.    2.  "  Vitee  Hltmrium  virorum,  auctore 

M  A  G  G  I.  107 

&milio  Probo,  cum  commentariis,"  Basil,  folio.  3.  ".Corti- 
mentaria  in  quatuor  institutionum  civilium  libros,"  Lugd. 
8vo.  4.  "  Miscellanea,  sive  varice  lectiones,"  Venet.  1564, 
8to.  He  also  published  some  books  in  Italian ;  the  most 
celebrated  of  which  is  his  "  Delia  forttficatione  delle 
citta,"  which  contains  an  account  of  his  machines  and  in- 

There  were  other  men  of  considerable  eminence  in  Italy 
of  the  same  name,  among  whom  we  may  enumerate,  a 
brother  of  the  preceding,  Bartholomew  Maqqi,  a  phy- 
sician at  Bologna,  who  wrote  a  treatise  in  Latin,  "  On  the 
Cure  of  Gun-shot  Wounds/'  Bologna,  1552,  4to;  Vin- 
cent Mag«i,  a  native  of  Brescia,  and  celebrated  professor 
of  ethics  at  Ferrara  and  Padua,  author  of  several  works ; 
Francis  Maria  Maggi,  who  published  "  Syntagmata  lin- 
guarum  Georgia,"  Romae,  1670,  folio;  and  lastly,  Charles 
Maria  Maggi,  an  Italian  poet  of  the  seventeenth  century, 
and  one  of  the  restorers  of  good  taste  in  Italy,  after  the 
barbarous  ravages  of  the  school  of  Marini.     He  was  born ' 
at  Milan  in  1630,  and  was  secretary  to  the  senate  of  that 
city.     He  died  in  1690,  and  his  works  were  published  in 
the  following  year  by  Muratorf,  at  Milan,  in  4  vols.  12mo. 
This  poet  is  Mentioned  with  very  high  encomiums  in  the 
letters  between  Mrs.  Carter  and  Miss  Talbot.     The  dow- 
ager lady  Spencer  also,  when  resident  at  Pisa,  published 
a  "  Scelta"  of  his  works  ;  and  in  1811,  "  The  Beauties"  of 
C.  M.  Maggi,  "  paraphrased,'9  were  published  by  Mariane 
Starke.  * 

MAGINI  (John -Anthony),  or  Maginus,  professor  of 
mathematics  in  the  university  of  Bologna,  was  born  at 
Padua  in  1536.  .  He  was  remarkable  for  his  great  assi- 
duity in  acquiring  and  improving  the  knowledge  of  the 
mathematical  sciences,  with  several  new  inventions  for  these 
purposes,  and  for  the  extraordinary  favour  he  obtained 
from  most  princes  of  his  time.  This  doubtless  arose  partly 
from  the  celebrity  he  had  in  matters  of  astrology,  to  which 
he  was  greatly  addicted,  making  horoscopes,  and  foretell- 
ing events  both  relating  to  persons  and  things.  He  was 
invited  by  the  emperor  Rodolphus  to  come  to  Vienna, 
where  he  promised  him  a  professor's  chair,  about  1597; 
but  not  being  able  to  prevail  on  him  to  settle  there,  he 
nevertheless  gave  him  a  handsome  pension. 

»G«n,  Dict—Nictron,  vol.  XY1H— Fabrooi,  vol.  XVIL— Brit»h  Critic, 
vol.  XXXVII. 

toy  M  A  G  I  N  I. 



It  is  said,  be  was  so  mych  addicted  to  astrological  pre* 
dictions,  that  be  not  only  foretold  many  good  and  evil 
events  relative  to  others  with  success,  but  even  foretold  his 
own  death,  which  came  to  pass  the  same  year :  all  which 
he  represented  as  under  the  influence  of  the  scars.  Tama* 
sini  says,  that  Magini,  being  advanced  to  his  6 1st  y4ar, 
was  struck  with  an  apoplexy,  which  ended  his  days ;  and 
that  a  long  while  before,  he  had  told  him  and  others,  that 
be  was  afraid  of  thai  year.  And  Hoffeni,  his  pupil,  says, 
that  Magtni  died  under  an  aspect  of  the  planets,  which, 
according  to  bis  own  prediction,  would  prove  fatal  to  him  ; 
and  he  mentions  Riccioli  as  affirming  that  he  said,  the 
figure  of  his  nativity,  and  his  climacteric  year,  doomed 
him  to  die  about  that  time;  which  happened  in  1616,  in 
the  6£d  year  of  his  age. 

His  writings  do  honour  to  his  memory,  as  they  were 
very  considerable,  and  upon  learned  subjects.  The  prin- 
cipal were  die  following:  4.  His  £pheuieris,  in  3  volumes, 
from  the  year  1580  to  1630.  2.  Tables  of  Secondary  Mo* 
tions.  3.  Astronomical,  Gnomonical,  and  Geographical  Pro- 
blems. 4.  Theory  of  the  Planets,  according  to  Coperni- 
cus. 5.  A  Confutation  of  Scaliger's  Dissertation  concern- 
ing the  Precession  of  the  Equinox.  6.  A  Primum  Mobile, 
in  12  books.  7.  A  Treatise  of  Plane  and  Spherical  Trigo- 
nometry. 8.  A  Commentary  on  Ptolomy's  Geography. 
9.  A  Cborographical  Description  of  the  Regions  and  Cities 
of  Italy,  illustrated  with  60  maps ;  with  some  other  papers 
on  astrological  subjects.1 

MAGLIABECHI  (Anthony),  one  of  the  most  cele- 
brated, and  certainly  one  of  the  most  extraordinary  men 
of  bis  time,  was  born  at  Florence,  Oct.  28  or  29,  163 3. 
His  parents,  who  were  of  low  rank,  are  said  to  have  been 
satisfied  when  they  got  him  into  the  service  of  a  man  who 
sold  fruit  and  herbs.  He  had  never  learned  to  read,  and 
yet  was  perpetually  poring  over  the  leaves  of  old  books, 
that  were  used  as  waste  paper  in  his  master's  shop.  A 
bookseller  who  lived  in  the  neighbourhood,  and  who  bad 
often  observed  this,  and  knew  the  boy  could  not  read, 
asked  him  one  day,  "  what  he  meant  by  staring  so  much 
on  printed  paper  1"  He  said,  "  chat  he  did  not  know  how 
it  was,  but  that  be  loved  it ;  that  he  was  very  uneasy  in 
the  business  he  *as  in,  and  should  be  the  happiest  creature 

;v*l.  XKVL~4Hitk»'«  Bpct— Martin*  *feg>  Pfck*.— Go*.  Diet. 

M  A  C  L  I  A  B  £  C  H  L  100 

in  the  wbrid,  If  he  could  life  vrith  him,  who  had  always  §6 
jfrany  books  abtut  him/'  The  bookseller,  pleated  with 
his  answer,  consented  to  take  him,  if  taskmaster  was  willing 
to  part  with  him.  Young  Magliabechi  thanked  htm  with 
tears  in  his  eyes,  and  having  obtained  bis  master's  Wave, 
went  directly  to  bis  new  employment,  which  be  had  not 
followed  long  before  be  eoiiM  find  any  book  that  was  asked 
for,  as  ready  as  the  bookseller  himself.  This  account  of 
bis  early  life,  which  Mr.  Spenee  received  from  a  gentle- 
man of  Florence,  who  was  well  acquainted  with  Magliabe- 
chi and  his  family,  differs  considerably  from  that  given  by 
Niceron,  Tiraboscbi,  ami  Fabroni.  From  the  latter,  in* 
deed,  we  learn  that  he  was  placed  as  an  apprentice  to  a 
goldsmith,  after  he  had  been  taught  the  principles  of 
drawing,  and  he  had  a  brother  that  was  educated  to  the 
law,  and  made  a  considerable  figure  in  that  profession. 
His  father  died  while  he  was  an  infant,  but  Fabroni  makes 
no  mention  of  his  poverty.  It  seems  agreed,  however,  that 
after  he  had  learned  to  read,  that  became  his  sole  employ- 
ment, but  he  never  applied  himself  to  any  particular  study. 
He  read  every  book  almost  indifferently,  as  tbey  happened 
to  come  into  his  hands,  with  a  surprizing  quickness;  and 
yet  such  was  his  prodigious  memory,  that  be  not  only  de- 
tained the  sense  of  what  he  read,  but  often  all  the  words, 
and  the  very  manner  of  spelling  them,  if  there  was  any 
thing  peculiar  of  that  kind  in  any  author. 

This  extraordinary  application,  and  talents,  soon  recom- 
mended him  to  Ermini,  librarian  to  the  cardinal  de  Me- 
dic is,  and  to  Marmi,  the  grand  duke's  librarian,  who  in- 
troduced him  into  the  company  of  the  literati,  and  made 
him  known  at  court.  Every  where  be  began  to  be  looked 
upon  as  a  prodigy,  particularly  for  his  vast  and  unbounded 
memory,  of  which  many  remarkable  anecdotes  have  been 
given.  A  gentleman  at  Florence,  who  had  written  a  piece 
that  was  to  be  printed,  lent  the  manuscript  to  Magliabechi; 
and  some  time  after  it  had  been  returned  with  thanks,  • 
came  to  him  again  with  the  story  of  a  pretended  accident 
by  which  he  had  lost  his  manuscript.  The  author  seemed 
inconsolable,  and  intreated  Magliabechi,  whose  character 
for  remembering  what  he  read  was  already  very  great, 
to  try  to  recollect  as  much  of  it  as  he  possibly  could,  and 
Write  it  down  for  him  against  his  next  visit.  Magliabechi 
assured  him  he  would,  and  wrote  down  the  whole  MS. 
without'  missing  a  word,  or  even  varying  any  where  from 


the  spelling.  Whatever  qur  readers  may  think  of  this  trial 
of  his  memory,  it  is  certain  that  by  treasuring  up  at  least 
the  subject  and  the  principal  parts  of  all  the  books  he  ran 
over,  his  head  became  at  last,  as  one  of  his  acquaintances 
expressed  it  to  Mr.  Spence,  "  An  universal  index  both  of 
titles  and  matter.9' 

By  this  time  Magliabechi  was  become  so  famous  for  the 
vast  extent  of  his  reading,  and  his  amazing  retention  of 
what  he  had  read,  that  he  was  frequently  consulted  by  the 
learned,  when  meditating  a  work  on  any  subject  For  ex- 
ample, and  a  curious  example  it  is,  if  a  priest  was  going  to 
compose  a  panegyric  on  any  saint,  and  came  to  consult 
Magliabechi,  he  would  immediately  tell  him,  who  had  said 
any  thing  of  that  saint,  and  in  what  part  of  their  works, 
and  that  sometimes  to  the  number  of  above  an  hundred 
authors.  He  would  tell  not  only  who  had  treated  of  the 
subject  designedly,  but  point  out  such  as  bad  touched  upon 
it  only  incidentally ;  both  which  he  did  with  the  greatest 
exactness,  naming  the  author,  the  book,  the  words,  and 
often  the  very  number  of  the  page  ih  which  they  were  in- 
serted. All  this  he  did  so  often,  so  readily,  and  60  exactly^ 
that  he  came  at  last  to  be  looked  upon  as  an  oraple,  on  ac- 
count of  the  ready  and  full  answers  that  he  gave  to  all 
questions,  that  were  proposed  to  him  in  any  faculty  or 
science  whatever.  The  same  talent  induced  the  grand 
duke  Cosmo  III.  to  appoint  him  his  librarian,  and  no  man 
perhaps  was  ever  better  qualified  for  the  situation,  or  more 
happy  to  accept  it.  He  was  also  very  conversant  with 
the  books  in  the  Laureutian  library,  and  the  keeping  of 
those  of  Leopold  and  Francis  Maria,  the  two  cardinals  of 
Tuscany.  Yet  all  this,  it  is  said,  did  not  appease  his  vo- 
racious appetite ;  he  was  thought  to  have  read  all  the  books 
printed  before  his  time,  and  all  in  it.  Doubtless  this 
range,  although  v^ry  extensive,  must  be  understood  of 
Italian  literature  only  or  principally.  Crescembini  paid 
him  the  highest  compliment  on  this.  Speaking  of  a  dis- 
pute whether  a  certain  poem  had  ever  been  printed  or  not, 
he  concluded  it  had  not,  "  because  Magliabechi  had  never 
seen  it."  We  learn  farther  that  it  was  a  general  custom 
for  authors  and  printers  to  present  him  with  a  copy  of 
whatever  they  printed,  which  must  have  been  a  consider* 
able  help  towards  the  very  large  collection  of  books  which 
he  himself  made. 


His  mode  of  reading  in  his  latter  days  is  said  to  have 
been  this..  When  a  book  first  came  into  his  hands,  he 
would  look  over  the  title-page,  then  dip  here  and  there  in 
the  preface,  dedication  and  advertisements,  if  there  were 
any ;  ajid  then  cast  his  eyes  on  each  of  the  divisions,  the 
different  sections,  or  chapters,  and  then  he  would  be  able 
to  retain  the  contents  of  that  volume  in  his  memory,  and 
produce  them  if  wanted.  Soon  after  he  had  adopted  this 
method  of  what  Mr.  Spence*  calls  "  fore-shortening  his 
reading,"  a  priest  who  had  composed  a  panegyric  on  one 
of  his  favourite  saints,  brought  it  to  Magliabechi  as  a 
present.  He  read  it  over  in  his  new  way,  the  title-page 
and  heads  of  the  chapters,  &c.  and  then  thanked  the  priest 
very  kindly  "  for  his  excellent  treatise."  The  author,  in 
some  pain,  asked  him,  "  whether  that  was  all  that  he 
intended  to  read  of  his  book?"  Magliabechi  coolly  an- 
swered, "  Yes,  for  I  know  very  well  every  thing  that  is 
in  it."  This  anecdote,  however,  may  be  explained  other- 
wise than  upon  the  principles  of  memory.  Magliabechi 
knew  all  that  the  writers  before  had  said  of  this  saint,  and 
be  knew  this  priest's  turn  and  character,  and  thence  judged 
what  he  would  chuse  out  of  them  and  what  he  would  omit. 

Magliabechi  had  even  a  local  memory  of  the  place  where 
every  book  stood,  as  in  his  master's  shop  at  first,  and  in 
the  Pitti,  and  several  other  libraries  afterwards ;  and  seems 
to  have  carried  this  •farther  than  only  in  relation  to  the 
collections  of  books  with  which  he  was  personally  ac- 
quainted. One  day  the  grand  duke  sent  for  him  after  he 
was  his  librarian,  to  ask  him  whether  he .  could  get  him  a 
book  that  was  particularly  scarce.  "  No,  sir,"  answered 
Magliabechi ;  "  for  there  is  but  one  in  the  world  ;  that  is 
in  the  grand  signior's  library  at  Constantinople,  and  is  the 
seventh  book  on  the  second  shelf  on  the  right  hand  as  you 
go  in."  Though  this  extraordinary  man  must  have  lived  a 
sedentary  life,  with  the  most  intense  and  almost  perpetual 
application  to  books,  yet  he  arrived  to  a  good  old  age. 
He  died  in  his  eighty-first  year,  July  14,  1714.  By  his 
will  he  left  a  very  fine  library  of  his  own  collection  for  the 
use  of  the  public,  with  a  fund  to  maintain  it ;  and  what- 
ever should  remain  over  to  the  poor.  By  the  funds  which 
he  left,  by  the  addition  of  several  other  collections,  and 
the  bounty- of  some  of  the  grand  dukes,  his  library  was 
so  much  augmented  as  to  vie  with  some  of  the  most  cor** 
jiderable  in  Europe.     Of  this  collection,  a  catalogue  and 

lit  M  A  Gil  A  B  E  C  H  1. 

description  of  the  works  primed  in  the  fifteenth  century 
was  published  by  Fossi,  under  the  title  "  Catalogus  codi- 
cum  seeculo  XV  impressorum  in  Bibliotheca  Magliabe- 
chiana,  Florentise  adservantur,"  Florence,  3  vols.  foK  1735 

r  Of  the  domestic  habits  of  Magliabechi,  we  have  many 
accounts  that  represent  him  as  an  incorrigible  sloven.  His 
Attention  was  so  entirely  absorbed  by  his  books  and  studies, 
that  he  totally  neglected  all  the  decencies  of  form  and 
ceremony,  and  often  forgot  the  most  urgent  wants  of  hu- 
man nature.  His  employment  under  the  grand  duke  did 
not  at  all  change  his  manner  of  life  :  the  philosopher  still 
continued  negligent  in  his  dress,  and  simple  in  his  man- 
ners. An  old  cloak  served  him  for  a  gown  in  the  day,  and 
for  bed-clothes  at  night.  He  had  one  straw  chair  for  his 
table,  and  another  for  his  bed  ;  in  which  he  generally  con- 
tinued fixed  among  bis  books  till  he  was  overpowered  by 
aleep<  The  duke  provided  a  commodious  apartment  for 
him  in  his  palace ;  of  wbich  Magliabechi  was  with  much 
difficulty  persuaded  to  take  possession ;  and  which  he 
quitted  in  four  months,  returning  to  his  house  on  various 
pretences,  against  all  the  remonstrances  of  his  friends. 
He  was,  however,  characterized  by  an  extraordinary  mo* 
desty,  and  by  a  sincere  and  beneficent  disposition,  which  his 
friends  often  experienced  in  their  wants.  He  was  a  great 
patron  of  men  of  learning,  and  had  the  highest  pleasure  in 
assisting  them  with  his  advice  and  information,  in  furnish- 
ing, them  with  all  necessary  books  and  manuscripts.  Car- 
dinal Noris  used  to  call  'him  his  Maecenas;  and,  writing  to 
him  one  day,  he  told  him  he  thought  himself  more  obliged 
to  him  for  direction  in  his  studies,  than  to  the  pope  for 
raisingr  him  to  the  purple.  He  had  the  utmost  aversion 
to  any  thing  that  looked  like  constraint.  The  grand  duke 
knew  his  disposition,  and  therefore  always  dispensed  with 
his  personal  attendance  upon  him ;.  and,  when  he  had 
any  orders  to  give  him,  sent  him  them  in  writing.  The 
pope  and  the  emperor  would  gladly  have  drawn  him  into 
their  service,  but  he  constantly  refused  their  most  ho- 
nourable and  advantageous  offers.  The  regimen  he  ob- 
served contributed  not  a  little  to  preserve  his  health  to  old 
age.  He  always  kept  his  head  warmly  covered,  and  took 
at  certain  times  treacle,  which  he  esteemed  an  excellent 
preservative  against  noxious  vapours.  .  He  loved  strong 
wine,  bfit  drank  it  in  small  quantities.     He  lived  Upon  the 


plainest  and  roost  ordinary  food.  Three  hard  eggs  and  a 
dranrght  of  water  was  his  usual  repast.  He  took  tobacco, 
to  which  he  was  a  slave,  to  excess ;  but  was  absolute  mas- 
ter of  himself  in  every  other  article. 

He  died  in  the  midst  of  the  public  applause,  after  en- 
joying, during  all  the  latter  part  of  his  life,  such  an 
affluence  as  very  few  persons  have  ever  procured  by  their 
knowledge  or  learning,  and  which,  as  he  had  acquired 
honourably,  he  bestowed  liberally. 

Though  he  oever  composed  any  work  himself,  yet  the 
commonwealth  of  learning  are  greatly  obliged  to  hira  for 
several,  the  publication  of  which  was  owing  to  him;  such 
as  the  Latin  poems  of  Henry  de  Settimello,  the  "  Hodoe- 
poricon"  of  Ambrose  Carnal du la,  the  "  Dialogue"  of  Be- 
nedict Aretin,  and  many  others.  A  collection  of  letters 
addressed  to  him  by  literary  men  was  printed  at  Florence 
in  1745,  but  is  said  to  be  incomplete.  * 

MAGNI,  or  MAGNUS  (Valerian),  a  celebrated  Ca- 
puchin, born  at  Milan  in  1586,  descended  from  the  earls 
of  Magni,  acquired  great  reputation  in  the  seventeenth 
century  by  his  controversial  writings  against  the  protestants, 
and  philosophical  ones  in  favour  of  Descartes  against 
Aristotle.  He  passed  through  the  highest  offices  in  his 
Order,  and  was  apostolical  missionary  to  the  northern  king<- 
doms.  It  was  by  his  advice  that  pope  Urban  VIII.  abo* 
lished  the  Jesuitesses  in  1631.  Uladislaus  king  of  Poland, 
solicited  a  cardinal's  hat  for  Magni;  but  the  Jesuits  arc 
said  to  have  opposed  it.  They  certainly  informed  against 
him  as  a  heretic,  because  he  had  said  that  the  pope's  primacy 
and  infallibility  were  not  founded  on  scripture,  and  he  was 
imprisoned  at  Vienna  ;  but  regained  his  liberty  by  favour 
of  the  emperor  Ferdinand  III.  after  having  written  very 
warmly  against  the  Jesuits  in  his  defence,  tie  retired  at 
last  to  Saltzburg,  and  died  there,  1661,  aged  seventy- 
five.  Mention  is  made  of  Magni  in  the  sixteenth  Pro- 
vincial Letter ;  and  one  of  his  Apotogetical  Letters  may  be 
found  in  the  collection  entitled  "  Tuba  magna, n  torn.  II.* 

MAGNOL  (Peter),  a  celebrated  botanist  of  Mont- 
pellier,  was  born  in  1638.  He  Was  bredTfo  physic,  but, 
being  a  protestaut,  could  not  take  his  degree  there.  He 
appears,  however,  afterwards  to  have  obtained  i't  elsewhere, 

i  • 

i  Tirnboeehi^-Fabroni   Vit®    Jjtalprum,    fql.   ^VIJ.— f*ic^on,.r*1.   iV«-^ 
Spence's  Paralfel. 

*  Gen.  Diet.— Mors*.— L'AvocaV  Diet.  Hist.  ' 

Vol.  XXI.  I 

*14  MAGNOL 

and  practised  physic  ajt  Montpeilier  for  a  long  course  of 
.years,  and  at  the  same  time  very  assiduously  cultivated 
botany,  with  the  most  enlarged  views  to  its  advancement 
as  a  science.  He  was  beloved  for  his  urbanity,  and  esteemed 
for  his  knowledge.  Numerous  botanists  flocked  at  this 
time  to  Montpeilier,  that  neighbourhood  being  famous  for 
its  vegetable  riches ;  and  these  were  all  eager  to  enjoy  the 
society,  and  to  benefit  by  the  guidance  and  instructions  of 
so  able  a  man.  Among  the  pupils  of  Magnol  were  Fagoo 
and  the  illustrious  Tournefort,  who  regularly  studied  under 
him,  and  on  many  subsequent  occasions  gratefully  acknow- 
ledged their  obligations  to  him.  He  was  not  chosen  pub- 
lic professor  till  1694,  when  he  assumed  the  guise  at  least 
of  Catholicism. 

In  1676  our  author  published  at  Lyons  his  first  work, 
the  "  Botanicum  Monspeliense,"  republished  at  Montpei- 
lier in  1688,  with  a  new  title-page  and  appendix.     In  this1 
book  all  the  plants  enumerated  are  found  wild  about  Mont- 
peilier, and  almost  entirely  gathered  there  by  the  author 
himself.     It  is,  in  fact,  one  of  the  most  original. and  au- 
thentic works  of  its  kind,  being  to  the  Montpeilier  bo- 
tanists what  Ray's  Synopsis  is  to  those  of  Britain,  the  basis 
of  all  their  knowledge.     In  1689   Magnol   published  an 
octavo  volume  entitled   "  Prodromus   Historic  Generalis 
Plantarum,"  in  which  he  undertook  a  scheme  of  natural 
arrangement,  according  to  the  method  of  Ray,  deduced 
from  all  the  parts  of  a  plant;  and  the  vegetable  kingdom 
is.  disposed  into  76  families,,  subdivided  into  genera.     In 
1607  appeared  the  "  Horfcus  Regius  Monspeliensis,"  8vo, 
an  alphabetical  catalogue  of  the  garden,  in  which  several 
new  or  rare  species  are  described  as  well  as  figured.     In 
their  generic  distribution  the  author  conforms  to  Tourne- 
fort principally,  and  his  preface  shews  how  much  he  bad 
contemplated  this  subject  and  its  difficulties.     When  we 
consider  that  Magnol  had  had  the  care  of  the  garden  only 
three  years  previous  to  the  publication  of  this  rich  cata- 
logue, and  that  he  found  the  collection  in  a  very  poor 
state,  the  book  is  an  honourable  monument  of  his  in- 
dustry as  well  as  knowledge. 

In  1708  Magool  was  admitted  a  member  of  the  'academie 
des  sciences  of  Paris,  in  the  place  of  his  distinguished 
friend  Tournefort,  and  contributed  some  papers  to  their 
memoirs.  He  died  in  1715,  at  the  age  of  seventy-seven. 
He  left  a  son,  named  Anthony,  who  was  professor  of  phy- 

M  A  G  N  O"  L/  US 

sic  at  Montpellier,  but  not  of  Botany.  To  this  ton  we  are' 
indebted  for  the  publication  of  the  "  Novus  Character 
Plantarum,"  on  which  the  fame  of  Magnol  as  a  systematic 
botanist  chiefly  rests.  This  posthumous  work  appeared  ia 
1720,  making  a  quarto  volume  of  341  pages.  The  system 
therein  taught  is  much  celebrated  by  Linnaeus,  who  in  his 
Classes  Plantarum,  375— -403,  gives  a  general  view  of  it, 
expressing  his  wonder  that  so  new  and  singular  a  system 
had  not  made  more  proselytes.  That  noble  genus  of  trees 
or  shrubs,  called  the  Magnolia,  received  that  name  from 
Plumier,  in  honour  of  our  author. l 

MAGNON  (John),  a  French  poet  of  the  seventeenth 
century,  was  bred  up  as  an  advocate,  and  for  some  time 
followed  that  profession  at  Lyons.  He  then  became  a 
dramatic  writer,  and  produced  several  pieces,  of  which 
the  least  bad  is  a  tragedy  called  Artaxerxes  ;  this  has  some 
plot,  good  sentiments,  and  characters  tolerably  supported. 
He  then  conceived  the  extraordinary  project  of  writing  an 
encyclopaedia  in  verse,  which  was  to  consist  of  ten  volumes, 
each  containing  twenty  thousand  verses.  Being  asked, 
after  some  time,  when  this  work  would  be  finished  ?  ^  Very 
Soon,"  said  he,  "  I  have  now  only  a  hundred  thousand 
verses  to  write."  His  project,  however,  was  cutoff,  not- 
withstanding this  near  approach  to  its  conclusion,  as  he 
was  murdered  by  thieves  at  Paris,  in  1662.  His  verses 
were  bad  enough  to  account  for  bis  facility  in  producing 
them,  yet  he  was  a  friend  of  Moliere.  A  part  of  his  great 
work  appeared  in  folio  in  1663,  with  the  magnificent  title 
of  "  Science  Universelle ."  The  preface  was  still  mo?£ 
pompous :  "  Libraries,"  says  he,  "  will  hereafter  be  for 
ornament  only,  not  use."  Yet  how  few  contain  this  won- 
derful work !  2 

MAGNUS  (John),  archbishop  of  Upsal,  in  Sweden,  was 
born  at  Lincopingin  1488;  was  a  violent  oppdser  of  the 
pro  test  ant  religion,  and  laboured  much,  though  in  vain, 
to  prevent  the  king,  Gustavus,  from  introducing  it  into 
his  kingdom,  Magnus,  being  persecuted  on  this  account, 
retired  to  Rome,  where  he  was  received  with  great  marks 
of  regard,  and  died  therein  1544.  He  was  author  of,  t. 
"  A  History  of  Sweden,"  in  twenty-four  books,  published 
in  1554,  in  folio.     2."  A  History  of  the  Archbishops  of 

1  From  an  interesting  article  in  Reea's  Cyclopedia,  by  tir  J.  E.  Smith. 
*  Moreri.— Diet.  Hist-— A  copy  of  t his  "  Science  UnirerseUe"  is  in  the  British. 

I  2 


UpsaV'  which  he  carried  down  aa  low  as  1544.    This  was 
aisc  in  folkv  and,  appeared  in  \$S7  and  1560. * 

MAGNUS  (Olaus),  brother  of  the  former,  and  his  sue- 
oesfor  in  the  archbishopric  of  Upsal,  distinguished  himself 
at  the  council  of  Trent,  and  buffered  in  Sweden,  as  his 
brother  also  had  done,  many  vexations  from  his  attach- 
ment to  the  Roman  catholic  persuasion.  His  work,  by 
which  ha  is  very  generally  known,  is  "  A  History  of  the 
manners,  customs,  and  war*  of  the  People  of  the  North." 
This  contains  many  curious  particulars,  but  many  also  tfhat 
are  minute,  and  several  that  are  doubtful ;  nor  does  the 
author  ever  fail  to  display  his  animosity  against  the  pro- 
testants.     He  died  at  Rome  in  \555.1 

MAHOMET,  or  MOHAMMED,  founder  of  the  system 
of  religious  imposture  called  Mahometanism,  was  born  in 
the  year  569,  at  Mecca,  a  city  of  Arabia,  of  the  tribe  of  the 
Komhites,  which  was  reckoned  the  noblest  in  all  that 
country ;  and  was  descended  in  a  direct  line  from  Pher 
Koraish,  the  founder  of  it.  Yet  in  the  beginning  of  his 
Ufe  he  #as  in  a  very  poor  condition  ;  for  his  father  dying 
before  be  was  two  years  old,  and  while  his  grandfather  was 
Mill  living,  all  the  power  and  wealth  of  his  family  devolved 
to  his  uncles,  especially  Abu  Taleb.  Abu  Tafeb,  after 
the  death  of  his  father,  bore  the  chief  sway  in  Mecca  du- 
ring the  whole  of  a  very  long  life ;  and  it  was  under  his 
protection  chiefly,  that  Mahomet,  when  he  first  began  to 
propagate  his  imposture,  was  sufficiently  supported  against 
&U  Opposers,  so  as  to  be  able,  after  his  death,  to  establish 
it  through  all  Arabia  by  his  own  power. 

Aftef  his  father's  death  he  continued  under  the  tuition 
x)f  his  mot-feet,  till  the  eighth  year  of  his  age ;  when  she  also 
dying,  he  was  taken  home  to  his  grandfather,  who  at  his 
death,  which  happened  the  year  after,  committed  him  to 
the  care  of  bis  uncle  Abu  Taleb,  to  be  educated  by  him. 
Abii  Taleb,  being  a  merchant,*  taught  him  his  business* 
and,  as  soon  as  he  was  of  sufficient  age,  sent  him  with  his 
camels  into  Syria ;  in  which  employment  he  continued 
♦mftter  his  ttnele  till  the  25th  year  of  his  age.  One  of  the 
chief  flfren  of  the  city  then  dying,  and  his  widow,  whose 
name  was  Cadiga,  wanting  a  factor  to  manage  her  stock, 
/she  invited  Mahomet  into  her  service.     He  accepted  her 

i  Chaufepie.— Nrceron,  vol.  XXXV. 
<         «  Nk*Ton,  roi.  XXXV.— Bibl.  du  Verdi* r,  toU  III.  p.  135. 

MAHOMET.  417 

terms,  traded  three  years  for  her  at  Damascus  and  otbfr 
places,  and  acquitted  himself  in  this  charge  so  .much  to 
her  satisfaction,  that,  about  the  twenty-eighth  year  of  hip 
age,  she  gave  herself  to  him  in  marriage,  although  sbeiwajs 
twelve  years  older.  From  being  her  servant  he  was  now 
advanced  to  be  master  of  both  her  person  and  fortune; 
and,  finding  himself  equal  in  wealth  to  the  best  men  of 
the  city,  he  began  to  entertain  ambitious  thoughts  of  posr 
sessing  the  sovereignty  over  it.  ,  -i 

-  Among  the  various  means  to  effect  this,  none  $eetm$4 
to  him  more  eligible  than  that  imposture  which  he  after- 
wards published  with  so  much  success,  and  so  much  mis? 
xhief  to  thexworld.  The  extensive  trade  which  he  carried 
on  in  Egypt,  Palestine,  and  Syria,  having  made  him  w$tjl 
acquainted  with  both  Christians  and  Jews,  and  given  bioa 
an  opportunity  of  observing  with  what  eagerness  they  an 4 
the  several  sects  into  which  the  Christians  of  the  Eastwer* 
then  miserably  divided,  engaged  against  each  other,  h? 
concluded  that  nothing  would  be  more  likely  to  gain  9 
party  firm  to  him  for  the  attaining  the  ends  at  which  bj 
aimed,  than  the  invention  of  a  new  religion.  In  thjs> 
however,  he  proceeded  lejsu  rely ;  for  it  was  not  till  hi? 
thirty-eighth  year  that  he  began  to  prepare  his  design* 
,He  then  withdrew  himself  from  his  former  way  of  livings 
which  is  said  to  have  been  very  licentious  and  wicked ; 
and,  affecting  an  hermit's  life,  used  every  morning  tq 
retire  into  a  solitary  cave  near  Mecca,  called  the  Cave  of 
Rira ;  and  there  continued  all  day,  exercising  himself,  a$ 
he  pretended,  in  prayers,  fastings,  and  holy  meditations. 
Thus  he  went  on  for  two  years,  during  which  time  h§ 
gained  over  his  wife  Cadiga,  who  was  his  first  proselyte, 
oy  pretending  visions  which  be  had  seen,  and  voices  which 
he  had  heard,  in*  his  retirement.  It  is  to  be  observed, 
says  Dr.  Prideaux,  that  Mahomet  began  this  imposture 
about  the  same  time  that  the  bishop  of  Rome,  by  virtue, 
of  a  grant  from  the  tyrant  Ph ocas,  first  assumed  the  title 
of  universal  pastor.  Phocas  made  this  grant  in  the  year 
606,  and  Mahomet  in  the  same  year  retired  to  his  cave  to 
contrive  that  deception  which  be  beg^n  in  the  year  608 
to  propagate  at  Mecca. 

In  his  fortieth  year,  Mahomet  h§gan  to  t^ke  upon  him, 
the  style  of  the  Apostle  pf  God,  ami  under  that  character 
to  ca,rry  on  the  plan  which  h$  bfl|d  now  contrived  ;  but  for 
four  years  bf  confiue4  &*>  ^QCtrins?  f#  such  as  be  either 

118  MAHOMET. 

bad  most  confidence  in,  or  thought  himself  most  likely  to 
'gain.     When  he  had  gained  a  few  disciples,  some  of  whom, 
however,  were  the  principal  men  of  the  city,  he  began  to 
publish  it  to  the  people  at  Mecca,  in  his  forty-fourth  year, 
and  openly  to  declare  himself  a  prophet  sent  by  God,  to 
convert  them  from  the  error  of  paganism,  and  to  teach 
them  the  true  religion.     On  his  first  appearance,  he  was 
treated  with  derision  and  contempt,  and  called  by  the  peo- 
ple a  sorcerer,  magician,  liar,  impostor,  and  teller  of  fables; 
of  which  he  frequently  complains  in   the  Koran ;  so  that 
for  the  first  year  he  made  little  or  no  progress.     But  per- 
severing in  his  design,  which  he  managed  with  great  ad- 
dress, he  afterwards  gained  so  many  proselytes,  that  in  the 
fifth  year  of  his  pretended  mission,  he  had  increased  his 
party  to  the  number  of  thirty-nine,  himself  making   the 
fortieth.     People  now  b^gan  to  be  alarmed  at  the  progress 
he  made.     Those  who  were  addicted  to  the  idolatry  of 
their  forefathers,  stood  up  to  oppose  him  as  an  enemy  of 
their  gods,  and  a  dangerous  innovator  in  their  religion. 
Others,  who  saw  further  into  his  designs,  thought  it  time 
to  put  a  stop  to  them,  for   the  sake   of  preserving  the 
government,  at  which  they  thought  he  aimed  :  and  there- 
fore they  combined  together  against  him,  and  intended  to 
have  cut  him  off  with  the  sword.  But  Abu  Taleb,  his  uncle, 
defeated  their  design ;  and  by  his  power,  as  being  chief 
of  the  tribe,  preserved  him  from  many  other  attempts  of 
the  same  nature  ;  for  though  Abu  Taleb  himself  persisted 
in  the  paganism  of  bis  ancestors,  yet  he  had  so  much 
affection  for  the  impostor,  as  being  his  kinsman,  and  one 
that  was  bred  up  in  his  house,  and  under  his  care,  that  he 
extended  his  full  protection  to  Mahomet  as  long«as  he  lived. , 
The  principal  arguments,  which  Mahomet  employed  to 
delude  men  into  a  belief  of  this  imposture,  were  promises 
and  threats,  both  well  calculated  to  influence  the  affections 
of  the  vulgar.      His  promises  were  chiefly  of  Paradise, 
which  with   great  art  he  framed  agreeably  to  the  taste  of 
the  Arabians  t  for  they,  lying  within  the  torrid  zone,  were, 
through  the  nature  of  their  climate,  as  well  as  the  corrup- 
tion of  their  manners,  exceedingly  given  to  the  love  of 
women  ;  and  the  scorching  heat  and  dryness  of  the  coun- 
try, making  rivers  of  water,  cooling  drinks,  shaded  gar- 
dens, and  pleasant  fruits,  most  refreshing  and  delightful 
unto  them,    they  were  from  hence  apt  to  place   their 
highest  enjoyment  in  things  of  this  nature.    For  this  rea- 

MAHOMET.  11* 

son,  be  made  the  joys  of  hU  Paradise  to  consist  totally  in 
these  particulars ;  which  he  promises  them  abundantly  in 
many  places  of  the  Koran.     On  the  contrary,  he  described 
the  punishments  of  hell,  which  he  threatened  to  all  who 
would  not  believe  in  him,  to  consist  of  such  torments  as 
would  appear  to  them  the  most  afflicting  and  grievous  to 
be  borne ;  as,  "  that  they  should  drink  nothing  but  boil- 
ing and  stinting  water,  nor  breathe  any  thing  but  exceed- 
ing hot  winds,  things  most  terrible  in  Arabia;,  that  they 
should  dwell  for  ever  in  continual  fire,  excessively  burning, 
and  be  surrounded  with  a  black  hot  salt  smoke,  us  with  a 
coverlid,  &c."  and,  that  he  might  omit  nothing  which  could 
work  on  their  fears,  he  terrified  them  with  the  threats  of. 
grievous  punishments  in  this  life.     To  which  purpose  be 
expatiated,  upon  all  occasions,  on  the  terrible  calamities 
which  had  befallen  such  as  would  not  be  instructed  by  the 
prophets  who  were  sent  before  him;  how  the  old  world 
was  destroyed  by  water,  for  not  being  reformed  at  the 
preaching  of  Noah;  how  Sodom  was  consumed  by  fire 
from  heaven,  for  not  hearkening  to  Lot  when  sent  unto 
them  ;  and  how  the  Egyptians  were  plagued  for  despising 
Moses  :  for  he  allowed  the  divinity  of  both  the  Old  and 
New  Testament,  and  that  Moses  and  Jesus  Christ  were 
prophets  sent  from  God  ;  but  alledged  that  the  Jews  and 
Christians  -had  corrupted  those  sacred  books,  and  that  he 
was  sent  to  purge  them  from  those  corruptions,  and  to 
restore  the  law  of  God  to  that  original  purity  in  which  it 
was  firsb  delivered.     And  this  is  the  reason,  that  most  of 
the  passages  which  he  takes  out  of  the  Old  and  New  Tes- 
taments, appear  different  in  the  Koran  from  what  we  find 
tbem  in  those  sacred  books. 

Mahomet  pretended  to  receive  all  his  revelations  from 
the  angel  Gabriel,  who,  he  said,  was  sent  from  God,  on 
purpose  to  deliver  them  unto  him.  He  was  subject,  it  is 
said,  to  the  falling-sickness,  and  whenever  the  fit  was  upon 
him,  be  pretended  it  to  be  a  trance,  and  that  then  the 
angel  -Gabriel  was  come  from  God  with  some  new  revela- 
tions. These  revelations  lie  arranged  in  several  chapters  ; 
which  make  -up  the  Koran,  the  Bible  of  the  Mahometans. 
The  original  of  this  book  was  laid  up,  as  he  taught  his  fol- 
lowers, in  the  archives  of  heaven  ;  and  the  angel  Gabriel 
brought  him  the  copy  of  it,  chapter  by  chapter,  as  occa- 
sion required  that  they  should  be  published  to  the  people  ; 
that  is,  as  often -as  any  new  measure  w?s  to  be  pursued, 

13*  MAHOMET. 

any  objection  against  him  or  bis  religion  to  be  answered, 
any  difficulty  to  be  solved,  any  discontent  among  bis  peo- 
ple to  be  quieted,  any  offence  to  be   removed,  or  any 
thing  else,  done  for  the  furtherance  of  his  grand  scheme, 
his  constant  recourse  was  to  the  angel  Gabriel  for  a  new 
revelation  ;  and  then  appeared  some  addition  to  the  Ko- 
ran, to  serve  bis  purpose.     But  what  perplexed  him  most 
was,  that  his  opposers  demanded  to  see  a  miracle  from 
him ;  "  for,"  said  they,  "  Moses,  and  Jesus,  and  the  rest 
of  the  prophets,  according  to  thy  own  doctrine,  worked 
miracles  to  prove  their  mission  from  God  ;  and  therefore, 
if  thou  be  a  prophet,  and  greater  than  any  that  were  sent 
before  thee*  as  thou  boastest  thyself  to  be,  do  thou  work 
the  like  miracles  to  manifest  it  onto  us."     This  objection 
he  endeavoured  to  evade  bv  several  answers  :  all  of  which 
amount  only  to  this,  "  that  God  had  sent  Moses  and  Jesus 
with  miracles,  and  yet  men  would  not  be  obedient  to  their 
word ;  and  therefore  he  had  now  sent  him  in  the  last  place 
without  miracles,  to  force  them  by  the  power  of  the  sword 
to  do  his  will."     Hence  it  has  become  the  universal  doc- 
trine of  the  Mahometans,  that  their  religion  is  to  be  pro- 
pagated by  the  sword,  and  that  all  true  mussulmen  are 
bound  to  tight  for  it.     It  has  even  been  said  to  be  a  cus- 
tom among  tjiem  for  their  preachers,  while  they  deliver 
their  sermons,  to  have  a  drawn  sword  placed  by  them,  to 
denote,  that  the  doctrines  they  teach  are  to  be  defended 
and  propagated   by   the   sword.     Some  miracles,   at  the 
same  time,  Mahomet  is  said  to  have  wrought ;  as,  "  That 
he  clave  the  moon  in  two  ;  that  trees  went  forth  to  meet 
him,  &c.  &c."  but  those  who  relate  them  are  only  such  as 
are  ranked  among  their  fabulous  and  legendary  writers : 
their  learned  doctors  renounce  them  ail ;  and  when  they 
are  questioned,  how  without  miracles  they  can  prove  his 
mission,  their  common  answer  is,  that  the  Koran  itself  is 
the  greatest  of  all  miracles;  for  that  Mahomet,  who  was 
an  illiterate  person,  who  could  neither  write  nor  read,  or 
that  any  man  else,  by  human  wisdom  alone,  should  be  able  to 
compose  such  a  book,  is,  they  think,  impossible.     On  this 
Mahomet  himself  also  frequently  insists,   challenging  in 
several  places  of  the  Koran,  both  men  and  devils,  by  their* 
united  skill,  to  compose  any  thing  equal  to  it,  or  to  any 
part  of  it     From  all  which  they  conclude,  and  as  they 
think,  infallibly,  that  this  book  could  come  from  none  other 
but  God  himself ;  and  that  Mahomet,  from  whom  they  re- 
ceived it,  was  his  messenger  to  bring  it  unto  them. 


That  the  Koran,  as  to  style  and  language,  is  tbe.stan- 
dard  of  elegance  in  the  Arabian  tongue,  and  that  Maho- 
met was  in  truth  what  they  affirm  him  to  have  been,  a  rude 
and  illiterate  man*  are  points  agreed  on  all  sides.     A  ques- 
tion therefore  will  arise  among  those  who  are  not  so  sure 
that  this  book  was  brought  by  the  angel  Gabrtel  from  hea- 
ven, by  whose  help  it  was  compiled,  and  the  imposture 
framed  ?     There  is  the  more  reason  to  ask  this,  because 
this. book  itself  contains  so  many  particulars  of  the  Jewish 
and  Christian  religions,  as  necessarily  suppose  the  authors 
of  it  to  have  been  well  skilled  in  both;  which  Mahomet, 
who  was  bred  an  idolater,  and  lived  so  for  the  first  forty 
years  of  his  life,  among  a  people  totally  illiterate,  for  such 
his  tribe  was  by  principle  and  profession,  cannot  be  sup- 
posed to  have  been  :  but  this  is  a  question  not  so  easily  to 
be  answered,  because  the  nature  of  the  thing  required  it  to 
have  been   transacted   very  secretly.      Besides  this,    the 
scene  of  this  imposture  being  at  least  six  hundred  mites 
within  the  country  of  Arabia,  amidst  those  barbarous  na- 
tions, who  all  immediately  embraced  it,  and  would   not 
permit  any  of  another  religion  to  live  among  them,  it  could 
not  at  that  distance  be  so  well  investigated  by  those  who 
were  most  concerned  to  discover  the  fraud.     That  Maho- 
met  composed  the  Koran  by  the  help  of  others,  was  a  thing 
well  known  at  Mecca,  when  he  first  published  his  impos- 
ture there ;  and  be  was  often  reproached  on  that  account 
by  his  opposers,  as  he  himself  more  than  once  complains. 
In  the  twenty-fifth  chapter  of  the  Koran,  his  words  are : 
"  They  say,  that  the  Koran  is  nothing  but  a  lie  of  thy  own 
invention,  and  others  have  been  assisting  to  thee  herein.*1 
A  passage  in  the  sixteenth  chapter  also,  particularly  points 
at  one  of  those  who  was  then  looked  upon  to  have  had  a 
principal  hand  in  this  matter:  "  I  know  they  will  say,  that 
a  man  hath  taught  him  the  Koran ;  but  he  whom  they  pre- 
sume  to   have  taught  him   is  a  Persian   by   nation,   and 
apeaketb  the  Persian   language.     But  the  Koran  is  in  the 
Arabic  tongue,  full  of  instruction  and  eloquence/'  •  The 
person  here  pointed  at,  was  one  Abdia  Ben  Salon,  a  Per- 
sian Jew,  whose  name  he  afterwards  changed  into  Ab- 
dullah Ebn  Salem,  to  make  it  correspond  with  the  Arabic 
dialect ;  and  almost  aH  who  have  written  of  this  imposture 
have  mentioned  him tas  ihe  chief  architect  used  by  Aiabo* 
met  in  the  framing  of  it :  for  he  was  an  artfol  man,  tfeo-i 
roughly  skilled  in  all  the  learning  of  the  Jews;  aud  there* 

122  M  A  H  O  M  E  T. 


fore  Mahomet  seems  to  have  received  from  him  whatsoever 
of  the  rites  and  customs  of  the  Jews  he  has  ingrafted  into 
his  religion.     Besides  this  Jew,  the  impostor  derived  some 
aid  from  a  Christian  monk :  and  the  many  particulars  in 
the  Koran,  relating  to  the  Christian  religion,  plainly  prove 
him  to  have  had  such  an  helper.     He  was  a  monk  of  Syria, 
of  the  sect  of  the  Nestorians.     The  name  which  he  had  in 
his  monastery,  and  which  he  has  since  retained  among  the 
western  writers,  is  Sergius,  though  Bahira  was  that  which 
he  afterwards  assumed  in  Arabia,  and  by  which  he  has  ever 
since  been  mentioned  in  the  East,  by  all  that  write  or  speak 
of  him.     Mahomet,  as  it  is  related,  became  acquainted 
with  this  Bahira,  in  one  of  his  journeys  into  Syria,  either  at 
Bostra  or  at  Jerusalem  :  and  receiving  great  satisfaction 
from  him  in  many  of  those  points  in  which  he  had  desired 
to  be  informed,   contracted  a  particular  friendship  with 
him  i  so  that  Bahira  being  not  long  after  excommunicated 
for  some  great  crime,  and  expelled  his  monastery,  fled  to 
Mecca  to  him,  was  entertained  in  his  house,  and  became 
his  assistant  in  the  framing  of  his  imposture,  and  continued 
with  him  ever  after ;  till  Mahomet  having,  as  it  is  reported, 
po  farther  occasion  for  him,  to  secure  the  secret,  put  him 
to  death. 

Many  other  particulars  are  recorded  by  some  ancient 
writers,  both  as  to  the  composition  of  the  Koran,  and  also 
as  to  the  manner  of  its  first  propagation  ;  as,  that  the  im- 
postor taught  a  bull  to  bring  it  him  on  his  horns  in  a  pub- 
lic assembly,  as  if  it  had  been  this  way  sent  to  him  from 
God ;  that  he  bred  up  pigeons  to  come  to  his  ears,  to 
make  it  appear  as  if  the  Holy  Ghost  conversed  with  him ; 
stories  which  have  no  foundation  at  all  in  truth,  although 
they  have  been  credited  by  great  and  learned  men.  Gro- 
tius  in  particular,  in  that  part  of  his  book  "  De  veritate, 
&c."  which  contains  a  refutation  of  Mahometanism,  relates 
the  story  of  the  pigeon ;  on  which  our  celebrated  orien- 
talist Pococke,  who  undertook  an  Arabic  version  of  that 
performance,  asked  Grotius,  "  Where  he  had  picked  up 
this  story,  whether  among  the  Arabians,  or  the  Christians  ?" 
To  which  Grotius  replied,  that  "  he  had  not  indeed  met. 
with  it  in  any  Arabian  author,  but  depended  entirely  upon 
the  authority  of  the  Christian  writers  for  the  truth  of  it." 
Pococke  .thought  fit,  therefore,  to  omit  it  in  his  version, 
lest  we  should  expose  ourselves  to  the  contempt  of  the 
Arabians,  by.  not.  being  able  to  distinguish  the  religion  o£ 

M  A  H  O  M  £  T.  18* 

Mahomet  from  the  tale*  and  fictions  which  its  enemies 
have  invented  concerning  it;  and  by  pretending  to  con* 
fate  the  Koran,  without  knowing  the  foundation  on  which 
its  authority  stands. 

In  the  eighth  year  of  bis  pretended  mission,  his  party 
growing  formidable  at  Mecca,  the  city  passed  a  decree,  by 
which  they  forbade  any  more  to  join  themselves  with  him. 
This,  however,  did  not  much  affect  him,  while  his  uncle 
Abu  Taleb  lived  to  protect  him  :  but  he  dying  two  years 
after,  and  the  government  of  the  city  then  falling  iiuo  the 
hands  of  his  enemies,  the  opposition  was  renewed  against 
him,  and  a  stop  soon  put  to  the  further  progress  of  his  de- 
sighs  at  Mecca.  Mahomet,  therefore,  seeing  all  bis  hopes 
crushed  here,  began  to  think  of  settling  elsewhere;  and  as 
his  uncle  Abbas  lived  for  the  most  part  at  Tayif,  a  town 
sixty  miles  distant  from  Mecca  towards  the  East,  and  was 
a  man  of  power  and  interest,  he  took  a  journey  thither, 
tinder  his  protection,  in  order  to  propagate  his  imposture 
there.  But,  after  a  month's  stay,  finding  himself  unable 
to  gain  even  one  proselyte,  he  returned  to  Mecca,  with  a 
resolution  to  wait  for  such  further  advantages  as  time  and 
opportunity  might  offer..  His  wife  Cadiga  being  now  dead, 
after  living  with  him  twenty-two  years,  he  took  two  other 
wives  in  her  stead,  Ayesha  the  daughter  of  Abubeker,  and 
Lewda  the  daughter  of  Zama ;  adding  a  while  after  to 
them  a  third,  named  Haphsa  the  daughter  of  Omar ;  and 
by  thus  making  himself  son-in-law  to  three  of  the  princi- 
pal men  of  his  party,  he  strengthened  his  interest  consi- 

In  the  twelfth  year  of  his  pretended  mission  is  placed 
the  mesra,  that  is,  his  famous  night-journey  from  Mecca 
to  Jerusalem,  and  thence  to  heaven ;  of  which  he  tells  us 
in  the  seventeenth  chapter  of  the  Koran ;  for  the  people 
calling  on  him  for  miracles  to  prove  his  mission,  and  find- 
ing himself  unable  to  feign  any,  to  solve  the  matter,  he 
invented  this  story  of  his  journey  to  heaven.  The  stpry, 
as  related  in  the  Koran,  and  believed  by  the  Mahometans, 
is  this.  At  night,  as  he  lay  in  his  bed  with  his  best  be* 
loved  wife  Ayesha,  be  heard  a  knocking  at  his  door;  upon 
which,  arising,  he  found  there  the  angel  Gabriel,  with 
seventy  pair  of  wings  expanded  from  his  sides,  whiter  thaa 
snow,  and  clearer  than  crystal,  and  the  beast  Alboruk 
standing  by  him ;  which,  they  say,  is  the  beast  on  which 
the  prophets  used  to  ride  when  they  were  carried  from  one 

124  MAHOMET. 

place  to  another,  upon  the  execution  of  any  divine  com* 
inand.  Mahomet  describes  it  to  be  a  beast  as  white  as 
milk,  and  of  a  mixt  nature,  between  an  ass  and  a  mule, 
and  of  a  size  between  both,  but  of  such  extraordinary  swift- 
ness as  to  equal  even  lightning  itself. 

As/ soon  as  Mahomet  appeared  at  the  door,  the  angel 
Gabriel  kindly  embraced  him,  saluted  him  in  the  name  of 
God,  and  told  him  that  he  was  sent  to  bring  him  unto  God 
into  heaven  ;  where  he  should  see  strange  mysteries,  which 
were  not  lawful  to  be  seen  by  any  other  man.  He  prayed 
him  then  to  get  upon  Alborak  ;  but  the  beast  having  lain 
idle  and  unemployed  from  the  time  of  Christ  to  Mahomet, 
was  grown  so  mettlesome  and  skittish,  that  he  would  not 
stand  still  for  Mahomet  to  mount  him,  till  at  length  he  was 
forced  to  bribe  him  to  it,  by  promising  him  a  place  in  Pa- 
radise. When  he  was  firmly  seated  on  him,  the  angel 
Gabriel  led  the  way,  with  the  bridle  of  the  beast  in  his 
hand,  and  carried  the  prophet  from  Mecca  to  Jerusalem 
in  the  twinkling  of  an  eye.  On  his  coming  thither,  all  the 
departed  prophets  and  saints  appeared  at  the  gate  of  the 
temple,  to  salute  him ;  and  thence,  attending  him  into 
the  chief  oratory,  desired  him  to  pray  for  them,  and  then, 
withdrew.  After  this,  Mahomet  went  out  of  the  temple 
•  with  the  angel  Gabriel,  and  found  a  ladder  of  light  ready 
fixed  for  them,  which  they  immediately  ascended,  leaving 
Alborak  tied  to  a  rock  till  their  return. 

On  their  arrival  at  the  first  heaven,  the  angel  knocked 
at  the  gate ;  and  informing  the  porter  who  he  was,  and 
that  he  had  brought  Mahomet  the  friend  of  God,  he  was 
immediately  admitted.  This  first  heaven,  be  tells  us,  was 
all  of  pure  silver ;  from  whence  he  saw  the  stars  hanging 
from  it  by  chains  of  gold,  each  as  big  as  mount  Noho, 
near  Mecca,, in  Arabia.  On  his  entrance,  he  met  a  de* 
crepid  old  man,  who,  it  6eems,  was  our  first  father,  Adam  ; 
and  as  he  advanced,  he  saw  a  multitude  of  angels  in  all 
manner  of  shapes ;  in  the  shape  of  birds,  beasts,  and  men. 
We  must  not  forget;  to  observe,  (hat  Adam  had  the  piety 
immediately  to,  embrace  the ,  prophet,  giving  God  thauks 
for  so  great  a  son ;  and  then  recommended  himself  to  his 
prayers.  .Frpjm  this  first  heaver))  the  impostor  tells  us*  he 
ascended. into  the  secwd,  whiph  was,  at  tft$  (  five, 
hundred  ye%rs  journey  above  it ;  aj)d,  be  makes  to  be 
the  distance  of  every  one  of  the/seven  heaven,?,  each  above 
ib^Qtfaer*:,  Jiejte  the  gatsfr  being  opepedto  him  as  before, 

MAHOMET.  12* 

at  his  entrance  he  met  Noah,  who,  rejoicing  much  at  the 
sight  of  him,  recommended  himself  to  his  prayers.  Thi» 
heaven  wis  all  of  pure  gold,  and  there  were  twice  as  many 
angels  in  it  as  in  the  former ;  for  he  tells  us  that  the  num- 
ber of  angels  in  every  heaven  increased  as  he  advanced. 
From  this  second  heaven  he  ascended  into  the  third,  which 
was  made  of  precious  stones,  where  ,he  met  Abraham,  who 
also  recommended  himself  to  his  prayers  ;  Joseph  the  son 
of  Jacob,  did  the  same  in  the  fourth  heaven,  which  was 
all  of  emerald  ;  Moses  in  the  fifth,  which  was  all  of  ada- 
mant ;  and  John  the  Baptist  in  the  sixth,  which  was  all  of 
carbuncle  :  whence  he  ascended  into  the  seventh,  which 
was  all  of  divine  light,  and  here  he  found  Jesus  Christ. 
However,  it  is  observed,  that  here  he  alters  his  style ;  for 
he  does  not  say  that  Jesus  Christ  recommended  himself  to 
his  prayers,  but  that  he  recommended  himself  to  the 
prayers  of  Jesua  Christ. 

The  angel  Gabriel  having  brought  him  thus  far,  told 
him  that  he  was  not  permitted  to  attend  him  any  further; 
and  therefore  directed  him  to  ascend  the  rest  of  the  way  to 
the   throne  of  God  by  himself.     This  he  performed  with 
great    difficulty,    passing    through   rough   and  dangerous 
places,  till  he  came  where  he  heard  a  voice,  saying  unto 
hicn,    **  O  Mahomet,    salute  thy  Creator ;"    whence,  as- 
cending higher,  be  came  into  a  place  where  he  saw  a  vast 
expansion  of  light,  so  exceedingly  bright,  that  his  eyes 
could  not  bear  it.     This,  it  seems,  was  the  habitation  of 
the  Almighty,  where  his  throne  was  placed ;  on  the  right 
side  of  which,  he  says,  God's  name  and  his  own  were  writ- 
ten in  these  Arabic  words  :   "  La  ellah  ellallah  Mohammed 
resul  ollah  ;"  that  is,  "  There  is  no  God  but  God,  and 
Mahomet  is  his  prophet,"  which  is  at  this  day  the  creed  of 
the  Mahometans.     Being  approached  to  the  divine  pre- 
sence, he  tells  us  that  God  entered  into  a  familiar  converse 
with  him,  revealed  to  him  many  hidden  mysteries,  made 
-  him  understand  the  whole  of  his  law,  gave  him  many  things 
in  charge  concerning  his  instructing  men  in  the  knowledge 
of  it;  and  in  conclusion,  bestowed  on  him  several  privi- 
leges above  the  rest  of  mankind.     He  then  returned,  and 
found  the  angel  Gabriel  waiting  for  him  in  the  place  where 
he  left  him.     The  angel  led  him  back  along  the  seven 
heavens,  through  which  he  had  brought  him,  and  set  him 
again  upon  the  beast  Alborak,  which  stood  tied  at  the  rock 
pear  Jerusalem.    Then  he  conducted  him  back  to  Mecca, 

126  MAHOMET. 

in  tbe  same  manner  as  he  brought  him  thence.;  and  aH  thf* 
within  the  space  of  the  tenth  part  of  one  night. 

On  his  relating  this  extravagant  fiction  to  the  people  the 
next  morning  after  he  pretended  the  thing  to  have  hap- 
pened, it  was  received  by  them,  as  it  deserved,  with  a  ge- 
neral outcry  ;  and  the  imposture  was  never  in  greater 
danger  of  being  totally  blasted,  than  by  this  ridiculous 
fable.  But,  how  ridiculous  soever  the  story  may  appear, 
Mahomet  had  a  further  design  in  it  than  barely  telling  such 
a  miraculous  adventure  of  himself  to  the  people.  Hitherto 
he  had  only  given  them  the  Koran,  which  was  his.  written 
law ;  and  had  pretended  to  be  nothing  more  than  barely 
the  messenger  of  God  in  publishing  it,  as  it  was  delivered 
to  him  by  the  angel  Gabriel.  But  now,  learning  from  his 
friend  Abdalla,  that  the  Jews,  besides  the  written  law  dic- 
tated by  God  himself,  bad  also  another  law,  called  the 
oral  law,  given  with  it,  as  they  pretend,  to  Moses  himself 
while  in  the  mount ;  and  understanding  that  this  law, 
which  had  its  whole  foundation  in  the  sayings  and  dictates 
of  Moses,  was  in  as  great  veneration  with  them  as  the 
other ;  he  had  a  mind  for  the  future  to  advance  his  autho- 
rity to  tbe  same  pitch,  and  to  make  all  his  sayings  and 
dictates  pass  for  oracles  among  the  mussulmen,  as  those 
which  were  pretended  to  proceed  from  Moses  did  among 
the  Jews ;  and  for  this  end  chiefly  it  was,  that  he  invented 
this  story  of  his  journey  to  heaven. 

The  story,  however,  whatever  advantages  he  might  gain 
by  it  when  the  imposture  became  more  firmly  established, 
was  deemed  at  present  so  grossly  ridiculous,  that  it  occa- 
sioned the  revolt  of  many  of  his  disciples,'  and  made  his 
stay  at  Mecca  no  longer  practicable.  But  what  he  lost  at 
Mecca  he  gained  at  Medina,  then  called  Yathreb,  a  city  ly- 
ing 270  miles  north-west  from  Mecca  ;  which  was  inhabited, 
the  one  part  by  Jews,  and  the  other  by  heretical  Christians. 
These  two  parties  not  agreeing,  feuds  and  factions  rose  at 
length  so  high  among  them,  that  one  party,  exasperated 
against  the  other,  went  over  to  Mahomet.  Thus  we  are 
told,  that  in  the  thirteenth  year  of  his  pretended  mission, 
there  came  to  him  from  thence  seventy-three  men  and  two 
women.  Twelve  of  these  he  retained  awhile  with  him  at 
Mecca,  to  instruct  them  in  his  n£w  religion ;  then  sent 
them  back  to  Yathreb,  as  his  twelve  apostles,  to  propagate 
it  in  that  town.  In  this  they  laboured  abundantly,  and 
with  such  success,  that,  in  a  short  time  they  drew  over,  the 

MAHOMET.  1527 

greatest  part  of  the  inhabitants;  of  which  Mahomet  re- 
ceiving an  account,  resolved  to  go  thither  immediately, 
fading  it  unsafe  to  continue  any  longer  at  Mecca. 

On  the  12th  day  of  the  month,  which  the  Arabs  call  the 
Former  Rabia,  that  is,  on  the  24th  of  our  September,  he 
came  to  Yathreb,  and  was  received  with  great  acclamations 
by  the  party  which  called  him  thither.  This  party  is  sup*' 
posed  to  have  been  the  Christians,  and  this  supposition  is 
con6rmed  by  what  he  says  of  each  of  them  in  the  fifth 
chapter  of  the  Koran,  which  is  one  of  the  first  he  published 
after  his  coming  to  Yathreb.  His  words  are  these:  "  Thou 
shalt  find  the  Jews  to  be  very  great  enemies  to  the  true 
believers,  and  the  Christians  to  have  great  inclination  and 
amity  towards  them."  By  which  we  may  see  into  what  a 
deplorable  decay  the  many  divisions  and  distractions  which 
then  reigned  in  the  eastern  church  had  brought  the  Chris- 
tian religion,  when  its  professors  could  so  easily  desert  it 
for  that  gross  imposture  which  an  illiterate  barbarian 
proposed  to  them.  On  his  first  coming  to  Yathreb,  he 
lodged  in  the  bouse  of  Chalid  Abu  Job,  one  of  the  chief 
men  of  the  party  that  called  him  thither,  till  be  had  built 
a  house  for  himself.  This  he  immediately  undertook,  and 
erected  a  mosque  at  the  same  time,  for  the  exercise  of  his 
new-invented  religion  ;  and  having  thus  settled  himself  in 
this  town,  he  continued  there  to  the  time  of  his  death. 
From  this  flight  of  Mahomet,  the  Hegira,  which  is  the  aera 
of  the  Mahometans,  begins  its  computation  :  Hegira,  in 
the  Arabic  language,  signifying  flight.  It  was  first  ap- 
pointed by  Omar,  the  third  emperor  of  the  Saracens,  and 
takes  its  beginning  from  the  16th  of  July,  in  the  year  622* 
Indeed  the  day  that  Mahomet  left  Mecca  was  on  the  first 
of  the  Former  Rabia ;  and  he  came  to  Medina  on  the  12th 
of  the  same  month,  that  is  on  the  24th  of  our  September  ; 
but  the  Hegira  begins  two  months  before,  from  the  first 
of  Mobarram  :  for,  that  being  the  first  month  of  the  Ara- 
bian year,  Omar  would  make  no  alteration  as  to  that,  but 
anticipated  the  computation  fifty-nine  days,  that  he  might 
commence  his  sera  from  the  beginning  of  that  year,  in 
which  the  flight  of  the  impostor  happened,  from  which  it 
took  its  name. 

The  first  thing  that  Mahomet  did  after  he  had  settled 
himself  at  Medina,  was  to  marry  his  daughter  Fatima  to 
his  cousin  Ali.  She  was  the  only  child  then  living  of  six 
which  were  born  to  him  of  Cadiga  his  first   wife ;    and 

128  MAHOMET. 

indeed  the  only  one  which  h4  had,  notwithstanding  the  mill* 
titude  of  his  wives  who  survived  hihn.  Having  now  ob- 
tained the  end  at  which  he  had  long  been  aiming,  that  is, 
that  of  having  a  town  &t  his  command,  he  entered  upon  a 
scheme  entirely  new.  Hitherto  he  Bad  been  only  preach- 
ing his  religion  for  thirteen  years  together ;  for  the  re- 
maining ten  years  of  his  life  he  took  the  sword,  and  fought 
for  it  He  had  long  been  teazed  and  perplexed  at  Mecca 
with  questions,  and  objections,  and  disputes  about  what  he 
had  preached,  by  which  he  was  often  put  to  silence ;  but 
henceforth  he  forbad  all  manner  of  disputing,  telling  his 
disciples  that  his  religion  was  to  be  propagated  not  by  dis- 
puting, but  by  fighting.  He  commanded  them  therefore 
to  arm  themselves,  and  slay  with  the  sword  all  that  would 
not  embrace  it,  unless  they  submitted  to  pay  a  yearly  tri- 
bute for  the  redemption  of  their  lives  :  and  according  to 
'  this  injunction,  even  to  this  day,  all  who  live  under  any 
Mahometan  government,  and  are  not  of  their  religion,  pay 
an  annual  tax  for  a  mulct  of  their  infidelity;  and  are  pu- 
nished with  death  if  they  contradict  or  oppose  any  doc- 
trine taught  by  Mahomet.  After  he  had  sufficiently  in- 
fused this  doctrine  into  his  disciples,  he  next  proceeded 
to  put  it  in  practice ;  and  having  erected  his  standard,  called 
them  all  to  come  armed  to  it.  His  first  expeditions  were 
against  the  trading  caravans,  in  their  journeys  between 
Mecca  and  Syria,  which  he  attacked  with  various  success  ; 
and  if  we  except  the  establishing  and  adjusting  a  few  par- 
ticulars relating  to  his  grand  scheme,  as  occasion  required^ 
his  time,  for  the  two  first  years  after  his  flight,  was  wholly 
spent  in  predatory  excursions  upon  his  neighbours,  in 
robbing,  plundering},  and  destroying  all  those  that  lived 
near  Medina,  who  would  not  embrace  his  religion. 

In  the  third  year  of  the  Hegira,  A.  D.^624,  he  made, 
war  upon  those  tribes  of  the  Arabs  which  were  of  the  Jew- 
ish religion  near  him  ;  and  having  taken  their  castles,  and 
reduced  them  under  his  power,  he  sold  them  all  for  slaves, 
and   divided  their  goods  among  his  followers.      But  the. 
battle  of  Ohud,  which  happened  towards  the  end  of  this 
year,  had  like  to  have  proved  fatal  to  him ;  for  his  uncle 
Hamza,  who  bore  the  standard,  was  killed,  himself  grie- 
vously wounded,  and  escaped  only  by  one  of  his  compa- 
nions coming  to  his  assistance.     This  defeat  gave  rise  to. 
many  objections  against  bim  ;  some  asked,  How  a  prophet 
of  God  could  be  overthrown  in  a  battle  by  the  infidels  r 

MAHOMET.  119 

and  others  murmured  as  much  for  the  loss  of  their  frienchr 
and  relations  who  were  slain.  To  satisfy  the  former,  he 
laid  the  cause  of  the  overthrow  on  the  sins  of  some  that 
followed  him  ;  and  said,  that  for  this  reason  God  suffered 
them  to  be  overthrown,  that  so  the  good  might  be  distin- 
guished from  the  bad,  and  that  those  who  were  true  be- 
lievers might  on  this  occasion  be  discerned  from  those  who 
were  not.  To  quiet  the  complaints  of  the  latter,  he  in* 
vented  his  doctrine  of  fate  and  predestination ;  telling  them 
that  those  who  were  slain  in  the  battle,  though  they  bad 
tarried  at  home  in  their  houses,  must  nevertheless  have 
died  at  that  moment,  the  time  of  every  man's  life  being 
predetermined  by  God ;  but  as  they  died  fighting  for  the 
faith,  they  gained  the  advantage  of  the  crown  of  martyr- 
dom, and  the  rewards  which  were  due  to  it  in  Paradise  $ 
both  which  doctrines  served  his  purpose  so  well,  that  he 
propagated  them  afterwards  on  all  occasions.  They  have 
also  been  the  favourite  notidns  of  the  Mahometans  ever 
since,  and  enforced  especially  in  their  wars ;  where,  it  must 
be  owned,  nothing  can  be  more  conducive  to  make  them 
fight  valiantly,  than  a  settled  opinion,  that  to  whatever 
dangers  they  expose  themselves,  they  cannot  die  either 
sooner  or  later  than  is  predestinated  by  God ;  and  that,  in 
case  this  predestined  time  be  come,  they  shall,  by  dying 
martyrs  for  their  religion,  immediately  enter  into  Paradise 
as  the  reward  of  it. 

In  the  fourth  year  of  the  Hegira,  A.  D.  625,  he  waged 
war  with  the  Nadirites,  a  tribe  of  the  Jewish  Arabs  in  thef 
neighbourhood ;  and  the  same  year  fought  the  battle  of 
Beder,  and  had  many  other  skirmishes  with  those  who  re- 
fused to  submit :  in  all  Which  he  had  sometimes  prosperous 
and  sometimes  dubious  success.  But  while  his  army  was 
abroad  on  these  expeditions,  some  of  his  principal  men 
engaging  in  play  and  drinking,  quarrelled,  and  raised 
such  a  disturbance  among  the  rest,  that  they  had  like  to 
have  endangered  his  whole  scheme ;  and,  therefore,  to 
prevent  any  mischief  of  this  kind  for  the  future,  he  forbade 
the  use  of  wine,  and  all  games  of  chance.  In  the  fifth  and 
sixth  years,  he  was  engaged  in  various  wars,  and  subdued 
several  tribes  of  the  Arabs.  After  so  many  advantages  ob- 
tained, being  much  increased  in  strength,  he  marched  his 
army  against  Mecca,  and  fought  a  battle  near  it ;  the  con- 
sequence of  which  was,  that,  neither  side  gaining  any  vie* 
tory,  they  agreed  on  a  truce  for  ten  years.  The  condition^ 

Vol.  XXI.  K 

1.10  MAHOMET. 

of  it  were,  that  all  within  Mecca,  who  were  for  Mahomet, 
might  have  liberty  to  join  themselves  to  him ;  and  on  the 
other  side,  those  with  Mahomet,  who  had  a  mind  to  leave 
him,  might  haye  the  liberty  to  return  to  Mecca.  By  this 
truce,  Mahomet,  being  very  much  confirmed  in  his  power, 
took  on  him.  thenceforth  the  authority  of  a  king,  and  was 
inaugurated  as  such  by  the  chief  men  of  his  army. 

Having  thus  made  a  truce  with  the  men  of  Mecca,  and 
thereby  obtained  free  access*  for  any  of  his  party  to  go  into 
that  city,  he  ordained  them  to  make  pilgrimages  thither, 
which  have  ever  since  been  observed,  with  much  super- 
stition, by  all  his  followers,  once  every  year ;  and  now 
being  thus  established  in  the  sovereignty,  at  which  he  had 
long  been  aiming,  he  assumed  ail  the  insignia  belonging 
to  it;  still  retaining  the  sacred  character  of  chief  pontiff  of 
his  religion,  as  well  as  the  royal.,  with  which  he  was  in- 
vested. He  transmitted  both  to  his  successors,  who,  by 
the  title  of  Caliphs,  reigned  after  him  :  so  that,  like  the 
'  Jewish  princes  of  the  race  of  Maccabees,  they  were  kings 
and  chief-priests  of  their  people  at  the  same  time.  Their 
pontifical  authority  consisted  chiefly  in  giving  the  inter- 
pretation of  the  Mahometan  law,  in  ordering  all  matters 
of  religion,  and  in  praying  and  preaching  in  their  public 
mosques  :  and  this  at  length  was  all  the  authority  the  ca- 
liphs had  left ;  as  they  were  totally  stripped  of  the  rest, 
first  by  the  governors  of  the  provinces,  who,  about  the 
325th  year  of  the  Hegira,  assumed  the  regal  authority  to 
themselves,  and  afterwards  by  others,  who  gradually 
usurped  upon  them  ;  till  at  length,  after  a  succession  of 
ages,  the  Tartars  came  in,  and,  in  that  deluge  of  destruc- 
tion with  which  they  over-ran  all  the  East,  put  a  total  end 
not  only  to  their  authority,  but  to  their  very  name  and 
being.  Ever  since  that  time,  most  Mahometan  princes 
have  a  particular  officer  appointed  in  their  respective  do- 
minions, who  sustains  this  sacred  authority,  formerly  in- 
vested in  their  caliphs ;  who  in  Turkey  is  called  the  Mufti, 
and  in  Persia  the  Sadre.  But  they,  being  under  the  power 
of  the  princes  that  appoint  them,  are  in  reality  the  mere 
creatures  of  state,  who  make  the  law  of  Mahomet  speak 
just  such  language  as  is  .necessary  to  support  the  measures 
of  the  government,  however  unjust  or  tyrannical. 

In  the  seventh  year  of  the  Hegira,  A.  D.  628,  the  im- 
postor led  forth  his  army  against  Caibar,  a  city  inhabited 
fcy  Ar^hs  of  the  Jewish  religion  ;  and,  after  routing  them 

MAHOMET*.  131 

ift  battle,  he  besieged  their  city,  and  took  it  by  storm. 
Having  entered  the  town,  he  took   up  his  quarters  in  the 
house  of  Hareth,  one  of  the  principal  inhabitants  of  the 
place,    whose  daughter  Zainoh,    preparing  a  shoulder   of 
mutton  -for  his  supper,  poisoned  it.    Here  those  who  would 
ascribe  miracles  to  Mahomet,  tell  us,  that  the  shoulder  of 
mutton  spake  to  him,  and  discovered  that  it  was  poisoned ; 
but,  if  it  did  so,  it  was,  it  seems,  too  late  to  do  him  any 
good ;  for  Basher,  one  of  his  companions,  beginning  too 
greedily  to  eat  of  it,  fell  down  dead  on  the  place ;  and  al- 
though Mahomet  had  not  immediately  the  same  fate,  be- 
cause, not  liking  the  taste,  he  spit  out  again  what  he  had 
taken  into  his  mouth,  yet  he  took  enough  to  have  a  fatal 
effect ;  for  he  never  recovered,  and,  at  the  end  of  three 
years,  died  of  this  meal.     The  maid  being  asked  why  she 
did  this,  answered,  that  "  she  had  a  mind  to  make  trial, 
whether  he  Were  a  prophet  or  not :  for,  were  he  a  prophet," 
said  she,    "  he  would  certainly  know  that  the  meat  was 
poisoned,  and  therefore  would  receive  no  harm  from  it; 
but,  if  he  were  not  a  prophet,  she  thought  she  should  do 
the  world  good  service  in  ridding  it  of  so  wicked  a  ty- 
rant." -  ' 

After  this,  he  reduced  under  his  subjection  other  towns 
belonging  to  the  Jewish  Arabs,  and  having  increased  his 
strength  by  these  acquisitions  to  an  army  of  10,000  men,  he 
resolved  to  make  himself  master  of  Mecca.  For  this  pur- 
pose, pretending  that  the  people  of  Mecca  had  broken  the 
truce,  he  marched  suddenly  upon  them,  before  they  were 
aware  of  his  design :  when,  being  utterly  incapable  of 
putting  themselves  into  any  posture  of  defence  against 
him,  they  found  themselves  necessitated  to  surrender  im- 
mediately. As  soon  as  it  was  heard  among  the  neighbour* 
ing  Arabs,  that  Mahomet  had  made  himself  master  of 
Mecca,  several  other  tribes  made  head  against  him,  and 
in  the  first  encounter  routed  his  army,  though  greatly  su- 
perior to  theirs  in  number :  but  the  impostor,  having  ga- 
thered up  his  scattered  forces,  and  rallied  them  again  into 
a  body,  acted  more  cautiously  in  the  second  conflict,  and 
gave  his  enemies  a  total  defeat,  and  took  from  them  their 
baggage,  with  their  wives  and  children,  and  all  their  sub- 
stance. After  this,  his  power  being  much  increased,  the 
fame  of  it  so  terrified  the  rest  of  the  Arabs,  who  had  not 
yet  felt  his  arms,  that  they  ail  submitted  to  him.  So  that* 
in  this  year,,  which  is  the  tenth  of  the  Hegira,  and  the 


133    •  MAHOMET. 

63ist  of  our  Lord,  his  empire  and  bis  religion  became 
established  together  through  all  Arabia. 

Jfe  spent  t£e  remainder  of  the  year  in  sending  lieute- 
nant* into  all  his  provinces,  to  govern  in  bis  name,  to  de- 
stroy the  heathen  temples,  and  all  the  other  retrains  of  the 
Arabian  idolatry,  and  establish  his  religion  in  its  stead. 
Towards  the  end  of  it,  he  took  a  journey  in  pilgrimage  to 
itlecca,  where  a  great  concourse  of  people  resorted  to  him 
from  all  parts  of  Arabfa,  whom  be  instructed  in  bis  law, 
and  then  returned  to  Medina.     This  pilgrimage  is  called, 
by  his  followers,  the  pilgrimage  of  valediction,  because  it 
was  the  last  he  made :  for,  after  his  return  to  Medina,  he 
began  daily '  to  decline,  through  the  force  of  that  poisoi* 
which  he  had  taken  three  years  before  at  Caibar.     It  had 
never  been  removed  from  his  constitution,  and  at  length, 
brought  him  so  low,  that  he  was  forced,  on  the  28th  day 
of  Saphar,  the  second  month  of  their  year,  to  take  to  hi* 
bed;  and?  on  the   12th  day  of  the  following  month,  he 
died,  after  a  sickness  of  thirteen  days.   During  his  sicknesa 
he  much  complained  of  the  meat  which  he  had  taken  at 
Caibar  ;  telling  those  who  came  to  visit  him,  that  he  had 
felt  the  torments  of  it  in  his  body  ever  since  :  so  that,  not- 
withstanding the  intimacy  he  pretended  with  the  angel 
Gabriel,  and  the  continual  revelations  be  received  from 
him,  he  could  not  be  preserved  from  perishing  by  the  snares 
of  a  girl. 

He  was  buried  in  the  place  where  he  died,  which  wag 
in  the  chamber  of  his  best-beloved  wife,  at  Medina.  The 
story  that  Mahomet's  tomb,  being  of  iron,  is  suspended  in 
the  air,  under  a  vault  of  loadstones,  i?  a  mere  fable  ;  and 
the  Mahometans  laugh,  when  they  know  that  the  Chris- 
tians relate  it,  as  they  do  other  stories  of  him,  for  a  cer- 
tain matter  of  fact.  A  king  of  Egypt,  indeed,,  formerly 
attempted  to  do  this,  when  he  had  a  mind  tp  procure  the 
same  advantage  to  a  statue  of  bis  wife.  "  Dinocrates  the 
architect,"  says  Pliny,  "had  begun  to  roof  the  temple 
of  Arsinoe,  at  Alexandria,  with  load-stone,  that  her 
image,  made  of  iron,  might  seem  to  hang  there  in  the 
air."  But  no  such  attempt  was  ever  made  in  regard  to 
Mahomet ;  whose  body  continued  in  the  place  where  he 
was  buried,  without  having  been  moved  or  disturbed* 
They  have,  it  is  said,  built  over  it  a  small  chapel,  joining 
to  one  of  the  corners  of  the  chief  mosque  of  that  city  i 
the  first  mosque  which  was  erected  to  that  impious  super* 


stition,  Mahomet  himself  being,    as  hath  been  related 
above,  the  founder  of  it. 

Thus  ended  the  life  of  this  famous  impostor,  who  was 
sixty-three  years  old  on  the  day  he  died,  according  to  the 
Arabian  calculation,  which  makes  only  sixty-one  of  out 
years.  For  twenty-three  years  he  had  taken  upon  him  to 
be  a  prophet ;  of  which  he  lived  thirteen  at  Mecca,  and 
ten  at  Medina,  during  which  time,  by  his  great  address 
and  management,  he  rose  from  the  meanest  beginnings  to 
such  a  height  of  power  as  to  be  able  to  make  one  of  the 
greatest  revolutions  that  ever  happened  in  the  world.  This 
revolution  immediately  gave  birth  to  an  empire,  which,  in 
eighty  years,  extended  its  dominion  over  more  kingdoms 
and  countries  than  the  Roman  empire  cpuld  subdue  in 
eight  hundred :  and,  although  it  continued  in  its  flourish-* 
ing  condition  not  much  above  three  hundred  years,  yet 
out  of  its  ashes  have  sprung  up  many  other  kingdoms  and 
empires,  of  which  there  are  three  at  this  day,  the  largest, 
if  not  the  most  potent  upon  the  face  of  the  earth  ;  namely; 
the  empire  of  Turkey,  the  empire  of  Persia,  and  the  em- 
pire of  the  Mogul  in  India.  Mahomet  was  a  man  of  a 
good  stature  and  a  comely  aspect,  and  affected  much  to  be 
thought  like  Abraham.  He  had  a  piercing  and  sagacious 
wit,  and  was  extremely  wcjl  versed  in  all  those  arts  which 
are  necessary  to  lead  mankind.  In  the  first  part  of  his 
life,  be  was  wicked  and  licentious,  much  delighted  in  ra- 
pine, plunder,  and  bloodshed,  according  to  the  usage  of 
the  Arabs,  who  have  generally  followed  this  kind  of  life, 
The  Mahometans,  however,  would  persuade  us,  that  he 
was  a  saint  from  the  fourth  year  of  his  age  :  for  then,  they 
say,  the  angel  Gabriel  separated  him  from  his  fellows,  white 
he  was  at  play  with  them ;  and,  carrying  him  aside,  cut  open 
his  breast,  took  out  his  heart,  and  wrung  out  of  it  that  black 
drop  of  blood,  in  which  they  imagined  was  contained  the  fames 
peccati\  so  that  he  had  none  of  it  ever  after.  This  is  contra* 
dieted,  however,  by  two  predominant  passions,  ambition 
and  lust.  The  coqrse  which  he  took  to  gain  empire  abun- 
dantly shews  the  former  ;  and  the  multitude  of  women  with 
whom  he  was  connected,  proves  the  latter.  While  Cadiga 
lived,  which  was  till  his  fiftieth  year,  it  does  not  appear  that 
he  had  any  other  wife :  for,  she  being  the  origin  and  foun- 
dation of  all  his  fortunes  and  grandeur,  it  is  probable  be 
durst  not  displease  her,  by  bringing  in  another  wife.  But 
she  waa  no  soonei'  dead,  th^n  he  multiplied  them  to  a  great 

134  MAHOMET.  0 

number,  besides  which  he  had  several  concubines.  They 
thai  reckon  the  fewest,  allow  him  to  have  married  fifteen  ; 
but  others  reckon  them  to  have  been  one  and  twenty,  of 
which  five  died  before  him,  six  he  divorced,  and  ten  were 
alive  at  his  death. 

But  of  ail  his  wives,  Ayesha,  the  daughter  of  that  Abu-* 
beker  who  succeeded  him,  was  by  far  his  best  beloved. 
He  married  her  very  young,  and  took  care  to  have  her 
bred  up  in  all  the  learning  of  Arabia,  especially  in  the  ele- 
gance of  their  language,  and  the  knowledge  of  their  anti- 
quities ;  so  that  she  became  at  length  one  of  the  most  ac- 
complished ladies  of  her  time.  She  was  a  bitter  enemy  to 
Ali,  he  being  the  person  who  discovered  her  incontinence 
to  Mahomet,  and  therefore  employed  all  her  interest,  upon 
every  vacancy,  to  binder  him  from  being  chosen  Caliph, 
althouga,  as  son-in-law  to  the  impostor,  he  had  the  fairest 
pretence  to  it ;  and  when  at  last,  after  having  been  thrice 
put  by,  he  attained  that  dignity,  she  appeared  in  arms 
against  him ;  and  although  she  did  hot  prevail,  caused 
such  a  defection  from  hiip,  as  ended  in  his  ruin.  She  lived 
forty-eight  years  after  the  death  of  Mahomet,  and  was  in 
great  reputation  with  her  sect,  being  called  by  them  the 
Prophetess,  and  the  mother  of  the  faithful/  One  of  the 
principal  arguments  which,  the  followers  of  Mahomet  used, 
to  excuse  his  having  so  many  wives,  is,  that  he  might  be- 
get young  prophets :  he  left,  however,  neither  prophet 
nor  prophetess  long  behind  him  of  all  his  wives.  The  six 
children  which  he  had  by  Cadiga,  his  first  wife,  all  died 
before  him,  except  Fatima,  the  wife  of  Ali,  who  only  sur- 
vived him  sixty  days ;  and  he  had  no  child  by  any  of  the 

As  the  impostor  allowed  the  divinity  of  the  Old  and 
New  Testament,  it  is  natural  to  suppose  that  he  would  at- 
tempt to  prove  his  own  mission  from  both  ;  and  the  texts 
used  for  this  purpose  by  those  who  defend  his  cause,  are 
these  following.  In  Deuteronomy  it  is  said,  "  The  Lord 
came  down  from  Sinai,  and  rose  up  from  Seir  unto  them  : 
he  shined  forth  from  mount  Pharan,  and  he  came  with  ten 
thousand  of  saints:  from  his  right-hand  went  a  fiery  law 
for  them.9'  By  these  words,  according  to  the  Mahometans, 
are  meant  the  delivery  of  the  law  to  Moses,  on  mount  Si- 
nai ;  of  the  gospel  to  Jesus,  at  Jerusalem  ;  and  of  the 
Koran  to  Mahomet,  at  Mecca :  for,  say  they,  Seir  are  the 
mountains  of  Jerusalem,  where  Jesus  appeared $  .and  Pha* 

MAHOMET.  135 

ran  the  mountains  of  Mecca,  where  Mahomet  appeared. 
But  they  are  here  mistaken  in  their  geography ;  for  Pha- 
ran  is  a  city  of  Arabia  Petreea,  near  the  Red  Sea,  towards 
the  bottom  of  the  gulph,  not  far  from  the  confines  of  Egypt 
and  Palestine,  and  above  500  miles  distant  from  Mecca. 
It  was  formerly  an  episcopal  see,  under  the  patriarchs  of 
Jerusalem,  and  famous  for  Theodorus,  once  bishop  of  it? 
who  was  the  first  that  published  to  the  world  the  opinion  of 
the  Monothelites.  It  is  at  this  day  called  Fara :  and  hence 
the  deserts,  lying  from  this  city  to  the  borders  of  Pales-* 
tine,  are  called  the  deserts  or  wilderness  of  Pharan,  and 
the  mountains  lying  in  it,  the  mountains  of  Pbaran,  in  holy, 
scripture;  near  which  Moses  first  began  to  repeat,  and 
more  clearly  to  explain  the  law  to  the  children  of  Israel, 
before  his  death :  and  it  is  to  that;  to  which  the  text 
above  mentioned  refers. 

The  Psalmist  has  written,  u  Out  of  Sion,  the  perfecr 
tion  of  beauty,  God  hathshined  ;"  which  the  Syriac  version 
reads  thus,  "Out  of  Sion  God  bath  shewed  a  glorious 
crown."  From  this  some  Arabic  translation  having  ex- 
pressed the  two  last  words  by  "  eclilan  mahmudan,"  that 
is,  "  an  honourable  crown,"  the  Mahometans  have  under- 
stood the  name  Mahomet;  and  so  read  the  word  thus, 
"  Out  of  Sion  hath  God  shewed  the  crown  of  Mahomet." 
In  Isaiah  we  read,  "  And  he  saw  a  chariot,  with  a  couple4 
of  horsemen,  a  chariot  of  asses  and  a  chariot  of  camels.1' 
But  the  old  Latin  version  hath  it,  "  Et  vidit  currum  duo- 
rum  equitum,  ascensorein  asini,  &  ascensorem  cameli ;" 
that  is,  "  And  he  saw  a  chariot  of  two  horsemen,  a  rider 
upon  an  ass,  and  a  rider  uppn  a  camel."  Here,  by  the 
rider  upon  an  ass,  they  understand  Jesus  Christ,  because 
he  so  rode  to  Jerusalem  ;  and  by  the  rider  upon  a  camel 
Mahomet,  because  he  was  of  the  Arabians,  who  used  to 
ride  upon  camels.  Our  Saviour,  in  St.  John,  tells  his  dis- 
ciples, "  If  I  go  not  away,  the  Comforter  will  not  come 
unto  you  :  but  if  I  depart,  I  will  send  him  unto  you."  By 
the  Comforter,  the  Mahometans  will  have  their  prophet 
Mahomet  to  be  meant :  and  therefore,  among  other  titles, 
they  gave  him  that  of  Paraclet,  which  is  the  Greek  word 
used  in  this  text  for  the  Comforter,  made  Arabic.  They 
also  say,  that  the  very  name  of  Mahomet,  both  here  and  in 
other  places  of  the  gospel,  was  expressly  mentioned  ;  but*' 
that  the  Christians  have,  through  malice,  blotted  it  out, 
and  shamefully  corrupted  those  holy  writings ;  nay,  they 


insist,  that  at  Paris  there  is  a  copy  of  the  Gospels  without 
those,  corruptions,  in  which  the  coming  of  Mahomet  is 
foretold  in  several  places,  with  his  name  expressly  men- 
tioned in  them.  Such  a  copy,  it  must  be  owned,  would 
be  highly  convenient,  and  to  the  purpose  :  for  then  it  would 
be  no  easy  matter  to  refute  this  text  in  the  61st  chapter  of 
the  Koran  \  "  Remember,  that  Jesus,  the  son  of  Mary,  said 
to  the  children  of  Israel,  i  am  the  messenger  of  God  :  he 
hath  sent  me  to  confirm  the  Old  Testament,  and  to  declare 
unto  you,  that  there  shall  come  a  prophet  after  me,  whose 
name  shall  be  Mahomet." 

It  is  not  our  business  to  confute  these  glosses ;  and  if  it 
was,  the  absurdity  of  them  is  sufficiently  exposed  by  barely 
relating  them.  Upon  the  whole,  since  the  Mahometans 
can  find  nothing  else  in  all  the  books  of  the  Old  and  New 
Testament  to  wrest  to  their  purpose,  but  the  texts  above- 
mentioned,  it  appears  to  us,  that  their  religion,  as  well  as 
its  founder,  is  likely  to  receive  but  little  sanction  from  the 

~  Mahomet  was  succeeded  by  Abubeker,  agreeably  to  the 
wishes  of  the  deceased  prophet ;  who,  after  a  reign  of  two 
years,  was  followed  by  Omar ;  and  in  the  twelfth  year  of 
his  government  he  received  a  mortal  wound  from  the  hand 
of  an  assassin,  and  made  way  for  the  succession  of  Oth« 
4nan,  the  secretary  of  Mahomet.  After  the  third  caliph, 
twenty-four  years  after  the  death  of  the  prophet,  Ali  was 
invested,  by  the  popular  choice,  with  the  regal  and  sacer- 
dotal office.  Among  the  numerous  biographers  of  Maho- 
met, we  may  reckon  Abulfeda,  Maracci,  Savary,  Sale, 
Prideaux,  Boulainvilliers,  D'Herbelot,  Gagnier,  Gibbon, 
9nd  the  author  of  the  article  in  the  Modern  Universal  His- 
tory.  * 

MAHOMET  II.  the  eleventh  sultan  of  the  Turks,  born 
at  Adrianople,  the  24th  of  March,  1430,  is  to  be  remem- 
bered chiefly  by  us,  for  taking  Constantinople  in  1453, 
and  thereby  driving  many  learned  Greeks  into  the  West, 
which  was  a  great  cause  of  the  restoration  of  learning  in 
Europe,  as  the  Greek  literature  was  then  introduced  here. 
He  was  on£  of  the  greatest  men  upon  record,  with  regard 
to  the  qualities  necessary  to  a  conqueror :  and  he  conquered 
two  empires,  twelve  kingdoms,  and  two  hundred  consider- 
able cities.     He  was  very  ambitious  of  the  title  of  Great, 

1  Prideayx  has  been  chiefly  followed  in  the  preceding  account 

MAHOMET.  137 

which  the  Turks  gave  him,  and  even  the  Christians  haye 
not  disputed  it  with  him  ;  for  he  was  the  first  of  the  Otto- 
man emperors,  whom  the  Western  nations  dignified  with 
the  title  of-  Grand  Seignior,  or  Great  Turk,  which  pos- 
terity has  preserved  to  his  descendants.  Italy  had  suffered 
greater  calamities,  but  she  had  never  felt  a  terror  equal  to 
that  which  this  sultan's  victories  imprinted.  The  inhabit* 
ants  seemed  already  condemned  to  wear  the  turban  ;  it  is 
pertain  that  pope  Sixtus  IV.  represented  to  himself  Rome 
as  already  involved  in  the  dreadful  fate  of  Constantinople ; 
and  thought  of  nothing  but  escaping  into  Provence,  and 
once  more  transferring  the  holy  see  to  Avignon.  Ac- 
cordingly, the  news  of  Mahomet's  death,  which  happened 
the  3d  of  May,  1481,  was  received  at  Rome  with  the 
greatest  joy  that  ev?r  was  beheld  there.  Sixtus  caused 
all  the  churches  to  be  thrown  open,  made  the  trades-people 
leave  off  their  work,  ordered  a  feast  of  three  days,  with 
public  prayers  and  processions,  commanded  a  discharge 
of  the  whole  artillery  of  the  castle  of  St.  Aqgelo  all  that 
time,  and  put  a  stop  to  his  journey  to  Avignon.  Some 
authors  have  written  that  this  sultan  was  an  atheist,  and 
derided  all  religions,  without  excepting  that  of  his  pro- 
phet, whom  he  treated  as  no  better  than  a  leader  of  ban- 
ditti. This  is  possible  enongh ;  and  there  are  many  cir- 
cumstances which  make  it  credible.  It  is  certain  he  en<* 
gaged  in  war,  not  to  promote  Mahometism,  bur  to  gratify 
his  own  ambition  :  be  preferred  his  own  interest  to  that  of 
the  faith  he  professed ;  and  to  this  it  was  owing  that  he 
tolerated  the  Greek  church,  and  even  shewed  wonderful 
civility  to  the  patriarch  of  Constantinople.  His  epitaph 
deserves  to  be  noted ;  the  inscription  consisted  only  of  nine 
or  ten  Turkish  words,  thus  translated :  "  I  proposed  to 
myself  the  conquest  of  Rhodes  and  proud  Italy." 

He  appears  to  be  the  first  sultan  who  was  a  lover  of  arts 
and  sciences ;  and  even  cultivated  polite  letters.  He  often 
rfead  the  History  of  Augustus,  and  the  other  Ceesars ;  and 
be  perused  those  of  Alexander,  Constantine,  and  Theodo- 
aius,  with  more  than  ordinary  pleasure,  because  thete  had 
reigned  in  the  same  country  with  himself.  He  was  fond 
of  painting,  music,  and  sculpture ;  and  he  applied  himself 
to  the  study  of  agriculture.  He  was  much  addicted  to  • 
astrology,  and  used  to  encourage  his  troops  by  giving  out 
that  the  motion  and  influence  of  the  heavenly  bodies  pro- 
mised him  the  empire  of  the  world.   Contrary  to  the  genius 

13S  MAHOME  t. 

of  his  country,  he  delighted  so  much  in  the  knowledge 
of  foreign  languages,  that  he  not  only  spoke  the  Arabian, 
to  which  the  Turkish  laws,  and  the  religion  of  their  legis- 
lator Mahomet  are  appropriated,  but  also  the  Persian,  the 
Greek,  and  the  French,  that  is,  the  corrupted  Italian. 
Landin,  a  knight  of  Rhodes,  collected  several  letters 
which  this  sultan  wrote  in  the  Syriac,  Greek,  and  Turkish 
languages,  and  translated  them  into  Latin.  Where  the 
originals  are  is  not  known ;  but  the  translation  has  been 
published  several  times;  as  at  Lyons,  1520,  in  4 to;  at 
Basil,  1554,  12 mo,  in  a  collection  published  by  Opori- 
nus;  at  Marpurgh,'  1604,  in  8vo,  and  at  Leipsic,  1690, 
in  12mo.  Melchior  Junius,  professor  of  eloquence  at 
Strasburg,  published  at  Montbeliard,  1595,  a  collection 
of  letters,  in  which  there  are  three  written  by  Mahomet  II. 
to  Scanderbeg.  One  cannot  discover  the  least  air  of 
Turkish  ferocity  in  these  letters  :  they  are  written  in  as 
civil  terms  as  the  most  polite  prince  in  Christendom  could 
have  used.1 

MAIER  (Michael),  a  celebrated  German  alchymist  and 
rosicrucian  of  the  seventeenth  century,  who  sacrificed  his 
health,  his  fortune,  his  time,  and  his  understanding,  to 
those  ruinous  follies,  wrote  many  works,  all  having  re- 
ference, more  or  less,  to  the  principles  or  rather  absurdi- 
ties of  his  favourite  study.  The  following  are  mentioned 
as  the  chief  of  these  publications.  1.  "  Atalanta  fugiens," 
1618,  4to,  the  most  rare  and  curious  of  his  works.  2. 
u  Septimana  philosophica,"  1620,  4to.  In  both  these 
works  he  has  given  abundance  of  his  reveries.  3.  "  Si- 
lentium  post  clamores,  seu  tractatus  Revelationum  fratrum 
rose®  Crucis,"  1617,  8vo.  4*  "  De  fraternitate  rosea& 
Crucis,"  1618,  8vo.  5.  "  Jocus  severus,"  1617,  4to. 
6.  "  De  rosea  C  nice,"  1618,  4to.  7.  "  Apologeticus  re*< 
velationum  fratrum  rosea?  Crucis,*'  1617,  8vo.  8.  "Canti- 
lenee  intellectuales,"  Rome,  1624.  9.  "  Museum  Chy- 
micum,"  1708,  4to.  10.  "  De  Chrculo  physico-quadrato," 
1616,  4to.s 

MAIGNAN  (Emanuel),  a  religious  minim,  and  one  of 
the  greatest  philosophers  of  his  age,  was  born  at  Toulouse, 
of  an  ancient  and  noble  family,  July  17,  1601.  While  he 
was  a  child,  he  discovered  an  inclination  to  letters  and  the 
sciences,  and  nothing  is  said  to  have  had  so  great  an  effect 

i  Guillet  Hist,  de  Mahomet  II,— Universal  Hist,— -Gibbon,        *  Diet.  Hist,  . 

M  A  I  G  N  A  N  130 

in  quieting  his  infant  clamours,  as  putting  some  tittle  book 
into  his  hands.  He  went  through  his  course  in  the  college 
of  Jesuits,  and  acquitted  himself  with  great  diligence  in 
every  part  of  scholarship,  both  with  respect  to  literary  and 
religious  exercises.  He  was  determined  to  a  religious  life, 
by  a  check  given  to  his  vanity  when  he  was  learning  rhe- 
toric. He  had  written  a  poem,  in  order  to  dispute  the 
prize  of  eloquence,  and  believed  the  victory  was  unjustly 
adjudged  to  another.  This  made  him  resolve  to  ask  the 
minim's  habit,  and  having  acquitted  himself  satisfactorily 
in  the  trials  of  hi3  probation-time,  he  was  received  upon 
his  taking  the  vow  in  1619,  when  he  was  eighteen.  He 
went  through  his  course  of  philosophy  under  a  professor 
who  was  very  much  attached  to  the  doctrine  of  Aristotle ; 
and  he  omitted  no  opportunity  of  disputing  loudly  against 
all  the  parts  of  that  philosopher's  scheme,  which  be  sus- 
pected of  heterodoxy.  His  preceptor  considered  this  as  a 
good  presage ;  and  in  a  short  time  discovered,  to  his  great 
astonishment,  that  his  pupil  was  very  well  versed  in  ma- 
thematics, without  having  had  the  help  of  a  teacher.  In 
this,  like  Pascal,  he  had  been  his  own  master ;  but  what 
he  says  of  himself  upon  this  point  must  be  understood  with 
some  limitation ;  namely,  that  "  in  his  leisure  hours  of  one 
year  from  the  duties  of  the  choir  and  school,  he  discovered 
of  himself  as  many  geometrical  theorems  and  problems,  as 
were  to  be  found  in  the  first  six  books  of  Euclid's  Ele- 

However  freely  he  examined  the  opinions  of  philosophy, 
instead  of  shewing  himself  incredulous  in  matters  of  di- 
vinity, he  implicitly  submitted  to  all  the  tenets  of  bis1 
church.  But,  as  the  arguments  of  the  Peripatetics  were 
commonly  applied  to  illustrate  and  confirm  those  tenets, 
where  he  did  not  upon  examination  find  them  well- 
grounded,  he  made  no  scruple  to  prefer  the  assistance  of 
Plato  to  that  of  Aristotle.  His  reputation  was  so  great, 
that  it  spread  beyond  the  Alps  and  Pyrenees  ;  and  the  ge- 
neral of  the  minims  ordered  him  to  Rome,  in  1636,  to  fill 
a  professor's  chair.  His  capacity  in  mathematical  disco- 
veries and  physical  experiments  soon  became  known  ; 
especially  from  a  dispute  which  arose  between  him  and 
father  Kircher,  about  the  invention  of  a  catoptrical  work* 
In  1648  his  book  "  De  perspectiva  horaria"  was  printed 
at  Rome,  at  the  expence  of  cardinal  Spada,  to  whom  it 
was  dedicated,  and  greatly  esteemed  by  all  the  curious. 

140  M  A  I  G  N  A  N. 

Erom 'Borne  he  returned  to  Toulouse,  in  1650,  and  was  so 
well  received  by  bis  countrymen,  that  they  created  him 
provincial  tbe  same  year ;  though  he  was  greatly  averse  to 
having  bis  studies  interrupted  by  the  cares  of  any  office, 
and  he  even  refused  an  invitation  from  the  king  in  1660, 
to  settle  in  Paris,  as  it  was  his  only  wish  to  pass  the  re- 
mainder of  his  days  in  the  obscurity  of  the  cloister,  where 
he  bad  put  on  the  habit  of  the  order.  Before  this,  in  1652, 
he  published  bis  "  Course  of  Philosophy,"  at  Toulouse, 
in  4  vols.  8vo,  in  which  work,  if  he  did  not  invent  the  ex- 
planation of  physics  by  the  four  elements,  which  some 
have  given  to  Empedocles,  yet  he  restored  it,  as  Gassen*- 
dus  did  the  doctrine  of  the  atomists.  He  published  a  se- 
cond edition  of  it  in  folio,  1673,  and  added  two  treatises 
to  it ;  the  one  against  tbe  vortices  of  Des  Cartes,  the  other 
upon  the  speaking-trumpet  invented  by  our  countryman 
sir  Samuel  Morland.  He  also  formed  a  machine,  which 
shewed  by  its  movements  that  Des  Cartes's  supposition 
concerning  the  manner  in  which  the  universe  was  formed, 
or  might  have  been  formed,  and  concerning  the  centri- 
fugal force,  was  entirely  without  foundation. 

Thus  this  great  philosopher  and  divine  passed  a  life  of 
tranquillity  in  writing  books,  making  experiments,  and 
reading  lectures.  He  was  perpetually  consulted  by  the 
most  eminent  philosophers,  and  was  obliged  to  carry  on  a 
very  extensive  correspondence.  Such  was  the  activity  of 
his  mind  that  he  is  said  to  have  studied  even  in  his  sleep  j 
for  his  very  dreams  employed  him  in  theorems,  and  he 
was  frequently  awaked  by  the  exquisite  pleasure  which  he 
felt  upon  the  discovery  of  a  demonstration.  The  excellence 
of  bis  manners,  and  his  unspotted  virtues,  rendered  him 
,  qo  less  worthy  of  esteem  than  bis  genius  and  learning.  He 
died  at  Toulouse  Oct.  29,  1676,  aged  seventy-five.  It  is 
said  of  him,  that  he  composed  with  great  ease,  and  with- 
out any  alterations  at  all.  See  a  book  entitled  "  De  vita, 
moribus,  &  scriptis  R.  patris  Emanuelis  Maignani  Tolosa* 
tis,  ordinis  Minimorum,  philosophi  atqiie  mathematici  prae- 
stantissimi,  elogium,"  written  by  F.  Saguens,  and  printed 
at  Toulouse  in  1697,  a  work  in  which  are  some  curiotis 
facts,  not,  however,  unmixed  with  declamatory  pueri- 
lities. ' 

,  i  life  as  abofc— Niceron,  yoK  XXXL— -0en.  Dict.-~A$Qreri. 

M  A  I  L  L  A.  141 

MAILLA  (Josbph-Anns-Marie  de  Moyrjac  de),  a 
learned  Jesuit,  was  liorn  in  the  French  province  of  Bogey 
on  the  borders  of  Savoy,  in  1§70..  From  the  age  of  twen* 
ty -eight  be  had  made  himself  -  so  completely  master  of 
Chinese  learning  of  all  kinds,  that  he  was  considered  as  a 
prodigy,  and  in  1703,  was  sent  as  a  missionary  into  that 
country,  where  he  was  highly  esteemed  by  the  emperor 
Kam-Hi,  who  died  in  1722.  By  that  prince  he  was  em* 
ployed,  with  other  missionaries,  to  construct  a  chart  of 
China,  and  Chinese  Tartary,  which  was  engraved  in 
France  in  1732.  He  made  also  some  separate  maps  of  par- 
ticular provinces  in  that  vast  empire,  and  the  emperor  was 
so  pleased  with  these  performances,  that  he  fixed  the  au- 
thor at  bis  court.  Maiila  likewise  translated  the  "  Great 
Annals"  of  China  into  French,  and  transmitted  his  manu- 
script  to  France  in  1737,  comprising  the  complete  history 
of  tbe  Chinese  empire.  Tbe  first  volumes  appeared  id 
1777,  under  the  care  of  the  abb£  Grosier,  and  tbe  whole 
was  completed  by  him  in  1785,  making  thirteen  volumes 
4to.  Tbe  style  of  tbe  original  is  heavy,  and  contains  many 
long  and  tedious  harangues,  whicb  the  editor  has  sup* 
pressed :  it  gives  many  lively  and  characteristic  traits  of 
men  and  manners.  Maiila  died  at  Pekin  June  28,  1748, 
having  lived  forty -five  years  in  China,  and  attained  bis 
seventy-ninth  year.  He  was  a  man  of  a  lively  but  placid 
character,  of  an  active  and  persevering  spirit,  whicb  no 
labours  repressed.  The  late  emperor  Kien  Long  paid  the 
expences  of  his  funeral,  which  was  attended  by  a  proces- 
sion of  seven  hundred  persons. 1 

MAILLARD  (Oliver),  a  famous  preacher,  and  a  cor- 
delier, was  a  native  of  Paris,  where  he  rose  to  the  dignity 
of  doctor  in  divinity.  He  was  entrusted  with  honourable 
employments  by  Innocent  VIII.  and  Charles  V III,  of  France, 
by  Ferdinand  of  Arragon,  &c.  and  is  said  to  have  served 
the  latter  prince,  even  at  the  expence  of  his  master.  He 
died  at  Toulouse  June  13,  1502.  His  sermons,  whioh  re- 
mained in  manuscript,  are  full  of  irreverent  familiarities, 
and  in  tbe  coarsest  style  of  his  times.  His  Latin  sermons 
were  printed  at  Paris,  in  seven  parts,  forming  three  vo- 
lumes inSvo;  tbe  publication  commenced  in  1711,  and 
was  continued  to  1730.  In  one  of  bis  sermons  for  Lent, 
the  words  hem !  hem !  are  written  in  the  margin  to  n>ark 

i  T)ict.  Hist. 

142  M  A  I  L  L  A  R  D. 

the  places«where,  according  to  the  custom  of  those  cfayfl* 
the  preacher  was  to  stop  to  cough/  Niceron  has  giveri 
some  amusing  extracts  fsom  others  of  them,  which,  amidst 
'  all  their  quatntnesses,  9how  him  to  have  been  a  zealous  re- 
prover of  the  vices  of  the  times,  and  never  to  have  spared 
persons  of  rank,  especially  profligate  churchmen.  He  even 
took  liberties  with  Louis  XI.  of  France  to  his  face,  and 
when  one  of  the  courtiers  told  him  that  the  king  had 
threatened  to  throw  him  into  the  river,  "  The  king  is  my 
master,"  said  our  hardy  priest,  "  but  you  may  tell  him, 
that  I  shall  get  sooner  to  heaven  by  water,  than  he  will 
with  his  post-horses."  Louis  XI.  was  the  first  who  estab- 
lished posting  on  the  roads  of  France,  and  when  this  bon 
mot  was  repeated  to  him,  he  was  wise  enough  to  allow 
Maillard  to  preach  what  he  would  and  where  he  would. 
The  bon  mot,  by  the  way,  appears  id  the  "  Navis  Stulti- 
fera,"  by  Jodocus  Badius,  and  was  probably  a  current  jest 
among  the  wits  of  the  time. 1 

MAILLEBOIS  (John-Baptist  Demarets,  marquis  of), 
was  the  son  of  Nicolas  Desmarets,  controller-general  of 
the  finances  towards  the  end  of  Louis  XIV.'s  reign,  and 
was  born  in  1682.  He  first  signalized  himself  in  the-  war 
on  the  Spanish  succession,  and  completed  his  reputation 
by  two  brilliant  campaigns  in  Italy.  He  was  afterwards 
sent  against  Corsica,  which  he  reduced,  but  it  threw  off 
subjection  immediately  on  his  departure.  This  expedition 
obtained  him  the  staff  of  mareschal  of  France.  In  the  war 
of  1741,  he  gained  new  laurels  in  Germany  and  Italy:  but 
in  1746,  he  was  defeated  by  the  famous  count  Brown,  in 
the  battle  of  Placentia.  He  died  in  February  1762,  in 
the  80th  year  of  his  age.  The  account  of  his  campaigns 
in  Italy  was  published  in  1775,  in  three  volumes  quarto, 
accompanied  with  a  volume  of  maps.  The  author  of  this 
work  was  the  marquis  of  Pezay,  who  executed  it  with  great 

MAILLET  (Benedict  de),  a  French  theorist  of  some 
note,  was  born  in  1659,  of  a  noble  family  in  Lorraine.  At 
the  age  of  thirty-three  he  was  appointed  consul-general  of 
Egypt,  and  held  that  situation  with  great  credit  for  six- 
teen years.  Having  strenuously  supported  the  interests  of 
his  sovereign,  he  was  at  length  rewarded  by  being  removed 
to  Leghorn,  which  was  esteemed  the  chief  of  the  French 

i  Niceroq,  vol.  XXIIJ.— Bib!.  Croix  du  Maine— Moreri.  *  Diet.  Hist 


M  A  I  L  L  E  T.  14*3 

consulships.  In  1715  he  was  employed  to  visit  and  inspect 
the  other  consulships  of  Barbary  and  the  Levant,  and  ful- 
filled this  commission  so  much  to  the  satisfaction  of  his 
court,  that  he  obtained  leave  to  retire,  with  a  considerable 
pension,  to  Marseilles,  where  be  died  in  1738,  at  the  age 
of  seventy-nine.  De  Maillot  did  not  publish  anything 
himself,  but  left  behind  him  papers  and  memoirs,  from 
which  some  publications  were  formed.  The  first  of  these 
was  published  in  8vo,  by  the  abb6  Mascrier,  under  the 
feigned  name  of  Telliamed,  which  is  De  Maillet  reversed. 
The  subject  is  the  origin  of  our  globe,  and  the  editor  has 
thrown  the  sentiments  of  his  author  into  the  form  of  dia- 
logues between  an  Indian  philosopher  and  a  French  mis- 
sionary. The  philosopher  maintained  that  all  the  land  of 
this  earth,  and  its  vegetable  and  animal  inhabitants,  rose 
from  the  bosom  of  the  sea,  on  the  successive  contrac- 
tions of  the  waters :  that  men  had  originally  been  tritons 
with  tails ;  and  that  they,  as  well  as  other  animals,  had 
lost  their  marine,  and  acquired  terrestrial  forms  }>y  their 
agitations  when  left  on  dry  ground.  This  extravagance 
had  its  day  in  France.  The  same  editor  also  drew  from 
the  papers  of  this  author,  a  description  of  Egypt,  published 
in  1743,  in  4 to,  and  afterwards  in  two  volumes  12mo. ' 

MAIMBOURG  (Louis),  a  man  celebrated  in  the  re* 
public  of  letters,  was  born  at  Nancy,  in  Lorrain,  in  1610. 
He  was  very*  well  descended,  and  his  parents  were  people 
of  considerable  rank  and  fortune.  He  was  admitted  into 
the  society  of  the  Jesuits  in  1626  ;  but  obliged  afterwards 
to  quit  it  by  the  order  of  pope  Innocent  XI.  in  1682,  for 
having  asserted  too  boldly  the  authority  of  the  Gallican 
church  against  the  court  of  Rome.  Louis  XIV.  however, 
made  him  sufficient  amends  for  this  disgrace  by  settling 
on  him  a  very  honourable  pension,  with  which  he  retired 
into  the  abbey  of  St.  Victor  at  Paris.  Here  he  died  in 
1686,  after  having  made  a  will  by  which  it  appears  that 
he  was  extremely  dissatisfied  with  the  Jesuits.  Bayle  has 
given,  the  substance  of  it,  as  far  as  relates  to  them,  and 
calls  it  a  kind  of  a  declaration  of  wan  It  sets  forth,  "  That 
a  gentleman  of  Nancy,  in  Lorrain,  had  been  educated  and 
settled  in  France  from  twelve  years  of  age,  and  by  that 
means  was  become  a  very  faithful  and  loyal  subject  of  that 

1  Diet.  Hist. — Journal  du  Nil,  par  P.  Chateauneuf,  Hamburgh,  1799. — Major 
Kennel's  Geography  of  Herodotus.— Diet;  Hist. 

144  HAIMBO  U-R'6. 

ting;  that  he  was  no*  almost  seventy-six  years  *1d;  that 
bis  father  and  mother  being  very  rich  had  founded  ft  col* 
lege  for  the  Jesuits  at  Nancy,  fifty  years  ago ;  and  that  for  ten 
years  before  this  foundation  they  had  supplied  those  fathers 
with  every  thing  they  wanted.  He  declares,  that  they  did 
all  this  in  consideration  of  bis  being  admitted  into  that 
order;  and  yet  that  now  he  was  forcibly  turned  out  of  it. 
He  wills,  therefore,  by  this  testament,  that  all  the  lands, 
possessions,  &c.  which  the  Jesuits  received  of  his  father 
and  mother,  do  devolve,  at  his  decease,  to  the  Carthusian 
monastery  near  Nancy  ;  affirming,  that  his  parents  would 
never  have  conferred  such  large  donations  upon  them, 
but  upon  condition,  that  they  would  not  banish  their  son 
from  the  society,  after  they  had  once  admitted  him ;  and 
that,  therefore,  since  these  conditions  had  been  violated 
on  the  part  of  the  Jesuits,  the  possessions  of  his  family 
ought  to  return  to  him." 

Maimbourg  had  a  great  reputation  as  a  preacher,  and 
published'  two  volumes  of  sermons.  But  what  have  made 
him  most  known  were  the  several  histories  he  published. 
He  wrote  the  History  of  Arianism,  of  the  Iconoclasts,  of 
the  Croisades,  of  the  Schism  of  the  West,  of  the  Schism 
of  the  Greeks,  of  the  Decay  of  the  Empire,  of  the  League, 
of  Lutheranism,  of  Calvinism,  the  Pontificate  of  St.  Leo; 
and  he  was  composing  the  "  History  of  the  Schism  of  Eng- 
land" when  he  died.  These  histories  form  14  vols.  4to, 
or  26  in  12mo.  .  Protestant  authors  have  charged  him  with 
insincerity,  have  convicted  him  of  great  errors  and  misre- 
presentations, in  their  refutations  of  his  "  History  of  Lu- 
theranism and  Calvinism.1'  The  Jansenists  criticized  his 
*'  History  of  Arianism,'*  and  that  of  the  u  Iconoclasts," 
leaving  all  the  rest  untouched.  The  "  History  of  Cal* 
vinism,"  which  he  published  in  1681,  stirred  up  a  violent 
war  against  him ;  the  operations  whereof  he  left  entirely 
to  his  enemies,  without  ever  troubling  himself  in  the  least 
about  it,  or  acting  either  offensively  or  defensively.  The 
abb6  L' Avocat  says  that  his  historical  works  were  admired  at 
first,  on  account  of  a  kind  pf  romantic  style  which  prevails 
in  them  ;  but  this  false  taste  did  not  continue  long,  and 
the  greatest  part  of  them  were  exploded  while  their  author 
was  yet  living.  It  is  asserted  that  P.  Maimbourg  never 
took  up  his  pen  till  he  had  heated  his  imagination  by  wine, 
nor  ever  attempted  to  describe  a  battle  till  he  had  drank 
two  bottles;  making  use  of  this  precaution,  as  he  said 

M  A  I  M  B  O  U  R  a  145 

jestingly,  lest  the  horrors  of  the  combat  should  enfeeble 
his  sty U*.  The  same  biographer  adds,  that  Theodore  Maim- 
bourg,  his  cousin,  turned  Calvinigt,  then  went  back  to  the 
.catholic  church,  then  changed  afresh  to  "  what  is  called 
the  reformed  religion,"  and  died  a  Socinian  at  London* 
abeut  1693.  This  last  left  an  answer  to  <c  M.  BoSsuet'fr 
Exposition  of  the  Catholic  Faith  ;"  and  other  works. r 

.MAIMONIDES  (Moses),  or  Moses  the  son  of  Maimon, 
a  eel  ebrated  rabbi,  called  by  the  Jews  "  The  eagle  of  the 
doctors,"  was  born  of  an  illustrious  family  at  Cordova  in 
Spain,  1 13  U  He  is  commonly  named  Moses  Egyptius, 
because  he  retired  early,  as  it  is  supposed,  into  Egypt, 
where  be  spent  his  whole  life  in  quality  of  physician  to  the 
Soldan.  As  soon  as  he  arrived  there  he  opened  a  school, 
which  was  presently  filled  with  pupils  from  all  parts,  espe- 
cially from  Alexandria  and  Damascus ;  who  did  such  cre- 
dit to  t'heir  master  by  the  progress  they  made  under  him, 
that  they  spread  his  name  throughout  the  world.  Maimo- 
nides  was,  indeed,  according  to  all  accounts  of  him,  a  jmost 
uncommon  and  extraordinary  man,  skilled  in  all  lan- 
guages, and  versed  in  all  arts  and  sciences.  As  to  lan- 
guages, the  Hebrew  and  Arabic  were  the  first  he  acquired, 
and  what  he  understood  in  the  most  perfect  manner ;  but 
perceiving  that  the  knowledge  of  these  would  distinguish 
him  only  among  his  own  people,  the  Jews,  he  applied  him- 
self  also  to  the  Chaldee,  Turkish,  &c.  &c.  of  all  which  he 
became  a  master  in  a  very  few  years.  It  is  probable  also, 
that  he  was  not  ignorant  of  the  Greek,  since  in  his  writings 
he .  often  quotes  Aristotle,  Plato,  Galen,  Themistius,  and 
others;  unless  we  can  suppose  him  to  have  quoted  those 
.authors  from  Hebrew  and  Arabic  versions,  for  which,  how- 
ever, as  far  as  we  can  find,  there  is  no  sufficient  reason. 
..  He  was  famous  for  arts  as  well  as  language.  In  all 
IttfftnGhgs  of  philosophy,  particularly  mathematics,  he  was 
extremely  well  skilled ;  and  his  experience  in  the  art  of 
healing  was  so  very  great,  that  as  we  have  already  intimated, 
he  was  called  to  be  physician  in  ordinary  to  the  king* 
,Tbet*e  is  a  letter  of  his  extant,  to  rabbi  Samuel  Aben 
Tybbon,  in  which  he  has  described  the  nature  of  this 
o£ce,  and  related  also  what  vast  incumbrances  and  labours 
the  pfactice  of  physic  brought  upon  him.  Of  this  we  shall 
give  a  short  extract,  because  nothing  can  convey  a  clearer 

*  Gen.  Diet,— Morwri.T-L'AYOcat'i  Diet.  HUt 

V<H-XXI.  L 

146  M  A  I  M  O  N  I  D  E  S, 

or  a  juster  idea  of  the  man,  and  of  the  esteem  and  venera- 
tion in  which  he  was  held  in   Egypt.     Tybbon  had  con- 
sulted him  by  a  letter  upon  some  difficult  points,  and  bad 
told  him  in  the  conclusion  of  it,  that  as  soon  as  he  could 
find  leisure  he  would  wait  upon  him  in  person,  that  they 
.might  canvas  them  more  fully  in  the  freedom  of  conversa- 
tion.    Maimonides  replied,  that  he  should  be  extremely 
glad  to  see  him,  and  that  nothing  could  give  him  higher 
pleasure  than  the  thoughts  of  conversing  with   him ;  but 
yet. that  he  must  frankly  confess  to  him  that  he  durst  not 
encourage  him  to  undertake  so  long  a  voyage,  or  to  think 
of  visiting  him  with  any  such  views.     "  1  am,"  says  he, 
"so  perpetually  engaged,  that  it  will  be  impossible  for  you 
to  reap  any  advantage  from  me,  or  even  to  obtain  a  single 
hour's  private  conversation  with  me  in   any  part  of  the 
four-and-twenty.     I  live  in  Egypt,  the  king  in  Alkaira ; 
which  places  lie  two  sabbath-days  journey  asunder.     My 
common  attendance  upon  the  king  is  once  every  morning ; 
but  when  his  majesty,  his  concubines,  or  any  of  the  royal 
family,  are  the  least  indisposed,  I  am  not  suffered  to  stir  a 
foot  from   them;  so   that  my   whole  time,  you   see,   is 
almost  spent  at  court.     In  short,  I  go  to  Alkaira  every 
morning  early,   and,  if  all  be  well   there,  return   home 
about  noon ;  where,  however,  I  no  sooner  arrive,  than  I 
.find  my   house  surrounded   with  many  different  sorts  of 
people,  Jews  and  Gentiles,  rich  men  and  poor,  magistrates 
and  mechanics,  friends  as  well  as  enemies,  who  have  all 
been  waiting  impatiently  for  me.     As  I  am  generally  half 
famished  upon  my  return  from  Alkaira,  I  prevail  with  this  ~ 
multitude,  as  well  as  I  can,  to  suffer  me  to  regale  myself . 
with  a  bit  of  dinner ;  and  as  soon  as  I  have  done,  attend 
this  crowd  of  patients,  with  whom,  what  with  examining 
into  their  particular  maladies,  and  what  with  prescribing 
for  them,  I  am  often  detained  till  it  is  night,  and  am  al- 
ways so  fatigued  at   last,  that  I  can   scarcely   speak,  or 
even  keep  myself  awake.    And  this  is  my  constant  way 
of  life,"  &c. 

But  however  eminent  Maimonides  was  as  a  physician, 
he  was  not  Less  so  as  a  divine.  The  Jews  have  this  saying 
of  him,  "  A  Mose  ad  Mosen  non  surrexit  sicut  Moses  ;,f 
by  which  they  would  insinuate,  that  of  all  their  nation 
none,  ever  so  nearly  approached  to  the  wisdom  and  learn- 
ing of  their  great  founder  and  lawgiver,  as  Moses,  the  son 
of  Maimon.     He'  was,    says  Isaac  Casaubon,  "  a  man  of 

M  A  I  M  O  N  I  D  E  S,  147 

great  parts  and  sound  learning ;  of  whom,  I  think,  we 
may  truly  say,  as  Pliny  said  of  old  of  Diodorus  Siculus, 
that  he  was  the  first  of  his  tribe  who  ceased  to  be  a  trifler." 
He  was  so  far  from  paying  an  undue  regard  to  absurd 
fables  and  traditions,  as  his  nation  had  always  been  accus- 
tomed to  do,  that  he  dissuaded  others  from  it  in  the  most 
express  terms.  "  Take  heed,'9  says  he,  "  and  do  not  waste 
your  time  in  attempting  to  draw  sense  or  meaning  out  of 
that  which  has  no  meaning  in  it;  I  myself  have  spent  a 
great  deal  of  time  fn  commenting  upon,  and  explaining  the 
Gemara,  from  which  I  have  reaped  nothing  but  my  labour 
for  my  pains." 

The  works  of  Maimonides  are  very  numerous.  Some  of 
them  were  written  in  Arabic  originally,  but  are  now  extant 
in  Hebrew  translations  only.  The  most  considerable  are 
his  Jad,  which  is  likewise  called  "  Mischne  Terah,"  his 
"More  Nevochim,"  and  his  "Peruschim,  or  Commen- 
taries upon  the  Misna."  His  "  Commentaries  upon  the 
Misna"  he  began  at  the  age  of  three-and-twenty,  and 
finished  in  Egypt,  when  he  was  about  thirty.  They  wer6 
translated  from  the  Arabic  by  rabbi  Samuel  Aben  Tybbon. 
His  "  Jad"  was  published  about  twelve  years  after,  written 
in  Hebrew,  in  a  very  plain  and  easy  style.  This  has  always 
been  esteemed  a  great  and  useful  work,  being  a  complete 
code,  or  pandect  of  Jewish  law,  digested  into  a  clear  and 
regular  form,  and  illustrated  throughout  with  an  intel- 
ligible commentary  of  his  own.  "  Those,"  says  Collier, 
"  that  desire  to  learn  the  doctrine  and  the  canon  law  con- 
tained in  the  Talmud,  may  read  Maimonides's  compendium 
of  it  in  good  Hebrew,  in  his  book  entitled  Jad ;  wherein 
they  will  find  a  great  part  of  the  fables  and  impertinences 
in  the  Talmud  entirely  discarded."  But  of  all  his  produc- 
tions, the  "  More  Nevochim"  has  been  thought  the  most 
important,  and  valued  the  most,  not  only  by  others,  but 
also  by  himself.  This  was  written  by  him  in  Arabic,  when 
he  was  about  fifty  years  old ;  and  afterwards  translated  into 
Hebrew,  under  his  own  inspection,  by  rabbi  Samuel  Aben 
Tybbon.  The  design  of  it  was  to  explain  the  meaning  of 
several  difficult  and  obscure  words,  phrases,  metaphors, 
parables,  allegories,  &c.  in  scripture  ;  which,  when  inter- 
preted literally,  seemed  to  have  no  meaning  at  all,  or  at 
least  a  very  absurd  and  irrational  one.  Hence  the  work, 
as.Buxtorf  says,  took  its  title  of  "  More  Nevochim,"  that 
is,  "  l>octor  perplexorum ;"  as  being  written  for  the  use 

L  2 


and  benefit  of  those  who  were  in  doubt  whether  they 
should  interpret  such  passages  according  to  the  letter,  or 
rather  figuratively  and  metaphorically.  It  was  asserted  by 
many  at  that  time,  but  very  rashly,  that  the  Mosaic  rites 
and  statutes  had  no  foundation  in  reason,  but  were  the 
effects  of  mere  will,,  and  ordained  by  God  upon  a  principle 
purely  arbitrary.  Against  these  Maimonides  argues,  shews 
the  dispensation  in  general  to  be  instituted  with  a  wisdom 
worthy  of  its  divine  author,  and  explains  the  causes  and 
reasons  of  each  particular  branch  of  it.  This  procedure, 
however,  gave  offence  to  many  of  the  Jews ;  those  espe- 
cially who  had  long  been  attached  to  the  fables  of  the 
Talmud.  They  could  not  conceive  that  the  revelations  of 
God  were  to  be  explained  upon  the  principles  of  reason;  but 
thought  that  every  institution  must  cease  to  be  divine  the 
moment  it  was  discovered  to  have  any  thing  in  it  rational. 
Hence,  when  the  "  More  Nevocbim"  was  translated  into 
Hebrew,  and  dispersed  among  the  Jews  of  every  country, 
great  outcries  were  raised,  and  great  disturbances  occa- 
sioned about  it.  They  reputed  the  author  to  be  a  heretic 
of  the  worst,  kind,  one  who  had  contaminated  the  religion 
of  the  Bible,  or  rather  the  religion  of  the  Talmud,  with 
the  vile  allay  of  human  reason  ;  and  would  gladly  have 
burnt  both  him  and  his  book.  In  the  mean  time,  the  wiser 
part  of  both  Jews  and  Christians  have  always  considered 
the  work  in  a  very  different  light,  as  formed  upon  a  most 
excellent  and  noble  plan,  and  calculated  in  the  best  man* 
ner  to  procure  the  revereuce  due  to  the  Bible,  by  shewing 
the  dispensation  it  sets  forth  to  be  perfectly  conformable 
to  all  our  notions  of  the  greatest  wisdom,  justice,  and 
goodness :  for,  as  the  learned  Spencer,  who  has  pursued 
the  same  plan,  and  executed  it  happily,  observes  very 
truly,  "  nothing  contributes  more  to  make  men  atheists, 
and  unbelievers  of  the  Bible,  than  their  considering  th$ 
rites  and  ceremonies  of  the  law  as  the  effects  only  of  ca- 
price and  arbitrary  humour  in  the  Deity  :  yet  thus  they  will 
always  be  apt  to  consider  them  while  they  remain  iguorant 
of  th<e  causes  and  reasons  of  their  institution." 

Besides  these  three  works  of  Maimonides,  a  great  many 
pieces  are  said  to  have  been  written  by  him  upon  theology, 
philosophy,  logic,  medicine,  &c.  and  in  various  languages, 
as  Arabic,  Chaldee,  and  Greek.  It  may  easily  indeed  bp 
conceived,  that  a  man  of  his  uncommon  abilities  might  be 
^  qualified  to  write  upon  almost  every  subject,  as  there  was 

MAIM0NIDE8.  149 

hardly  any  thing  to  be  found  in  the  republic  of  letters, 
which  he  had  not  read.  He  had  turned  over  not  only  all 
the  Hebrew,  but  all  the  Arabian,  Turkish,  Greek,  Egyp- 
tian, and  Taltnudic  writers,  as  appears  by  the  use  he  has 
made  of  them  in  his  works.  He  tells  us  in  more  places 
than  one,  that  he  had  perused  with  great  attention,  all  the 
ancient  authors  updn  the  rise  and  progress  of  idolatry, 
with  a  view  of  explaining  the  reasons  of  those  rites  and  or- 
dinances in  the  law,  which  were  instituted  to  abolish  it : 
and,  in  the  preface  to  his  "  Commentary  upon  the  Misna," 
he  expressly  says,  that  there  was  no  book  written  in  any  lan- 
guage, upon  the  subject  of  philosophy,  which  he  had  not 
read  entirely  through. 

This  wonderful  rabbi  died  in  Egypt,  in  1204,  when  he 
was  seventy  years  of  age,  and  was  buried  with  his  nation 
in  the  land  of  Upper  Galilee.  The  Jews  and  Egyptians 
bewailed  his  death  for  three  whole  days,  and  called  the 
year  in  which  he  died  "  Lamentum  lamentabile,"  as  the 
•highest  honour  they  could  confer  upon  his  name.,  See  the 
preface  of  John  Buxtorf  the  son,  to  his  Latin  translation 
of  the  "  More  Nevochim,"  whence  this  account  of  the 
author  is  chiefly  taken.1 

MAINE  DU.     See  CROIX. 


MAINTENON  .  (Madam  de),  a  very  extraordinary 
French  lady,  who,  from  a  low  condition  and  many  misfor- 
tunes, was  raised  at  last  to  be  the  wife  of  Louis  XIV.  was 
descended  from  the  ancient  family  of  d'Aubign£ ;  her  pro- 
per name  being  Frances  d'Artbigng.  M.  d'Aubigue,  her 
grandfather,  was  born  in  1550,  and  died  in  1630,  in  his 
80th  year.  He  was  a  man  of  great  merit,  a  man  also  of 
rank,  a  leading  man  among  the  Protestants  in  France,  and 
much  courted  to  go  over  to  the  opposite  party.  When  he 
perceived  that  there  was  no  safety  for  him  any.  longer  in 
his  own  country,  be  fled  for  refuge  to  Geneva,  about  1619. 
The  magistrates,  and  the  clergy  there,  received  him  with 
great  marks  of  honour  and  distinction  ;  and  he  passed  the 
remainder  of  his  life  among  them  in  great  esteem.  Meze- 
ray  says,  that  "  he  was  a  man  of  great  courage  and  bold*  ~ 
m»ss,  of  a  ready  wit,  and  of  a  fine  taste  in  polite  learning, 
as  well  as  of  good  experience  in  matters  of  wan" 

The  son  of  this  d'Aubign£  was  the  father  of  madam  de 
Maintenon ;  her  mother  the  daughter  of  Feter  de  Cardillac, 

)  Preface  as  above.-*Wolfii  Bibl.  Hebrsea.— Saxii  Onomasticop. 


lord  of  Lane;  and  of  Louisa  de  Montalembert  They 
were  married  at  Bourdeaux,  Dec.  27,  1627,  not  without 
some  apprehensions,  it  is  said,  on  the  part  of  the  lady, 
upon  her  being  united,  we  know  not  how,  to  a  man  of  a 
most  infamous  character,  and  who  had  actually  murdered 
his  first  wife :  for  such  was  Constance  d'Aubign£.  Going 
to  Paris  soon  after  his  marriage,  he  was  for  some  very  gross 
offence  cast  into  prison ;  upon  which  madam  d'Aubign£ 
followed  to  solicit  his  pardon  ;  but  in  vain:  cardinal  Riche- 
lieu was  indexible,  and  told  her,  that  "  to  take  such  a 
husband  from  her,  was  to  do  her  a  friendly  office*"  Ma- 
dam d'Aubign6,  more  attached  to  her  husband  in  propor- 
tion as  he  became  more  miserable,  obtained  leave  to  shut 
herself  up  in  prison  with  him.  Here  she  had  two  sons,  and 
becoming  pregnant  a  third  time,  obtained  leave  from  court 
to  have  her  husband  removed  to  the  prison  of  Niort,  that 
they  might  be  nearer  the  assistance  which  they  derived 
from  their  relations. 

In  this  prison  madam  de  Maintenon  was  born,  Nov.  27, 
1635;  from  which  miserable  situation,  however,  she  was 
taken  a  few  days  after  by  madafri  Villette,  her  aunt  by  her 
father's  side,  who,  out  of  compassion  to  the  child,  gave 
her  to  the  care  of  her  daughter's  nurse,  with  whom  she 
was  bred  for  some  time  as  a  foster-sister.  Madam  Villette 
also  sent  the  prisoners  several  necessaries,  of  which  they 
were  in  extreme  waht.  Madam  d'Aubign6  at  length  ob- 
tained her  husband's  enlargement ;  but  it  was  upon  con* 
dition  that  he  should  turn  Roman  Catholic.  D'Aubigne* 
promised  all ;  but,  forgetting  his  promises,  and  fearing  to 
be  involved  again  in  trouble,  he  was  determined  to  seek 
his  fortune  abroad.  Accordingly  in  1639,  he  embarked 
for  America  with  his  wife  and  family ;  and  arriving  safely 
there,  settled  in  Martinico,  where  he  acquired  considera- 
ble plantations.  Madam  d'Aubigng  returned  in  a  little 
time  with  her  children  to  France,  to  carry  on  some  law- 
suits, and  recover  some  debts;  but  madam  Villette  per- 
suading her  to  desist  from  her  pretensions,  she  returned  to 
America,  where  she  found  her  husband  ruined  by  gaming. 
In  1646,  he  died,  when  madam  d'Aubigne*  was  left,  in  the 
utmost  distress,  to  support  herself,  and  manage  the  edu- 
cation of  her  children,  as  she  could.  She  returned  to 
France,  leaving  her  debts  unpaid,  and  her  daughter  as  a 
pledge  in  the  hands  of  one  of  her  principal  creditors ;  who, 
however,  soon  sent  her  into  France  after  her  mother, 


Here  neglected  by  her  mother,  who  was  indeed  little  able 
'to  support  her,  she  fpll  into  the  hands  of  madam  Villette 
at  Poictou,  who  received  her  with  great  marks  of  affection  ; 
ijmd  told  her,  that  she  should  be  welcome,  if  she  thought 
fit,  to  live  with  her,  where  at  least  she  should  never  be 
reduced  to  want  a  subsistence.  The  niece  accepted  the 
offer  which  her  aunt  made  her,  and  studied  to  render  her- 
self necessary  and  agreeable  to  a  person,  upon  whom  she 
saw  she  must  depend  for  every  thing.  She  particularly 
laboured  to  insinuate  herself  into  the.  affections  of  her  cou- 
sin, with  whom  she  had  one  common  nurse :  and  to  omit 
nothing  that  might  please  them,  she  expressed  a  great  de- 
sire to  he  instructed  in  the  religion  of  her  ancestors.  She 
was  impatient  to  have  some  conversation  with  ministers, 
and  to  frequent  their  sermons,  and  in  a  short  time  became 
firmly  attached  to  the  Protestant  religion.  In  the  mean 
time  madam  de  Neuillant,  a  relation  by  her  mother's  side, 
and  a  Roman  catholic,  had  been  busy  in  advertising  some 
considerable  persons  of  the  danger  she  was  in,  as  to  her 
salvation  ;.,and  bad  solicited  an  order,  which  was  granted, 
from  the  court,  to  take  her  out  of  the  hands  of  madam 
Villette,  and  to  have  her  instructed  in  the  Roman  Catholic 
religion.  .  She  accordingly  took  her  to  herself,  and  made 
a  convert  of  her  :  which  however  was  not  effected  without 
many  threats,  artifices,  and  hardships,  which  drove  her  at 
length  to  a  compliance  with  the  solicitations  of  madam  de 

In  1651,  she  was  married  .to  the  abbe"  Scarron.  Madam 
de  Neuillant,  being  obliged  to  go  to  Paris,  took  her  along 
with  her;  and  there  becoming  known  to  this  old  famous 
buffoon,  who  admired  her  for  her  wit,  she  preferred  mar- 
rying him  to  the  dependent  state  she  was  in.  Scarron  was 
of  an  ancient  and  distinguished  family,  but  deformed,  in- 
firm, and  in  no  very  advantageous  circumstances;  as  he 
subsisted  only  on  a  pension,  which  was  allowed  him  by  the 
court,  in  consideration  of  his  wit  and  parts.  She  lived 
with  him,  however,  many  years ;  and  Voltaire  says  that  this 
part  of  her  life  was  undoubtedly  the  happiest.  Her  beauty, 
but  still  more  her  wit,  for  she  was  never  reckoned  a  complete 
beauty,  distinguished  her  greatly ;  and  her  conversation 
was  eagerly  sought  by  all  the  best  company  in  Paris.  Upon 
the  death  of  her  husband,  which  happened  in  1660,  she 
was  reduced  to  the  same  indigent  condition  she  was  in  be- 
'  fore  her  marriage ;  but  her  friends  did  all  they  could  to 


prevail  upon  the  court  to  continue  to  her  the  pension  which 
Scarron  had  enjoyed  :  in  order  to  which,  petitions  were 
frequently  given  in,  beginning  always  with,  "The  widow 
Scarron  most  humbly  prays  your  majesty,"  &c.  For  a 
time  all  these  petitions  signified  nothing  ;  and  the  king  was 
so  weary  of  them,  that  he  has  been  heard  to  say,  "  Must 
I  always  be  pestered  with  the  widow  Scarron  ?"  At 
length,  madam  de  Montespan,  his  mistress,  undertook  to 
present  one  to  him  :  "  How  V7  cried  the  king,  "  the 
widow  Scarron  again  !  Shall  1  never  hear  of  any  thing 
else  ?"  *'  Indeed,  Sire,"  replied  madam  de  Montespan, 
"  you  ought  to  have  ceased  hearing  of  it  long  ago."  The 
pension  was  granted,  and  madam  Scarron  went  to  thank 
madam  de  Montespan,  who  was  so  struck  with  the  charms 
of  her  conversation,  that  she  presented  her  to  the  king, 
who  is  reported  to  have  said  :  "  Madam,  I  have  made  you 
wait  a  long  time;  but  your* friends  are  so  numerous,  that 
I  was  desirous  of  your  owing  this  to  me  alone."  Voltaire 
tells  us,,  he  had  this  fact  from  cardinal  Fleury,  who  took  a 
pleasure  in  often  repeating  it,  because  he  said  Louis  XIV. 
had  made  him  the  same  compliment  when  he  gave  him  the 
bishopric  of  Frejus. 

Some  time  after,  madam  de  Montespan,  wishing  to 
conceal  the  birth  of  the  children  she  had  by  the  king,  cast 
her  eyes  on  madam  Scarron,  as  the  mo&t  likely  person  to 
keep  the  secret,  and  educate  them  properly  ;  and  madam 
Scarron  undertook  this  charge  by  his  majesty's  order,  and 
became  their  gov  ernante.  She  then  led  a  hard,  unplea- 
sant, and  retired  life,  with  only  her  pension  of  2000  livres, 
and  had  the  mortification  of  knowing  that  she  was  disagree-* 
able  to  the  king.  His  majesty  had  indeed  a  degree  of 
dislike  to  her  :  he  looked  upon  her  as  a  wit ;  and  though 
he  possessed  much  wit  himself,  he  could  not  bear  those 
who  made  a  display  of  it,  He  never  mentioned  her  to 
madam  de  Montespan,  but  by  the  name  of  "  your  bel- 
esprit."  When  the  children  grew  older,  they  were  sent 
for  to  court,  which  occasioned  the  king  to  converse  some-* 
times  with. madam  Scarron,  in  whom  he  found  so  much 
sense,  sweetness,  and  elegance  of  manners,  that  he  not 
only  lost  by  degrees  his  dislike  to  her,  but  gave  her  a  par* 
tic  qiar  proof  of  his  esteem:  looking  over  the  state  of  the 
pensions,  and  seeing  "  two  thousand  francs  for  madam 
Scarron,"  he  erased  the  sum,  and  wrote  **two  thousand 
prQWUs/'    .The  young  duke  pf  Maine  also  contributed  not 


a  little  to  remove  his  majesty's  prejudices.  The  king  fre- 
quently played  with  him,  and  being  much  pleased  with  the 
sense  that  appeared  even  in  his  eyes,  and  with  the  manner 
in  which  he  answered  his  questions,  said  to  him  one  day, 
"  You  are  very  wise ;"  "  I  may  well  be  so,"  replied  the 
child,  "  for  I  have  a  governess  who  is  wisdom  itself/* 
"  Go,"  said  his  majesty,  "  go,  tell  her  you  bring  her  a 
hundred  thousand  franks  for  your  sugar  plumbs."  Madam 
Searron  attended  this  young  prince  sometime  after  to  the 
waters  of  Barege,  from  whence  she  wrote  to  the  king  him- 
self, to  inform  him  of  all  that  passed.  He  was  much 
pleased  with  her  letters,  and  said,  "  I  had  no  idea  that  a 
bel-esprit  could  write  so  well."  This  circumstance  pro- 
bably gave  rise  to  the  report  that  Louis  XIV.  was  first  cap- 
tivated by  a  letter  she  wrote  in  madam  de  Montespan's 
name;  but  it  is  a  mere  story.  Madam  de  Montespau 
wrote  at  least  as  good  letters  as  madam  Scarrort,  and  even 
as  madam  de  Sevign6. 

In  1679,  the  king  bought  her  the  lands  of  Main  tenon, 
worth  250,000  iivres,  which  was  the  only  estate  she  ever 
had,  though  afterwards  in  a  height  of  favour  that  afforded 
her  the  means  of  purchasing  immense  property.  Here  she 
had  a  magnificent  castle,  in  a  most  beautiful  country,  not 
more  than  fourteen  leagues  from  Paris,  and  ten  from  Ver- 
sailles. The  king,  seeing  her  extremely  pleased  with  the 
acquisition  of  her  estate,  called  her  publicly  madam  de 
Mam  tenon  ;  which  change  of  name  was  of  greater  use  to 
her  than  she  heroelf  could  have  foreseen.  She  could  not 
well  be  raised  to  the  rank  in  which  she  was- afterwards  seen, 
with  the  name  of  Scarron,  which  must  always  have  been 
accompanied  with  a  mean  and  burlesque  ideai  *  A  woman, 
whose  very  name  was  a  jest,  must  have  detracted  from  the 
respect  and  veneration  which  was  paid  to  the  great  and 
pompous  Louis ;  cior  could  ail  the  reserve  and  dignity  of 
the  widow  efface  dhe  impression  made  by  the  remembrance 
of  her  buffoonish  husband.  It  was  necessery,  therefore, 
that  madam  de  Maintenon  should  obliterate  madam 

In  the  mean  tint  e,  her  elevation  was  to  ber  only  a  retreat. 
Shut  up  in  her  apartment,  which  was  on  the  same  floor 
with  the  king's,  st)  e  confined  herself  to  the  society  of  two 
or  three  ladies,  as  retired  as  herself;  and  even  these  she 
saw  but  seldom.  The  king  came  to  her  apartment  every 
(Jay  after  dinner,  \  >efore  and  after  supper,  and  continued 

154  maintenon; 

there  till  midnight.     Here  he  did  business  with  his  mini- 
sters,   while    madam  de  Maintenon  employed  herself  in 
reading  or  needle-work,  never  shewing  any  eagerness  to 
talk  of  state  affairs,  often  seeming  wholly  ignorant  of  them, 
and  carefully  avoiding  whatever  had  the  least  appearance 
of  cabal  and  intrigue.     She  studied  more  to  please  him 
who  governed,  than  to  govern ;  and  preserved  her  credit, 
by  employing  it  with  the  utmost  circumspection.     She  did 
not  make  use  of  her  power,;  to  give  the  greatest  dignities 
and  employments  among  her  own  relations.     Her  brother 
count  d'Aubign6,  a  lieutenant-general  of  long  standing, 
was  not  even  made  a  marshal  of  France ;  a  blue  ribbon, 
and  some  appropriations  in  the  farms  of  the  revenue,  were 
all  his  fortune :  which  made  him  once  say  to  the  marshal 
de   Vivone,  the  brother   of  madam  de  Montespan,    that 
"  he  had  received  the  staff  of  marshal  in  ready  money."   It 
was  rather  high  fortune  for  the  daughter  of  this  count,  to 
marry  the  duke  de  Noailles,  than  an  advantage  to  the 
duke.     Two  more  nieces  of  madam  de  Maintenon,  the 
one  married  to  the  marquis  de  Caylus,  the  other  to  the 
marquis  de  Villette,  had  scarcely  any  thing.     A  moderate 
pension,  which  Louis  XIV.  gave  to   madam    de  Caylus, 
was  almost  all  her  fortune ;  and  madam  de  Villette  had 
nothing  but  expectations.     This  lady,  who  was  afterwards 
married  to  the  celebrated  lord   Bolingbroke,    often   re- 
proached her  aunt  for  doing  so  little  for  her  family  ;  and 
once  told  her  in  some  anger,  that  "  she  took  a  pleasure  in 
ber  moderation,  and  in  seeing  her  family  the  victim  of  it." 
This  Voltaire  relates  as  a  fact,  which  he  bad  from  M.  de 
Villette  herself.     It  is  certain,  that  M.  de  Maintenon  sub- 
mitted every  thing-  to  her  fears  of  doing  what  might  be 
contrary  to  the  king's  sentiments.     She  did  not  even  dare 
to  support  her  relation  the  cardinal  de  Noailles,  against 
father  le  Tellier.     She  bad  a  great  friendship  for  the  poet 
Racine,  yet  did  not  venture  to  protect  him  against  a  slight 
resentment  of  the  king's.     One  day,  moved  with  the  elo- 
quence with  which  he  had  described  to  ber  the  people's 
miseries  in  1698,  she  engaged  him  to  draw  up  a.  memorial, 
which  might  at  once  shew  the  evil  and  the  remedy.     The 
king  read  it ;  and,  upon  his  expressing  some  displeasure  at 
it,  she  had  the  weakness  to  tell  the  author,  and  not  the 
courage  to  defend  him.     Racine,  still  weaker,  says  Vol- 
taire, was  so  hurt,  that  it  was  supposed  tx>  have  occasioned 
bis  death.     The  same  natural  disposition,  which  made,  her 

M  A  I  N  T  E  N  O  N.  155 

incapable  of  conferring  benefits,  made  her  also  incapable 
of  doing  injuries.  When  the  minister  Louvois  threw  him- 
self at  the  feet  of  Louis  XIV.  to  hinder  his  marriage  with 
the  widow  Scarron,  she  not  only  forgave  him,  but  fre- 
quently pacified  the  king,  whom  the  rough  temper  of  this 
minister  as  frequently  angered. 

About  the  end  of  168,5,  Louis  married  madam  de  Main- 
tenon  ;  and  certainly  acquired  an  agreeable  and  submissive 
companion.     He  was  then  in  his  forty-eighth  year,  she  in 
her  fiftieth.     The  only  public  distinction  which  made  her 
sensible  of  her  secret  elevation  (for  nothing  could  be  con- 
ducted more  secretly  then,  or  kept  a  greater  secret  after- 
wards, than  this  marriage)  was,  that  at  mass  she  sat  in  one 
of  the  two  little  galleries,  or  gilt  doors,  which  appeared 
only  to  be  designed  for  the  king  and. queen  :  besides  this, 
she  had  not  any  exterior  appearance  of  grandeur.     That 
piety  and  devotion,  with  which  she  had  inspired  the  king, 
and  which  she  had  applied  very  successfully  to  make  her- 
self a  wife,  instead   of  a  mistress,  became  by  degrees  a 
settled  disposition  of  mind,  which  age  and  affliction  con- 
firmed.    She  had  already,  with  the  king  and  the  whole 
court,  given  herself  the  merit  of  a  foundress,  by  assent-* 
bling  at  Noisy  a  great  number  of  women  of  quality ;  and 
(he  king  had  already  destined  the  revenues  of  tne  abbey  of 
St.  Denis,  for  the  maintenance  of  this  rising  community. 
St.  Cyr  was  built  at  the  end  of  the  park  at  Versailles,  in 
1686.     She  then  gave  the  form  to  this  establishment ;  anfl, 
together  with  Desmarets,  bishop  of  Cbartres,  made  the 
rules,  and  was  herself  superior  of  the  convent.     Thither 
she  often  went  to  pass  away  some  hours ;  and,  as  we  learn 
from  herself,  melancholy  determined  her  to  this  employ- 
ment.    "  Why  cannot  I,"  says  she  in  a  letter  to  madam 
de  la  Maisonfort,  "  why  cannot  I  give  you  my  experience  ? 
Why  cannot  I  make  you  sensible  of  that  uneasiness,  which 
wears  out  the  great,  and  of  the  difficulties  they  labour 
under  to  employ  their  time  ?     Do  not  you  see  that  I  am 
dying  with  melancholy,  in  a  height  of  fortune,  which  once 
my  imagination  could  scarcely  have  conceived  ?     I  have' 
been  young  and  beautiful,  have  had  a  relish  for  pleasures, 
and  have  been  the  universal  object  of  love.     In  a  more 
advanced  age,  1  have  spent  my  time  in  intellectual  amuse- 
ments.    I  have  at  last  risen  to  favour;  but  I  protest  to 
you,  my  dear   girl$  that  every   one  of  these  conditions 
leaves  in  the  mind  a  dismal  vacuity."     If  any  thing,  says 

156  M  A  I  N  T  E  N  O  N. 

Voltaire,  could  shew  the  vanity  of  ambition,  it  would  cer- 
tainly be  this  letter.  She  could  have  no  other  uneasiness 
than  the  uniformity  of  her  manner  of  living  with  a  great 
king ;  and  this  made  her  say  once  to  the  count  d'Aubign6, 
her  brother,  "  I  can  hold  it  no  louger ;  I  wish  I  was  dead.** 

The  court  grew  now  every  day  less  gaj'  and  more  serious, 
after  the  king  began  to  live  a  retired  life  with  madam  de 
Maintenon.     It  was  the  convent  of  St.  Cyr  which  revived 
the  taste  for  works  of  geniusi     Madam  de  Maintenon  in- 
treated  Racine,  who  had  renounced   the  theatre  for  Jan- 
senism and  the  court,  to  compose  a  tragedy,  and  to  take 
the  subject  from  the  Bible.     Racine  composed  "Esther  :** 
and  this  piece  having  been  first  represented  at  th<*  u~ 
of  St.  Cyr,  was  afterwards  acted  several  times  at  V 
before  the  king,  in  the  winter  of  1689.     At  the  c 
the  king,  which  happened  Sept.  2,  1715,  madam  d 
tenon  retired  wholly  to  St.  Cyr,  where  she  spent 
nfainder  of  her  days  in  acts  of  devotion.     What  . 
surprising  is,  that  Louis  XIV.  made   no  certain  p 
for  her,  but  only  recommended  her  to  the  duke  of  ( 
She  would  accept  of  no  m.ore  than  an  annual  pei 
80,000  livres;  and  this  was  punctually  paid  her  ' 
death,  which  happened  the  15th  of  April,   1719. 
la  Beaumeile  published  in  1755,  "  M.  de  Maintenor 
ters,"    9  vols.   12mb;    and  "  Memoirs"  for  her  1 
&c.  the  whole  reprinted  in   12  vols,  small  12mo. 
u  Letters'*  are  curious  and  interesting,  but  there  i 
veral  trifling  ones  among  them.     The  "  Memoirs,' 
contain  some  remarkable  anecdotes,  are  not  alway: 
depended  on  as  to  facts,  and  are  frequently  censura 

MAJOR,  or  MAIR  (John),  a  scholastic  diviue  ai 
torian,  was  born,  not  at  Haddington,  as  is  usual] 
but  at  Gleghorn,  a  village  near  North  Berwick,  in 
From  some  passages  in  his  writings,  it  appears  that 
sided  for  a  time  both  at  Oxford  and  at  Cambridge 
the  former  particularly,  we  learn  from  the  dedica 
one  of  his  works  to  cardinal  Wolsey,  he  resided,  not 
months,  as  Wood  says,  but  a  year.     The  cardinal, 
he  styles  "  your  majesty,"  received  him   "  after  th 
manner  of  Christian  hospitality,  and  invited  him 
splendid  salary  to  Oxford,  where  he  had  lately  found 

*  Marerl.— Siecle  de  ^ouis  XIV— -Pict,  Hist 

MAJOR.  15T 

college,  which  Major  did  not  accept,  on  account  of  the  love 
he  bore  to  his  mother  university  of  Paris."     It  appears 
that  he  went  in  1493  to  Paris,  and  studied  in  the  college 
of  St.  Barbe,  under  the  famous  John  Boulac.     Thence  he 
removed  to  the  college  of  Montacute,  where  be  began  the 
study  of  divinity,  under  the  celebrated  Standouk.     In  1498 
he  was  entered  of  the  college  of  Navarre ;  in  1505  he  was 
created  D.  D.  returned  to  Scotland  in    1519,  and  taught 
theology  for  several  years  in  the  university  of  St:  Andrew's. 
At  length,  disgusted  with  the  quarrels  of  his  countrymen, 
be  returned  to  Paris,  and  resumed  his  lectures  in  the  col- 
lege of  Montacute,  where  he  had  several  pupils,  afterwards 
men  of  eminence.     About  1530,  he  removed  once  more 
land,  was  chosen  professor  of  divinity  at  St.  An- 
and  afterwards  became  provost     It  is  usually  sup- 
that  he  died' in  1547,   but  it  is  certain  that  he  was 
1549;  for  in  that  year  he  subscribed  (by  proxy, 
>unt  of  his  great  age)  the  national  constitutions  of 
.rch  of  Scotland.     He  died  soon  after,  probably  in 
vvhich  must  have  been  in  his  eighty-second  year. 
.  says,  that  of  all  the  divines  who  had  written  on  the 
f  the  Master  of  Sentences  (Peter  Lombard),  Major 
most  learned  and  comprehensive.     His  History  of 
d  is  written  with  much  commendable  freedom  ;  but 
barous  style,  and  not  always  correct  as  to  facts, 
the  instructor,  but  not,  as  some  have  said,  the  pa- 
the  famous  George  Buchanan.     He  also  had  the 
ted  John  Knox  as  one  of  his  pupils.     Baker  in  a 
e  on  the  "  Athenae,"  adds  to  the  mention  of  this 
hat  "  a  man   would  hardly  believe  be  had  been 
by  him."     Baker,  however,  was  not  sufficiently  ac- 
d.  with  Major's  character  to  be  able  to  solve  this 
Major,  according  to  the  very  acute  biographer  of 
Dr.  M'Crie)  had  acquired  a  habit  of  thinking  and 
ing  himself  on  Certain  subjects,  more  liberal  than 
opted  in  his  native  country  and  other  parts  of  Eu- 
He  had  imbibed  the  sentiments  concerning  eccle- 
l  polity,  maintained  by  John  Gerson,  Peter  D'Ailly, 
ers,  who  defended  the  decrees,  of  the  council  of 
tee,  and  liberties  of  the  Galiican  church,  against 
ho  asserted  the  incontrouiable  authority  of  the  so- 
pontiff.     He  thought  that  a  general  council  was 
r  to  the  pope,  might  judge,  rebuke,  restrain,  and 
eve.     ;pose  him  from  his  dignity ;  denied  the  temporal 

158  MA  J  O  R. 

supremacy  of  the  bishop  of  Rome,  and  his  right  to  inau- 
gurate or  dethrone  princes;  maintained  that  ecclesiastical 
censures  and  even  papal  excommunications  had  no  force, 
if  pronounced  on  invalid  or  irrelevant  grounds ;  he  held 
that  tithes  were  merely  of  human  appointment,  not  divine 
right;  censured  the  avarice,  ambition,  and  secular  pomp 
of  the  court  of  Rome  and  the  episcopal  order ;  was  no 
warm  friend  of  the  regular  clergy,  and  advised  the  reduc- 
tion of  monasteries  and  holidays.  His  opinions  respecting 
civil  government  were  analogous  to  those  which  he  held  as 
to  ecclesiastical  policy.  He  taught  that  the  authority  of 
kings  and  princes  was  originally  derived  from  the  people ; 
that  the  former  are  not  superior  to  the  latter,  collectively 
considered  ;  that  if  rulers  become  tyrannical,  or  employ 
their  power  for  the  destruction  of  their  subjects,  they  may 
lawfully  be  controuled  by  them ;  and  proving  incorrigible, 
may  be  deposed  by  the  community  as  the  superior  power  ; 
and  that  tyrants  may  be  judicially  proceeded  against,  even 
to  capital  punishment.  The  affinity  between  these  and 
the  political  principles  afterwards  avowed  by  Knox,  and 
defended  by  the  classic  pen  of  Buchanan,  is  too  striking  to 
require  illustration.  But  although  Major  had  ventured  to 
think  for  himself  on  these  topics,  in  all  other  respects  be 
was  completely  subservient  to  the  opinions  of  his  age;  and 
with  a  mind  deeply  tinctured  with  superstition,  defended 
some  of  the  absurdest  tenets  of  popery  by  the  most  ridicu- 
lous and  puerile  arguments..  We  .cannot,  therefore,  greatly 
blame  Buchanan,  who  called  him  in  ridicule,  what  he  af- 
fected t*>  call  himself  in  humility,  "Joannes,  solo  cogno- 
mine,  Major."  His  works  are,  I.  "  Libri  duo  fallacia- 
rum,"  Lugd.  1516,  comprising  his  "  Opera  Logica^a." 
2.  "  In  quatuor  sententiarum  commentarius,"  Paris,  1516. 
S.  w  Commentarius  in  physica  Aristotelis,"  Paris,  1526. 
4.  "  In  primum  et  secundum  sententiarum  commentarii/* 
Paris,  J  5 10.  5.  u  Commentarius  in  tertium  sententia- 
rum," Paris,  1517.  6.  "  Literalis  in  Matthaeum  expo- 
sition" Paris,  1518.  From  these  two  last  may  be  collected 
Jiis  sentiments  on  ecclesiastical  polity,  mentioned  above. 
7,  "  De  historia  gentis  Scotorum,  sen  historia  majoris 
Britanniae,"  Paris,  1521,  4to.  Of  this  a  new  edition  was 
printed  at  Edinburgh,  1740,  4to.  8.  "  Luculenta  in  4 
Evangelia  expositiones,"  &c.  Paris,  1529,  folio.  9.  "Pla- 
cita  theological*      10.    "  Catalogue  episcoporum  Lucio* 



nensium."      He  also  translated  Caxtoh's  Chronicle  into 

MAJORAGIUS  (Mark  Antony),  so  named  from  a  vil- 
lage in  the  territory  of  Milan,  where  he  was  born  in  1514, 
applied  himself  to  the  study  of  belles  lettres,  and  afterwards 
taught  them  at  Milan,  with  very  great  reputation.  He 
introduced  into  the  schools  of  that  place  the  mode  of 
writing  declamations  which  had  been  practised  by  the  an* 
cients,  and  was  found  to  be  an  useful  method  of  exer- 
cising the  genius  of  young  men.  His  success  attracted 
much  envy,  and  his  enemies  are  said  to  have  instituted  a 
law-suit  against  him  for  taking  the  name  of  Marcus  Anto- 
nius  Mdjorianus,  instead  of  Antonius  Maria,  which  was  his 
proper  name.  He  founded  his  defence  on  the  more  clas- 
sical sound  of  the  name,  and  his  plea  was  considered  as 
valid.  He  died  in  1555,  at  the  early  age  of  forty-one. 
Of  his  works  are  extant,  1.  "  Commentaries  on  the  Rhe- 
toric of  Aristotle,  on  the  Oratory  of  Cicero,  and  on  Vir- 
gil," all  in  folio.  2.  Several  Tracts,  and  among  others, 
"  De  senatu  Romano/9  in  4to.  "  De  risu  Oratorio  et 
urbano."  "  De  nominibus  propriis  veterum  Romanorum*" 
3.  "  A  Collection  of  Latin  Speeches,"  Leipsic,  1628,  8vo. 
These  works  are  all  replete  with  learning.9 

MAIRAN  (Jqhn  James  D'Ortous  de),  a  French  phi- 
losopher, whose  works  do  credit  to  his  country,  was  born 
at  Beziers,  in  1678.     He  was  early  admitted  into  the  aca- 
demy of  sciences,  and  the 'French  academy;  and  in  the 
.former,  in   1741,   succeeded  Fontenelle  in  the  office  of 
perpetual  secretary.     This  place  he  filled  with  great  repu- 
tation for  three  years,  and  displayed,  like  his  predecessor, 
the  talent  of  placing  the  most  abstruse  questions  in  a  clear 
and  intelligible  light.     He  died  at  Paris,  Feb.  20,   1771. 
-His  works  are,   L.  "  Dissertation  sur  les  variations  du  Ba- 
rom£tre,"   1715,   12mo.     2.   "  Dissertation  sur  la  cause  de 
la  lumiere  des  Phosphgres,  et  des  noctiluques,"  1717,  1 2mo. 
3.  "  Dissertation  sur  la  Glace,"   1719,   12mo.     4.  "  Lettre 
a  M.  Pabbe  Bignon,  sur  la  nature  des  Vaisseaux,"   1728, 
;4to.     5.  "  Trait6  physique  et  historique  de  l*Aurore  Bo- 
reale,1'.  1733,  4to.     6.  "  Dissertation,  sur  les  forces  mo- 
trices  des  corps,"   1741,  -12 mo.     7.  "  Lettre  a  Madame 
du  Chatelet,  sur  la  question  des  forces  vives,"  1741, 12 mo* 

1  Mackenzie's  Scotch  Writers.— Ath.  Ox.  vol.  1.— Dodd'sCh.  Hist— M«Crie's 
life  of  Knox,— Inrja'i  Lift  of  Buchanan.      »  Geo.  Diet.— Moqexk— Tiraboschi* 

Uo  M  A  1  R  A  N. 

8.  "  Eloges  des  Acad£miciens  de  l'aeademie  des.  sciences, 
morts  en  1741,  1743,  and  1747,"  12mo.  In  these  com- 
positions, without  imitating  Fonteneile,  he  is  thought 
nearly  to  equal  him,  in  the  talent  of  characterizing  the 
persons  he  describes,  and  appreciating  their  merits  justly. 

9.  "  Lettre  au  Pere  Parent) in,  contenanr  diverses  ques- 
tions, sur  la  Chine,"  12mo.  This  is  a  curious  work,  and 
strongly  displays  the  philosophical  mind  of  the  author. 

10.  Many  memoirs  inserted  in  the  volumes  of  the  academy 
of  sciences,  and  some  other  compositions  of  no  great  bulk. 
Mairan  was  much  admired  in  society  as  an  intelligent, 
agreeable,  and  lively  companion.  It  is  of  him  that  ma- 
dame  Pompadour  relates  the  following  anecdote,  which, 
if  we  mistake  not,  has  been  attributed  to  Others :  "  His 
house  had  by  chance  taken  fire,  which  was  just  getting  into 
the  second  floor,  where  he  was  plodding  calmly  over  his . 
circles  and  triangles.  He  is  summoned  to  fly  without  de- 
lay :  *  Talk  to  my.  wife,*  says  he,  '  I  meddle  with  none  of 
these  matters ;'  and  sat  down  again  contentedly  to  muse 
on  the  moon,  until  he  was  forced  out  of  the  house."  * 

MAIRE  (John  le),  an  early  French  poet,  was  born  at 
Bavai,  in  Hainault,  in  1473,  and  died,  according  to  some 
authors,  in  1524,  according  to  others,  towards  1548.  He 
is  the  author  of  an  allegorical  poem  entitled  "  Les  trois 
Comes  de  Cupidon  et  d'Atropos,  dont  le  premier  fut  in- 
vent6  par  Seraphin,  Poete  Italien  ;  le  2«  et  le*3  de  Maitre 
Jean  lfe  Maire,"  Paris,  1525,  8vo.  Several  other  poems 
by  him  are  extant,  all  indicating  a  lively  imagination,  wit, 
and  facility  of  writing,  but  with  little  correctness,  taste, 
or  delicacy.  Some  of  his  productions  are  not  even  de- 
cent. He  wrote  also,  "  Les  Illustrations  des  Gaules, 
et  singularites  de  Troyes,"  1512,  folio.  And  a  pane- 
gyric on  Margaret  of.  Austria,  entitled  "  La  Couronne 
Marguaritique,"  printed  at  Lyons,  in  1546,  in  which  be 
reports  some  curious  traits  of  the  wit  and  repartee  of  that 

MA  I  BET  (John),  a  French  poet  of  later  times,  was 
born  at  Besan^on,  in  1604,  and  was  gentleman  in  waiting 
to  the  duke  of  Montmorency,  under  whom  he  signalized 
himself  in  two  battles  against  the  Hugonots.  His  patron 
settled  upon  him  a  pension  of  15,000  livres ;  but,  not  con- 

1  Diet.  Hist Necrologie,  toI.  IV — Madame  Pompadour's  Lett****'  \ 

9  Diet.  Hist.— Morcrj.— Croix  da  Maine. 

M  A  I  R  £  T»  161 

tented  with  that,  he  complained  heavily  that  the  poets  of 
his  time  received  praises  and  incense,  like  the  deities  of 
antiquity,  but  nothing  that  could  support  life.  He  was 
in  truth  a  lover  of  good  cheer,  and  would  have  been  more 
pleased  with  presents  oft  wine,  or  delicacies  for.  the  table, 
than  crowns  of  laurel,  or  any  unsubstantial  honour.  His 
remonstrances  were  not  ineffectual.  He  received  many 
presents  from  the  duke  de  Longueville,  and  favours  in 
great  number  from  cardinal  Richelieu,  the  count  of  Sois- 
$ons,  and  cardinal  la  Valette.  He  married  in  1648,  and 
retired  to  Besan$on,  where  be  principally  resided  from 
that  time,  though  be  lost  his  wife  in  about  ten  years.  He 
bad  some  talent  for  negotiation,  and  conducted  the  busi- 
ness of  a  suspension  of  arms  for  Francbe  Comt£  with  such 
success,  that  the  emperor  rewarded  him  in  1668,  by  re- 
establishing an  ancient  claim  to  nobility  that  had  been  in 
his  family.  He  died  in  1686,  at  the  age  of  eighty- four, 
Mairet  was  never  rich,  yet  led  a  life  of  ease  and  gratifica- 
tion. He  very  early  began  to  write.  His  first  tragedy  of 
"  Chryseide,"  was  written  at  sixteen ;  "  Sylvia,"  at  se- 
venteen ;  "  Sylvianire,"  at  twenty-one ;  "  The  Duke  de 
Ossane,"  at  twenty-three ;  u  Virginia,"  at  twenty-four ; 
and  u  Sophonisba,"  at  twenty- five.  He  wrote  in  all,  1. 
Tvtelve  tragedies,  which,  though  they  have  some  fine  pas- 
sages, abound  in  faults,  and  are  written  in  a  feeble  style 
of  versification.  Corneille  had  not  yet  established  the 
style  of  the  French  drama.  On  the  Sophonisba  of  Mairet, 
Voltaire  has  formed  another  tragedy  of  the  same  name* 
;2.  A  poem,  entitled  "  Le  Courtisan  solitaire,49  a  perform- 
ance of  some  merit  3.  Miscellaneous  poems,  in  general 
moderate  enough.  4,  Some  criticisms  against  Corneille, 
which  were  more  disgraceful  to  the  author  than  to  the  per- 
son attacked.  His  Sophonisba,  however,  was  preferred 
to  that  of  Corneille,  but  then  that  drama  is  by  no  means 
esteemed  one  of  the  happiest  efforts  of  the  great  tragic  poet.1 
MAISTRE  (Antoine  le).  France  has  produced  se- 
veral great  men  of  the  name  of  Maistre,  and  among  them 
Giles  le  Maistre,  celebrated  as  an  incorruptible  magistrate 
in  the  corrupt  times  of  Francis  I.  and  Henry  II.  Anton}' 
le  Maistre  seems  to  have  been  of  a  different  family,  being 
the  son  of  Isaac  le  Maistre,  master  of  the  accounts,  and 
Catherine  Arnaold,  sister  of  the  celebrated  M.  Arnauid,  doc  - 

•  Nictron.  vol  XXV.-HDict.  Hist.— Moreri. 

Vol.  XXI.  M 

162  M  A  I  S  T  R  E. 

tor  of  the  Sorbonne.  He  was  born  at  Paris,  May  2,  160$. 
He  appeared  very  early  as  a  pleader,  and  with  uncommon 
success,  but.from  religious  feelings  gave  up  his  pursuits,, 
and  retired  to  the  society  of  Port-Royal,  where  his 
piety  and  mortification  became  conspicuous.  "  I  have  been 
busy,"  said  he,  "  in  pleading  the  causes  of  others,  I  am 
now  studying  to  plead  my  own."  He  died  Nov.  4,  1658, 
aged  fifty-one.  Of  his  works,  there  have  been  published, 
1.  "Pleadings;"  of  the  elegant  style  of  which,  Perrault 
speaks  in  the  highest  terms  of  approbation.  2.  "  A  Trans- 
lation of  Cbrysostom  de  Sacerdotio,"  with  an  elegant  pre* 
face,  12mo.  3.  "  A  life  of  St.  Bernard,  under  the  name 
of  the  sieur  Lancy,  4to  and  8vo.  4.  Translations  of  se- 
veral writings  of  St.  Bernard.  5.  Several  publications  in 
favour  of  the  Society  of  Port-Royal.  6.  "  The  Life  of 
Don  Barth61emi  des  Martyrs,"  in  8vo,  esteemed  a  very 
well-written  composition ;  but  some  biographers  have  at- 
tributed this  to  his  brother,  the  subject  of  our  next  ar- 

MAISTRE  (Louis  Isaac  le),  more  known  under  the 
name  of  Sacy4*  (Isaac  inverted),  was  brother  of  the  former, 
and  was  bom  at  Paris,  in  1613,  where  he  was  also  edu- 
cated. After  pursuing  his  studies  with  the  greatest  success 
under  Du  Verger,  the  abbe*  of  St.  Cyrao,  and  other  emi- 
nent teachers,  he  was  admitted  to  the  priesthood  in  1648.  v 
His  reputation  gained  him  the  office  of  confessor  to  the 
society  of  Port  Royal ;  but  that  house  being  accused  of 
Jansenism,  he  was  involved  in  the  persecution;  was  obliged 
to  conceal  himself  in  1661  ;  and  in  1666  was  confined  in 
the  Bastille.  In  that  prison  he  composed  some  important 
works,  particularly  a  translation  of  the  whole  Bible,  which 
was  finished  on  the  eve  of  All- saints,  1668;  and  on  the 
same  day  he  obtained  bis  liberty,  after  being  confined  two 
years  and  a  half.  When  this  work  was  presented  to  the 
king  and  his4 minister,  le  Maistre  desired  no  other  reward 
than  that  of  being  allowed  frequently  to  visit  the  Bastille, 
to  inspect  the  state  of  the  prisoners.  Some  writers  assert 
that  during  his  confinement,  he  composed  a  history  of  thtf 
Old  and  New  Testament,  in  one  volume,  under  the  name 
of  Royaumont,  a  work  known  in  this  country  by  a  transla- 
tion In  4to,  published  about  the  beginning  of  the  last  cen- 
tury,   with   nearly  300  plates;    but  others  ascribe  it   f 

*  Moreri.— Diet.  Hist.-rFerranlt's  Hooimes  IHartrrs. 

is.  A  I  S  T  R  &  16$ 

Nicholas  Fontaine.  Le  Maistre  remained  at  Paris  till  1 675, 
when  be  retired  to  Port-Royal ;  but  was  obliged  in  1679 
to  quit  it,  and  retired  to  Pompona,  where  be  died,  at  the 
age  of.  seventy-one,  in  1684.  His  works  are,  1.  His 
translation  of  the  Bible,  with  explanations  of  the  literal 
and  spiritual  sense  taken  from  the  fathers ;  in  which  part 
he  was  assisted  by  du  Fosse,  Hur£,  and  le  Tourne&ux. 
This  work  was  published  at  Paris,  in  1682*  and  several 
subsequent  years,  in  32  vols.  8vo\  Several  other  editions 
have  been  printed,  but  this  is  on  the  whole  esteemed  the 
best.  2.  A  translation  of  the  Psalms,  from  the  Hebrew 
and  the  Vulgate  together.  3.  A  translation  of  the  Ho- 
milies of  St.  Chrysostom  on  St.  Matthew,  in  3  vols.  8vo. 
4.  A  translation  of  Kempis  on  the  Imitation  of  Christ,  un- 
der the  name  of  de  Beuil,  prior  of  S.  Val,  Paris,  1663, 
8vo.  5.  A  translation  of  Phsedrus,  under  the  name  of  St 
Aubin,  12mo.  6.  Three  comedies  of  Terence,  1 2mo.  7. 
The  Letters  of  Bongprs,  published  under  the  name  of 
Brianviile.  8.  The  poem  of  St.  Prosper,  on  ingratitude, 
rendered  in  verse  and  prose.  9.  "  Les  enluminures  de 
I'Alaianach  des  Jesuites,"  1654,  12mo;  an  attack  upon 
the  Jesuits,  which  was  so  far  relished  as  to  be  reprinted  in 
1733.  10.  "  Heures  de  Port-Royal,"  called  by  the  Jesuits 
Hours  of  Jansenism,  12mo.  11.  "  Letters  of  Piety,"  in 
2  vols.  8vo,  published  at  Paris  in  1690.  The  merits  of 
this  author  are  fully  displayed  in  the  memoirs  of  Port- 
Royal,  written  by  Nicholas  Fontaine,  and  published  at 
Cologne,  in  1738,  in  2  vols.  12ID0.1 

MAITLAND  (Sir  Richard),  a  cultivator  and  preserver 
of  Scotch  poetry,  the  son  of  William  Maitland  of  Lething- 
ton,  and  of  Martha,  daughter  of  George  lord  Seaton,  was 
born  in  1496.  Having  finished  his  course  of  literature  and 
philosophy  in  the  university  of  St.  Andrews,  he  visited 
France  in  order  to  prosecute  the  study  of  the  law.  In 
1 554  he  appears  to  have  been  one  of  the  extraordinary 
lords  of  session.  About  1561  he  was  deprived  of  his  sight, 
a  misfortune  which,  however,  did  not  prevent  his  being 
admitted  in  that  year  to  the  office  of  an  ordinary  lord  of 
session,  by  the  title  of  lord  Lethington;  and  in  1562,  he 
was  appointed  lord  privy-seal,  and  a  member  of  the  privy- 
council.  His  office  as  keeper  of  the  privy  seal  he  resigned 
in  1567,   in  favour  of  his  second  son,  the  subject  of  our 

J  Morcji. — Diet.  Hist  — - Duptt>. 
M    2 

164  MA  I  T  LA  N'D. 

next  article.  In  1583  be  was  excused  from  attendance  at 
a  judge,  unless  when  it  suited  his  convenience ;  but  from 
a  sense  of  the  importance  of  the  duties  of  that  office,  he 
resigned  it  in  favour  of  sir  Lewis  Ballenden.  Sir  Richard 
died  March  20,  1586.  His  eldest  son,  air  William  Mak* 
land,  secretary  to  queen  Mary,  makes  a  considerable  figure, 
in  the  history  of  that  princess. 

Sir  Richard  Maitladd  is  celebrated  as  a  man  of  learning, 
talents,  and  virtue.  His  compositions  breathe  the  genuine 
spirit  of  piety  and  benevolence*  The  chearfulness  of  hi* 
natural  disposition,  and  his  affiance  in  divine  aid,  seem  to 
have  supported  him  with  singular  equanimity  under  the 
pressure  of  blindness  and  old  age.  His  poem  "  On  the 
Creation  and  Paradyce  Lost"  is  printed  in  Allan  RdttiiayV 
"  Ever-Green."  A  considerable  number  of  his  produc- 
tions are  to  be  found  among  Mr.  Pinfcerton's  "Ancient 
Scotish  Poetry,"  1786,  2  vols.  8vo;  two  are  in  the  Bib- 
liographer, vol.  III.  p.  114,  and  many  more  remain  un- 
published. A  MS.  containing  "  The  Selected  Poemes  of 
Sir  Richard  Metellan"  was  presented  by  Drumoiond  to  the 
university  of  Edinburgh  ;  but  it  seems  merely  to  consist  of 
gleanings  from  the  two  volumes  deposited  in  the  library  of 
Magdalen-college,  Cambridge*  Two  of  his  unpublished 
tHrorks,  a  genealogical  history  of  the  family  of  Seaton,  and 
decisions  of  the  court  of  session  from  1550  to  1565,  are 
preserved  in  the  Advocates'  library,  Edinburgh.  It  is  sop- 
posed  that  he  did  hot  write  his  poems  before  he  bad  nearly 
attained  his  sixtieth  year.  On  that  and  other  account! 
they  afford  some  gratification  to  curiosity,  bat  little  to 
taste.  The  Maitland  Collection  of  Poems  in  the  Pepysian 
'  library  has  served  to  connect  his  name  with  the  history  of 
early  Scotish  poetry.1 

.  MAITLAN D  (John),  lord  of  Thirlstorte,  and  afterward* 
chancellor  of  Scotland,  one- of  the  Latin  poets  of  that 
country,,  the  second  son  of  the  preceding,  was  born  about 
1537.  He  was  educated  in  Scotland,  and  afterwards  sent 
to  France  to  study  the  law.  On  hisret(irn\  to  his  native 
country,  he  practised  that  profession  with  great  success. 
In  1567,  as  already  noticed,  his  father  resigned  the  privy- 
seal  in  his  favour;  but  in  1570  he  was  deprived  of  that 
office,  from  his  attachment  to  queen  Mary.  In  1581  he 
was  made  a  senator  of  the  college  of  justice.     In  1 584  be 

"*  Irvine's  Live*  of  the  Scotish  Poets. — Mackenzie's  Scotch  Writers,  toJ>  1IL 

M  A  I  T  L  A  N  D.  \6S 

became  tecretary  of  state  to  king  James  VI.  and  the  year 
following,  on  the  death  of  the  earl  of  Arrau,  was  created 
lord  chancellor  of  Scotland.     The  power  and  influence  of 
the  chancellor  created    him  many  enemies  among  the 
Scotch  nobility,  who  made  several  unsuccessful  attempts 
to  destroy  him.     Id   J  589  he  attended   the  king   on  his 
voyage  to  Norway,  where  his  royal  bride,  the  princess  of 
Denmark,  was  detained  by  contrary  jpnds.     The  marriage 
was  there  completed,  and  they  passed  the  winter  at  Co- 
penhagen*   During  this  residence  in  Denmark,  Maitland 
became  intimately  acquainted  with  Tycbo  Brahe.     In  1590 
he  was  created  lord  Maitland  of  Thirlstone.     Towards  the 
end  of  1592,    the  chancellor  incurred  the  queen's  dis- 
pleasure for  refusing  to  relinquish  his  lordship  of  Mussel- 
burgh, which  she  claimed  as  part  of  Dumferling.     He  ab- 
sented himself  from  court  for  some  time,  but  was  at  length 
restored  to  favour.     He  died  of  a  lingering  illness  Oct.  4, 
1595,  and  was  much  regretted  by  the  king.     He  is  spoken 
of  by  Spotiswood  and  Johnston  as  a  man  of  great  learning, 
and   eminent  political  abilities.     Of  his  works,  we  have 
"  Johannis    Metellani,    Thirlstoni    domini,    epigram  ma ta 
Latina,"  published  in  the  second  volume  of  the  "  DelicitB 
Foetarum  Scotorum,"  Amst.  1637  ;  a  satire  in  the  Scotch 
language  "  aganist  sklanderous  toungis,"  and  an  "  admo- 
nitioun"  to  the  regent  Mar,  published  in  Mr.  Pinkerton's 
collection  of  "Ancient  Scotish  Poems." l 

MAITLAND  (John),  duke  of  Lauderdale,  grandson  of 
the  preceding,  was  a  statesman  of  great  power  and  autho~ 
rity,  bat  of  most  inconsistent  character.  On  the  breaking 
out  of  the  wars  in  Scotland  in  the  reign  of  Charles  I.  he 
was  a  zealous  covenanter;  and  in  Jan.  1644-5,  one  of  the 
commissioners  at  the  treaty  of  Uxbridge,  during  which, 
upon  the  death  of  his  father  the  earl  of  Lauderdale,  be, 
succeeded  to  his  titles  and  estate.  He  took  an  active  but 
not  very  useful  part  in  the  above  treaty ;  "  being,"  says 
lord  Clarendon,  "  a  young  man,  not  accustomed  to  an  or- 
derly and  decent  way  of  speaking,  and  having  no  gracious 
pronunciation,  and  full  of  passion,  he  made  every  thing 
much  more  difficult  than  it  was  before."  In  April  1647, 
be  came  with  the  earl  of  Dumfermling  to  London,  with  a 
commission  to  join  with  the  parliament  commissioners  in 

\  Mackenzie's  Scotch  Writers,  vol.  Ill — Park's  edition  of  the  Royal  and 
Noble  Authon. 


persuading  the  king  to  sign  the  covenant  and  proposition* 
offered  to  him  ;  and  in  the  latter  end  of  the  same  year,  he, 
in  conjunction  with  the  earl  of  Loudon,  chancellor  of  Scot-* 
land,  and  the  earl  of  Lanerick,  conducted  a  private  treaty 
with  his  majesty  at  Hampton  court,  which  was  renewed 
and  signed  by  him  on  Dec.  26  at  Carisbrook  castle.  By 
this,  among  other  very  remarkable  concessions,  the  king 
engaged  himself  to  employ  the  Scots  equally  with  the 
English  in  all  foreign  employments  and  negociations ;  and 
that  a  third  part  of  all  the  offices  and  places  about  the 
king,  queen,  and  prince,  should  be  conferred  upon  per- 
sons of  that. nation  ;  and  that  the  king  and  prince,  or  one 
of  them,  should  frequently  reside  in  Scotland.  In  August 
the  year  following,  the  earl  of  Lauderdale  was  sent  by  the 
committee  of  estates  of  Scotland  to  the  prince  of  Wales, 
with  a  letter,  in  which,  next  to  his  father's  restraint,  they 
bewailed  his  highness' s  long  absence  from  that  kingdom ; 
and  since  their  forces  were  again  marched  into  England, 
they  desired  his  presence  to  countenance  their  endeavours 
for  religion  and  his  father's. re-establishment.  In  1649,  he 
opposed  with  great  vehemence  the  propositions  made  by 
the  marquis  of  Montrose  to  king  Charles  II. ;  and  in  1651 
attended  his  majesty  in  his  expedition  into  England,  but 
was  taken  prisoner  after  the  battle  of  Worcester  in  Sep* 
tember  the  same  year,  and  confined  in  the  Tower  of  Lon- 
don, Portland-castle,  and  other  prisons,  till  the  3d  of 
March,  1659-60,  when  he  was  released  from  his  imprison* 
*ment  in  Windsor- castle. 

Upon  the  Restoration  he  was  made  secretary  of  state  for 
Scotland,  and  persuaded  the  king  to  demolish  the  forts 
and  citadels  built  by  Cromwell  in  Scotland;  by  which 
means  he  became  very  popular.  He  was  likewise  very 
importunate  with  his  majesty  for  his  supporting  presbytery 
in  that  kingdom ;  though  his  zeal,  in  that  respect,  did  not 
continue  long:  In  1669,  he  was  appointed  lord  commis- 
sioner for  the  king  in  Scotland,  whither  he  was  sent  with 
great  pomp  and  splendour  to  bring  about  some  extraordi- 
nary points,  and  particularly  the  union  of  the  two  king- 
doms. .  For  this  purpose  he  made  a  speech  at  the  opening 
of  the  parliament  at  Edinburgh  on  the  19th  of  October 
that  year,  in  which  he  likewise  recommended  the  preser- 
vation of  the  church  as  established  by  law,  and  expressed 
a  vast  zeal  for  episcopal  government.  And-  now  the  ex- 
tending of  the  king's  power  and  grandeur  in  that  kingdom 

*  * 

M  A  I  T  L  A  N  D,  167 

was  greatly  owing  to  the  management  of  bis  lordship 
although  he  had  formerly  been  as  much  for  depressing  the 
prerogative ;  and  from  the  time  of  his  commission  the  Scots v 
had  reason  to  date  all  the  mischiefs  and  internal  commo- 
tions of  that  and  the  succeeding  reign.     Having  under- 
taken  to  make  his  majesty   absolute  and  arbitrary,    be 
stretched  the  power  of  the  crown  to  every  kind  of  excess, 
and  assumed  to  himself  a  sort  of  lawless  administration, 
the  exercise  of  which  was  supposed  to  be  granted  to  him 
in  consequence  of  the  large  promises  he  had  made.     In 
the  prosecution  of  this  design,  being  more  apprehensive  of 
other  men's  officious  interfering,  than  distrustful  of  his  own 
abilities,  he  took  care  to  make  himself  his  majesty's  sole 
informer,  as  well  as  his  sole  secretary ;  and  by  this  means, 
not  only  the  affairs  of  Scotland  were  determined  in  the 
court  of  England,  without  any  notice  taken  of  the  king's 
council  in  Scotland,  but  a  strict  watch  was  kept  on  all 
Scotchmen,  who  came  to  the  English  court;  and  to  at- 
tempt any  acqess  to  his  majesty,  otherwise  than  by  his 
lordship's  mediation,  was  to  hazard  his  perpetual  resent- 
ment.    By  these  arrogant  measures,  he  gradually  made 
himself  almost  the. only  important  person  of  the  whole 
Scotch  nation  ;  and  iu  Scotland  itself  assumed  so  much 
sovereign  authority,  as  to  name  the  privy-counsellors,  to 
place  and  remove  the  lords  of  the  session  and  exchequer, 
to  grant  gifts  and  pensions,  to  levy  and  disband  forces,  to 
appoint  general  officers,  and  to  transact  all  matters  belong- 
ing to  the,  prerogative.     Besides  which,  he  was  one  of  the 
five  lords,  who  had  the  management  of  affairs  in  England, 
and  were  styled  the  Cabal,  and  in  167&,  was  made  mar- 
quis of  March,  duke  of  Lauderdale,    and  knight  of  the 
garter.     But  these  honours  did  not  protect  him  from  the 
indignation  of  the  House  of  Commons.;  by  whom,  in  No- 
vember the  year  following,  he  was  voted  a  "  grievance, 
and  not  fit  to  be  trusted. or  employed  in  any  office  or  place 
of  trust."      And   though  his   majesty,  thought  proper  on 
the  25th  of  June,  1674,  to  create  him  a  baron  of  England 
by  the  title  of  Baron  of  Petersham  in  Surrey,  and  earl  of 
Guildford,  yet  the  House  of  Commons  the  next  year  pre- 
sented an  address  to  the  king  to  remove  him  from  all  his 
employments,  and  from  his  majesty's  presence  and  coun- 
sels for  ever ;  which  address  was  followed  by  another  of 
the  same  kind  in  May  1678,  and  by  a  third  in  May  the 



-     i 

He  died  at  Tunbridge  Wells,  August  34,  1 682,  leaving 
a  character  which  no  historian  has  been  hardy  enough  to 
Tindicaie.  In  Clarendon,  Burnet,  Kennet,  Hurne,  Smoh 
let,  &c.  we  find  a  near  conformity  of  sentiment  respecting 
his  inconsistency,  his  ambition,  and  his  tyranny  *.  Mr.  • 
Laing  observes,  that  "  during  a  long  imprisonment,  his 
mind  had  been  carefully  improved  by  study,  and  impressed 
with  a  sense  of  religion,  which  was  soon  effaced  on  his 
return  to  the  world.  His  learning  was  extensive  and  ac- 
curate ;  in  public  affairs  his  experience  wan  considerable, 
and  his  elocution  copious,  though  unpolished  and  indis- 
tinct. But  his  temper  was  dark  and  vindictive,  incapable 
of  friendship,  mean  and  abject  to  his  superiors*  haughty 
and  tyrannical  to  his  inferiors;  and  his  judgment*  seldom 
correct  or  just,  was  obstinate  in  error,  and  irreclaimable 
by  advice.  His  passions  were  furious  and  ungovernable, 
unless  when  his  interest  of  ambition  interposed ;  his  vio- 
lence was  ever  prepared  to  suggest  or  to  execute  the  most 
desperate  counsels ;  and  his  ready  compliance  preserved 
his  credit  with  the  king,  till  his  faculties  were  visibly  im- 
paired with  age." — The  duke  died  without  male  issue,  but 
his  brother  succeeded  to  the  title  of  Earl,  whose  son 
Richard  was  the  author  of  a  translation  of  Virgil,  which  is 
rather  literal  than  poetical,  yet  Dryden  adopted  many  of 
the  lines  into  his  own  translation.1 

.MAITLAND  ( WilltaM),  an  antiquary  of  some  note, 
was  born,  according  to  the  best  accounts  we  can  obtain,  at 
Brechin  in  Forfarshire  in  Scotland,  about  1693.  What 
education  he  had  is  uncertain,  but  his  original  employment 
was  that  of  a  hair-merchant ;  in  the  prosecution  of  which 
business  he  travelled  into  Sweden,  and  Denmark,  to  Ham* 
burgh,  and  other  places.  M  length  he  settled  in  London, 
and  applied  himself  to  the  study  of  English  and  Scottish 
antiquities,  and  must  have  acquired  some  literary  reputa* 
tation,  as  in  1733  he  was  elected  a  fellow  of  the  royal  so- 
ciety, and  in  1735  a  fellow  of  the  society  of  antiquaries, 

*  What  no  historian,  no  relater  of; 
facts  could  do,  was  accomplished  by 
the  rev.  Johu  Gascarth,  fellow  of  Pem- 
broke-ball in  Cambridge,  in  a  funeral 
sermon  for  the  duke.  In  this  he  clothes 
him  with  every  virtue  that  ever  adorned 
the  best,  -most  pious,  apd  wisest  of  hu- 
man beings.    After  reading  bis  grace's 

history,  one  would  suppose  all  this 
ironical ;  bnt  the  author,  whatever  bis 
motives,  appears  to  be  serious.  This 
sermon  was  published  at  London  in 
1 683,  4to.  It  is,  we  believe,  scarce,  but 
the  reader  will  find  the  substance  of 
it  in  that  very  useful  collection,  "  Wil  - 
ford's  Memorials." 

1  Laing'9  Hist,  of  Scotland,— Clarendon.—Burnet,  kc— Birch's  Lives. 

MAI  T  L  AND.  169 

^vhtoh  lit  Msigned  in  1740,  on  going  to  reside  ia  the  coun- 
try. His  fast  publication  was  bis  History  of  London,  pub- 
lished ia  folio,  in  1739;  a  work  compiled  from  Stow,  and 
afterwards,  ia  1765,  enlarged  by  Entick  to  2  vols,  folio, 
with  a  great  many  views,  plans,  &c.  ther  plates  of  which 
are  now  in  Mr.  Nichols's  possession.  In  1740,  as  just 
mentioned,  he  retired  into  hi*,  native  country,  and  in  1753T, 
published  a  history  of  Edinburgh,  comprised  also  in  one 
folio  volume.  In  1757,  appeared  his  work  on  the  history 
and  antiquities  of  Scotland,  in  2  vols,  folio  ;  a  performance 
not  in  general  so  highly  esteemed  as  the  two  former,  al- 
though he  appears  to  have  taken  considerable  pains  to 
acquire  information,  by  a  set  of  printed  queries  which  he 
sent  to  every  clergyman  in  Scotland,  and  himself  tra- 
velled over  it  for  the  same  pqrpose.  On  July  the  16th  of 
-the  same  year,  he  died,  at  Montrose,  according  to  our 
account  at  the  age  of  64 ;  the  papers  of  the  time  say,  at 
an  advanced  age,  by  which  possibly  it  may  be  meant  that 
be  was  still  older ;  but  this  is  matter  of  doubt.  He  was 
said,  in  the  accounts  of  his  death,  to  hare  died  worth  more 
than  10,000/.  Mv.  Maitland  was  rather  a  compiler  from 
printed  or  written  authorities,  than  an  original  collector  of 
antiquary  knowledge.  Mr.  Gough,  a  very  competent  judge, 
pronounces  him,  even  in  this  respect,  "  self-conceited 
and  credulous,91  and  adds  that  be  "  knew  little,  and  wrote 
worse."  The  merit  of  his  history  of  London  was  chiefly  in 
supplying  the  place  of  Stowe,  which  was  become  scarce, 
and  in  modernizing  the  style.  His  "  History  of  Edin- 
burgh" is  the  BpLost  useful  of  his  works.1 

MAITTAIRE  (Michael),  an  eminent  classical  editor, 
of  a  foreign  family,  was  born  in  1668.  He  was  educated 
at  Westminster  school,  under  Dr.  Busby,  who  kept  him 
to  the  study  of  Greek  and  Latin  some  years  longer  than 
usual.  He  then  gained  another  powerful  friend  in  Dr. 
South,  for  whom  he  compiled  a  list  of  the  Greek  words 
falsely  accented  in  Dr.  Sherlock's  books.  This  so  pleased 
Dr.  South,  who  was  then  a  canon  of  Christ  church,  Oxford, 
that  he  made  htm  a  canoneer  student  (i.e.  one  introduced 
by  a  canon,  and  not  elected  from  Westminster  school), 
where  he  took  the  degree  of  M.  A.  March  23,  1696.  From 
1695  till  1699,  he  was  second  master  of  Westminster- 
school  ;  which  was  afterwards  indebted  to  him  for  "  Graecae 

1  Nichols's  B««y«r. 

170  M  A  I  T  T  A  1  R  E. 

Linguae  Dialecti,  in  usum  Scholse  Westmohasieriensis," 
1706,  8vo*,  (a  work  recommended  in  the  warmest  terms 
by  Dr.  Knipe  to  the  school  over  which  he  presided,  "  cui 
se  sua  omnia  debere  fatetur  sedulus  Author")  and  for 
"  The  English  Grammar,  applied  to,  and  exemplified  in, 
the  English  tongue,"  1712,  8vo.  In  "Catalogue  Librorum 
Manuscriptorum  Angliee  &  Hiberniae,"  Oxon.  1697,  t.  ii. 
p.  27,  is  inserted  "  Librorum  Manuscriptorum  Ecclesiag 
Westmonasteriensis  Catalogus.  Accurante  viro  erudito 
Michaele  Mattaerio."  But  before  the  volume  was  pub* 
lished,  the  whole  collection,  amounting*  to  230,  given  by 
bishop  Williams,  except  one,  was  destroyed,  by  an  acci- 
dental fire  in  1694.  In  1699  he  resigned  his  situation  at 
Westminster-school ;  and  devoted  his  time  solely  to  lite* 
rary  pursuits.  In  1711,  he  published  "  Remarks  on  Mr* 
Wbisi on's  Account  of  the  Convocation's  proceedings! with 
relation  to  himself :  in  a  Letter  to  the  right  reverend  Fa- 
ther in  God,  George,  Lord  Bishop  of  Bath  and  Wells," 
8vo ;  and  also  "  An  Essay  against  Arianism,  and  some 
other  Heresies ;  or  a  Reply  to  Mr.  William  Whiston's  His* 
torical  Preface  and  Appendix  to  bis  Primitive  Christianity 
revived,"  8vo.  In  1709,  he  gave  the  first  specimen  of  his 
great  skill  in  typographical  antiquities,  by  publishing 
"  Stephanorum  Historia,  vitas  ipsorum  ac  libros  complec- 
tens,"  8vo;  which  was  followed  in  J  717,  by  "  Historia 
Typographorum  aliquot  Parisiensium,  vitas  &  libros  com* 
plectens,"  8vo.  In  1719,  "  Annales  T-ypographici  ab  artis 
invents  origine  ad  annum  md.  Hagse  Com."  4to.  Tp  this 
volume  is  prefixed,  "  Epistolaris  de  antiquis  Quintiliani 
editionibus  Dissertatio,  clarissimo  viro  D.'Jobanni  Clericp." 
The  second  volume,  divided  into  two  parts,  and  continued 
to  1536,  was  published  at  the  Hague  in  1702  ;  introduced 
by  a  letter  of  John  Toland,  under  the  title  of  "  Conjectura 
verosimilis  de  prima  Typographic  Inventione."  The  third 
volume,  from  the  same  press,  in  two  parts,  continued  to 
1557,  and,  by  an  Appendix,  to  1564,  in  1725,  In  1733 
was  published  at  Amsterdam  what  is  usually  considered  as 
tlie  fourth  volume,  under  the  title  of  "  Annales  Typogra- 
phic! ab  artis  invents  origine,  ad  annum  1564,  oper&Mich. 
Maittaire,  A.  M.     Editio  nova,  auctior  &  emendatior,  tomi 


.  *  Of  this  work  Reitz  published  an  edition   at  the  Hague,  1738,  8vo,  and 
a  much   mor*  improved  edition   by  Sturtz  appeared  at  f^eipsic,  in  1807. 

M  A  I  T  T  A  I  R  E.  171 

jprioii  pars  posterior*  "  In  1741  the  work  was  closed  at 
London,  by  "  Annatium  Typographicoruni  Tomus  Quintus 
Jk  ultinuis ;  indicem  in  tomos  quatupr  prseeumes  complec- 
ten3  ;"  divided  (like  the  two  preceding  volumes)  into  two 

-  In  the  intermediate  years,  Mr.  Maittaire  was  diligently 
employed  on  various  works  of  value.  In  1 7 1 3  he  published 
by  subscription,  u  Opera  &  Fragmenta  Veterum  Poeta- 
?om/'  1713,  two  handsome  volumes,  in  folio,  dedicated  to 
prince  Eugene ;  the  title  of  some  copies  is  dated  1721.  In 
1714,  he  was  the  editor  of  the  "  Greek  Testament,'*  in  2 
Vote.  The  Latin  writers,  which  he  published  separately, 
most  of  them  with  good  indexes,  came  out.  in  the  follow* 
itogor&r:  In  1713,  u  Christus  Patiens;"  an  heroic  poem 
by  Rene  Rapin,  first  printed  in  1674;  "  Paterculus ;" 
"  Justin  ;"  "  Lucretius  ;"  «  Phasdrus  ;"■ "  Sallust  ;"  "  Te- 
lence."  In  1715,  "  Catullus,  Tibullus,  and  Propertius  ;" 
«<  Cornelius  Nepos ;"  "  Florus  ;"  "  Horace ;"  "  Ovid,"  3 
vols.;  "Virgil."  In  1716,  "Caesar's  Commentaries;'* 
"  Martial;"  "Juvenal  and  Persius ;"  "  Quintus  Curtius." 
In  1719,  "Lucan."  In  1720,  "  Bonefonii  Carolina." 
Here  he  appears  to  have  stopped  ;  all  the  other  classics 
which  are  ascribed  to  him  having  been  disclaimed,  by  a 
jHemorandum  which  Mr.  Nichols  has  preserved  under  Mait- 
taire's  own  hand,  in  the  latter  part  of  his  lifef.  In  1721 
he  published  "  Batrachomyopachia  Graece  ad  veterum 
exemplarium  fidem  recusa :  glossa  Greca,  variantibus  lee- 
tionibus,  versionibus  Latinis,  commentariis  &  indicibus 
illustrata,"  8vo.  At  the  end  of  this  volume  he  added  pro- 
posals for  printing  by  subscription,  "  Musaeus,"  in  Greek 
and  Latin,  for  half  a  guinea  ;  and  "  Rapin's  Latin  works," 
for  a  guinea,  both  in  4to  :  "  Musa?us,"  to  be  comprised  in 

*  The  aukwardness  of  this  title  has  imperfection  of  those  editions,  without 

induced  many  collectors  to  dispose  of  being  charged  with  the  odium  of  claim- 

thehr  first  volume,  as  thinking  it  super-  ing  what  has  been  pat  out  by  editors 

seded  by  the  second  edition;  but  this  much  abler  than  himself;  he  therefore 

is  by  no  means  the  case;  the  volume  would   acquaint  the.  public,    that  he 

of  1719  being  no  less  necessary  to  com-  had  no  hand  in  publishing  the  follow, 

plete  tbe  set' than  that  of  1733,  which  ing  books,  which  in  some  newspapers 

is  a  revision  of  all  the  former  volumes,  have  been  advertised  under  his  uame ; 

The  whole  work,  when  properly  bound,  viz.    "  Sophoclis  Tragcadia?;"    **  Ho- 

consists,   ad  libitum,  either  of  five  vo-  meri  Ilias ;"  "  Mu?arum  Atigticana- 

lumes,  or  of  nine,  rum    Analects;;"    4*  Livii   His  tori  a;" 

f  "  As  the  editor  of  several  classics,  *'  Plinii    Epi?tol«B    et    Panejryricus  5 

some  years  ago  printed  in   12mo,  at  "  Conciones  &  Orationes  ex  Historicis 

Mess.  Tonson  and  Watt's  press,  thinks  Latin  is."  M.  M." 
it  sufficient  to  be  answerable  for  the 

17*  M  A  I  T  T  A  I  R  ¥. 

twelve  sheets,  "  lUpin"  in  fifty.  Bat  neither  of  these 
were  ever  committed  to  the  press,  from  want  probably  of 
sufficient  encouragement.  In  1122,  "  Miscellanea  Grce» 
corum  aliquot  Scriptoruqi  Carmine,  cum  vprsione  L?tina 
&  Notis,"  4to.  In  1724,  he  compiled,  at  the  request  of 
Dr.  John  Freind  (at  whose  expence  it  was  printed)  an  in- 
dex to  the  works  of  Aret&us,"  to  accompany  the  splendid 
folio  edition  of  that  author  in  1723.  In  172$  he  published 
an  exoellent  edition  of  "  Auacreon,"  in  4to,  of  which  no 
more  than  100  copies  were  printed,  and  the  few  errata  in 
each  copy  corrected  by  his  own  hand,  A  second  edition 
of  the  like  number  was  printed  in  1741,  with  six  copies  on 
fine  writing  paper.  In  1726  he  published,  "  Petri  Petiti 
Medici  Parisiensis  in  tres  priores  Aretei  Cstppadocitiibro* 
Commentarii,  nunc  primqm  editi,"  4to.  This  learned 
Commentary  was  found  among  the  papers  of  Graeviui. 

From  1728  to  1732  he  was  employed  in  publishing, 
u  Marmorum  Arundellianorum,  Seldenianorum,  aliorumque 
Academies  Oxoniensi  donatorum,  una  cum  Commentariis 
&  Indice,  editio  secunda,"  folio ;  to  which  an  "  Appendix19 
was  printed  in  1733.  "  Epistola  D.  Mich.  Maittaire  ad 
D.  P.  Des  Maizeaux,  in  qua  Indicia  in  Annates  Typogra- 
phies methodus  explicatur,"  &c,  is  printed  in  "  The  Pre- 
sent State  of  the  Republic  of  Letters,"  in  August  1733, 
p.  142.  The  life  of  Robert  Stephens,  in  Latin,  revised 
and  corrected  by  the  author,  with  a  new  and  complete  list 
of  his  works,  is  prefixed  to  the  improved  edition  of  R. 
Stephens's  Thesaurus,  4  vols,  in  folio,  in  1734.  In  1736 
appeared,  "Antiquae  Inscriptiones  dqse,"  folio;  being  a 
commentary  on  two  large  copper  tables  discovered  near 
Heraclea,  in  the  bay  of  Tarentum.  In  1738  were  printed 
at  the  Hague,  "  Graecre  Linguae  Dialecti  in  Scbolae  Regis 
Westmonasteriensis  usum  recogniti  opera  Mich.  Maittaire. 
Prafationem  &  Appendiceal  ex  Apollonii  Discoli  fragmento 
inedito  addidit  J.  F.  Reitzius."  Maittaire  prefixed  a  dedi- 
cation of  this  volume  to  the  marquis  of  Granby,  and  the 
lords  Robert  and  George  Manners,  his  brothers ;  and  a 
new  preface,  dated  3  Cal.  Octob.  1737.  This  was  again 
printed  at  London  in  1742.  In  1739,  he  addressed  to  the 
empress  of  Russia  a  small  Latin  poem,  under  the  title  of 
"  Carmen  Epinicium  Augustissimse  Russorum  Imperatrici 
sacrum."  His,  name  not  having  been  printed  in  the  title- 
page,  it  is  not  so  generally  known  that  he  was  editor  of 
Plutarch's  "Apophthegmata,"  1741,  4to.     The  last  pub- 

M  A  I  T  T  A  I  R  E.  173 

ligation  of  Mr.  Mflkuire  was  a  volume  of  poems  in  4to, 
1742,  under  the  title  of  "  Senilia,  give  Pogtica  aliquot  in 
arguments  varii  generis  tentamioa."  It  may  be  worth 
mentioning,  that  Baxter's  dedication  to  bis  "  Glossariam 
Antiquitatum  Britannicarum,"  was  much  altered  by  Mait* 
taire ;  who  died  August  7,  1747,  aged  seventy-nine.  There 
is  a  good  mezzotinto  print  of  him  by  Faber,  from  a  paint* 
ing  by  B.  Dandridge,  inscribed, ','  Michael  Maittaire,  A.  M. 
Ataicorum  jussu."  His  valuable  library,  which  be  had 
been  collecting  fifty  years,  was  sold  by  auction,  by  Messrs. 
Ceck  and  Langford,  at  the  close  of  the  same  year,  and  the 
beginning  of  the  following,  taking  up  in  all  forty-four 
nights.  Mr.  Cock,  in  his  prefatory  advertisement,  tells 
tw,  "  In  exhibiting  thus  to  the  public  the  entire  library  of 
1M*.  Maittaire,  I  comply  with  the  will  of  my  deceased 
friend  ;  and  in  printing  the  catalogue  from  his  own  copy 
just  as  he  left  it  (though,  by  so  doing,  it  is  the  more  vo- 
luminous), I  bad  an  opportunity  not  only  of  doing  the 
justice  I  owe  to  his  memory,  but  also  of  gratifying  the  cu- 
rious *."  Maittaire,  it  fiiay  be  added,  was  patronized  by 
the  first  eart  of  Offfefd,  both  before  and  after  that  gentle* 
toan's  elevation  to  the  peerage,  and  continued  a  favourite 
with  his  son  the  second  earl.  He  was  also  Latin  tutor  to 
Mr.  Stanhope,  the  fcarl  of  Chesterfield's  favourite  son,  and 
was  esteemed  by  so  many  persons  of  eminence  that  we 
Cannot  wonder  at  his  portrait  being  engraven  jusmi  amico- 
t*um.  He  possessed  many  amiable  qualities ;  in  religion 
was  orthodox  and  zealous  t ;  in  temper  modest  and  unas- 

*  Mr.  Nichols  has  here  taken  so  op*>  whose  works  are  promiscuously  intro- 
port  unity  of  observing,  that  "  the  pre-  duced  in  tbe  course  of  the  sale.  With 
sent  mode  of  compiling  catalogues  of  this  improvement,  Dr.  Mead's  Cttta* 
celebrdted  libraries  for  sale,  so  moch  togue,  which  at'  present  is  confused 
more  laconic  than  that  which  obtained  and  almost  useless,  would  have  been 
about  forty  years  ago,  except  when  as  valuable,  in  proportion  to  its  extent, 
Mr.  Samuel  Patersan  exerts  that  talent  as  the  '  Biblkrtheca  Menckeniaiia,' 
•f  cataloguing  for  which  he  is  particu-  '  Bultelliana,'  or  any  other  publica- 
larly  distinguished,  cannot  possibly  do  tion  of  the  same  kind.  The  auctioneer 
equal  justice  with  the  ancient  mode,  would  derive  sufficient  advantage  from 
either  in  a  literary  or  pecuniary  view."  such  catalogues.'* 
This  remark  is  quoted  in  the  "  Critical  f  There  is  a  passage  in  one  of  his 
Review,"  with  an  additional  observa-  Letters  to  Dr.  Charlett,  dated  1718 
tion  ;  "  that,  as  the  catalogues  of  large  (published  in  "  Letters  written  by  Emi- 
libraries  sold  by  auction  are  generally  nent  Persons,"  1813,  in  3  vols.  8vo), 
preserved  by  men  of  learning,  for  the  which  implies  that  he  had  been  under 
sake  of  ascertaining  the  dates  or  titles  some  restraint,  on  account  of  his  priu- 
of  books,  they  might  be  rendered  infi-  ciples.  "  The  friendly  turn,"  he  says, 
nitely  more  useful,  in  saving  expence,  "  which  you  gave  to  the  leisure  govern- 
by  subjoining  an  alphabetical  iadex,  ment  has  granted  me,  cannot  entirely 
containing  the  names  of  tbe  authors  reconcile  me  to  the  hardships  the  laws 


sunning;    despising  the  pride  of  learning, '  yet  fond  of 
friendly  intercourse. 

With  respect  to  his  talents,  he  may  be  characterized  as 
a  sound  scholar,  and  a  careful  editor ;  and,  although  his 
genius  was  confined,  and  his  taste  questionable,  his  la- 
bours have  been  truly  useful,  and  entitle  him  to  the  grate- 
ful remembrance  of  the  classical  student.  He  has  the 
glory,  says  Mr.  Dibdin,  of  being  the  first  who  established 
in.  this  country,  on  a  solid  basis,,  the  study  of  bibliography.1 

MAIUS,  or  MAY  (John  Henry),  a  Lutheran  divine, 
was  born  Feb.  5,  1653,  at  Pfortzheim,  in  the  marquisate 
of  Baden-Dourlach.  He  was  profoundly  skilled  in  Hebrew 
literature,  and  taught  the  oriental  languages  in  several 
universities,  with  great  reputation.  His  last  employments 
of  this  kind  were  at  Giessen,  where  he  was  pastor,  and 
where  he  died  Sept.  3,  1719.  He  was  well  acquainted 
with  antiquities,  sacred  and  profane,  but  his  works  are  less 
known  in  other  parts  of  Europe  than  in  Germany.  The 
following  are  some  of  them  :  1.  "  Historiaanimalium  Scrip- 
turae  sacrse,"  8vo.  2.  "  Vita  Johannis  Reuchlini,"  1 687, 
Svo.  3.  "  Examen  histories  criticoe  Ricardi  Simon  is,"  4to> 
4.  "  Synopsis  Theologiae  symbolicre,"  4to.  5.  "  Synopsis 
Moralis,"  4to.  6.  "  Synopsis  Judaica,"  4to.  7.  "  In- 
troductio  ad  studium  Philologicum,  criticum,  et  exegeti- 
cum,"  4to.     8.  "  Paraph rasis  Epistolae  ad  Hebrseos,"  4to. 

9.  "  Tbeologia  Evangelica,"  1701,  and  1719,  4  parts  4to. 

10.  "  Animadversiones  et  Supplementa  ad  Coccei  Lexicon 
Hebrseum,"  1703,  fol.  11.  "  CEconomia  temporum  ve* 
teris  et  Novi  Test.  4to.  12.  "  Synopsis  Theologiae  Chris- 
tiana," 4to.  13.  "  Theologia  Lutheri,"  4to.  14. "  Theo- 
logia  Prophetica,"  4to.  1 5.  "  Harmonia  Evangelica,"  4to. 
16.  "  Historia  Refoirmationis  Lutheri,"  4to.  17.  M  Disser- 
tationes  philologies  et  exegeticse,"  Francfort,  171 1,  2  vols. 
4to,  &c.  He  also  published  a  very  good  edition  of  the  He- 
brew Bible,  4to.  His  son,  of  the  same'name,  was  eminent 
for  his  knowledge  of  Greek  and  the  oriental  languages.1 

have  put  me  to.     I  thank  God,  I  want  tongue  or  pen."    To  render  this  intel- 

no  courage  to  go  through,  but  courage  ligibie,  the  reader  must  be  told  that 

does  not  exclude  feeling.     One  thing  I  Mr.  Maittaire,   on   the    accession  of 

can  boast  of,  that  the  cruelty  never  George  1.  turned  non-juror,  and  was 

yet  soured  my  looks,  nor  extorted  any  probably  included  in  the  disabilities  to 

low  i  e vengeful  expressions  from  my  which  Abat  sect  was  exposed. 

1  Nichols's  Bowyer — Dibdin's  Classics  and  B  blicmania. 
9  Nicer  on,  vol.  XXIX. — Diet.  Hist.— *axii   Onomast. 

MALA6RIDA.  175 

-    MALAGRIDA  (Gabriel),  an  Italian  Jesuit,  sent  by  his 
superiors  as  a  missionary  to  Portugal,  was  a  man  of  an  ar- 
dent zeal,  wkh  that  faoility  of  elocution  which  enthusiasm 
generally  confers.     He  soon  became  the  fashionable  con-* 
fessor,  and  people  of  all  ranks  put  themselves  under  his 
direction.     He  was  regarded  as  a  saint,  and  consulted  as 
an  oracle.    When  the  duke  d'Aveiro  formed  his  conspiracy 
against  the  king  of  Portugal,  be  is  said  by  the  enemies  of 
the  Jesuits  to  have  consulted  with  three  of  that  order,  one 
of  whom  was  Malagrida.     The  king,    when  he  thought 
proper  to.  banish  the  Jesuits  from  his  kingdom,  suffered 
Malagrida,  Alexander,  and  Mathos,  to  remain  there ;  and 
these  are  the  very  three  who  are  supposed  to  have  assisted 
the  conspiracy*  by  telling  the  conspirators  that  it  was  not 
even  a  venial  sin  to  kill  a  monarch  who  persecuted  the 
saints,  L  e.  the  Jesuits.     Malagrida  was  some  time  after 
sent  to  the  inquisition,  for  teaching  heretical  doctrines ; 
an  accusation  which  is  said  to  have  been  not  altogether 
without  foundation.     He  appears,  however,  to  have  been 
an  enthusiast  of  so  extravagant  a  kind,  that  no  singulari- 
ties id  his  writings  can  be  thought  extraordinary.  He  con* 
ceived  himself  to  possess  the  power  of  working  miracles  ; 
and  declared  to  the  inquisitors,  that  God  himself  bad  ap- 
pointed him  his  ambassador,  appstle,  and  prophet.     This, 
and  many  other  very  wild  declarations,  would  not,  perhaps, 
hare  occasioned  his  condemnation,  had  he  not  unfortu- 
nately pretended  to  have  had  the  death  of  the  king  re- 
vealed to  him.    The  marquis  of  Tancors,  general  of  the 
province  of.  Estremadura,  happening  to  die,  the  castle  of 
Lisbon,  and  all  the  fortresses  of  the  Tagus*  discharged 
their  cannon  in  honour  of  him.     Malagrida,  hearing  this 
unusual  sound  in  the  night,  concluded  that  the  king  was 
dead,  and  desired  that  the  inquisitors  would  grant  him  an 
audience.     When  he  came  before  them,  he  said,  in  order  to 
establish  the  credit  of  his  predictions,  that  the  death  of  the 
king  bad  been  revealed  to  him ;  and  that  he  also  had  a  vision, 
which  informed  him  what  punishment  that  monarch  was  to 
undergo  in  the  other  world  for  having  persecuted  the  Jesuits. 
This  declaration  hastened  his  condemnation.  He  was  burnt 
alive  on  Sept.  21,   1761,  at  the  age  of  75,  not  as  a  conspi- 
rator, but  as  a  false  prophet.     His  true  character,  perhaps, 
was  that  of  a  lunatic.     The  works  in  which  his  heretical  ex- 
travagancies are  to  be  found,  are  entitled  "  Tractatus  de 
vita  et  imperio  Antichrist!  -,"  and  (written  in  the  Portuguese 


language)  "  The  Life  of  St.  Anne,  composed  with  the  at* 
sistance  of  the  blessed  Virgin  Mary  and  her  most  holy  Son." ' 
MALAPERT  (Chaeles),  a  poet  and  nsatheraaticiao, 
-  but  less  known  in  the  latter  character,  was  bof  n  at  Mont 
in  Hainault,  in  1681,  and  entered  into  Ithe  otder  of  the 
Jesuits.  He  taught  philosophy  at  Pont-a*Motsson,  whence 
he  went  to  Poland,  where  he  was  appointed  professor  of 
mathematics,  and  afterwards  filled  the  sane  office  at 
Doway.  His  reputation  induced  Philip  IV.  to  give  him 
an  invitation  to  Madrid,  as  professor  of  mathematics  iii  his 
newly-founded  college,  which  he  accepted,  but  died  on 
has  way  to  Vittoria,  Nov.  5,  1630*  His  Latin  patois  were 
printed  at  Antwerp  in  1634,  and  have  been  praised  for  pu- 
rity of  style,  and  imagery.  Of  his  mathematical  wink* 
one  is  entitled  "  Oratio  de  Laudibus  »  Matbematick,"  in 
which  he  treats  jof  the  phenomena  of  the  newly  •discovered 
Dutch  telescope.  The  others  are,  "  Institutions  of  Prac* 
tical  Arithmetic  ;'*  the  "  Elements  of  Geometry ;"  "  A  Pa- 
raphrase on  the  Dialectics  of  Aristotle ;"  and  u  Commen- 
taries oti  the  first  six  Books  of  Euclid."8 

MALDONAT  (John),  a  very  learned  Spanish  Jesuit, 
was  born  at  Fuente  del  Maestro,  a  small  village  in  the  pro* 
vince  of  Estra'madura,  in  1534.  He  studied  under  Domi- 
nious  Asoto,  a  Dominican,  and  also  under  Francis  Tolety  a 
jesuit,  who  was  afterwards  a  cardinal,  and  there  was  no  better 
scholar  in  the  university  of  Salamanca  in  his  time*  than 
Maldonat.  He  there  taught  philosophy,  divinity,  and 
the  Greek  language.  He  entered  into  the  society  of 
the  Jesuits,  but  did  not  put  on  the  habit  6f  his  order  tiH 
1562,  when  he  was  at  Rome.  In  1563,  he  was  sent  by 
his  superiors  to  Paris,  to  teach  philosophy  in  the  college 
which  the  Jesuits  had  just  established  in  that  city ;.  where, 
as  the  historians  of  his  society  tell  us,  he  was  so  crowded 
with  hearers,  that  he  was  frequently  obliged  to  read  bis 
lectures  in  the  court  or  the  street,  the  hail  not  being  suf- 
ficient to  contain  them.  He  was  sent,  with  nine-  other 
Jesuits,  to  Poictiers,  in  1 570,  where  he  read  lectures  in 
Latin,  and  preached  in  French.  Afterwards  he  returned 
to  Paris,  where  he  was  not  only  accused  of  heresy,  but 
likewise  of  procuring  a  fraudulent  will  from  the  president 
de  St.  Andr£,  by  which  the  president  was  made  te  leave  his 

1  Diet  Hist  de  L'Avocat.— The  Proceedings  and  Sentence  of  the  Inquisition, 
Ice.  against  Gabriel  Malagrida,  1761,  8vo»— -Gent,  Mag.  for  that  v*ar. 
*  MorerJ.— Diet.  Hilt. 


estate  to  the  Jertrlt?.  But  the  parliament  declared  him 
innocent  of  the  forgery,  and  Gond?,  bishop  of  Paris,  entirely 
acquitted  him  of  the  charge  of  hetesy.  He  afterwards 
thought  ptoper  to  retire  to  Bourges,  *  where  the  Jesuits  had 
a  college,  and  continued  there  about  a  year  And  a  half. 
Then  he  went  to  Rome,  by  the  order4  of  pope  Gregory 
XlII.  to  superintend  the  publication  of  the  "  Septuagint  :,# 
and  after  finishing  his  "  Commentary  upon  the  Gospels," 
in  1582,  he  died  there,  in  the  beginning  of  1583. 

He  composed  several  wotks,  which  shew  great  parts  and 
learning ;  but  published  nothing  in  his  life-lime.  The  fifrt 
of  his  performances  which  came  abroad  after  his  death, 
was  his  "  Comment  upon  the  Four  Gospels ;"  of  which 
father  Simon  says  :  u  Among  all  the  commentators  which 
tye  hdve  mentioned  hitherto,  there  are  few  who  have  so. 
happily  explained  the  literal  sense  of  the  Gospels  as  John 
ftaldon&t  the  Spanish  Jesuit.  After  his  death,  whfch  hap- 
pened at  Rome  before  he  had  reached  his  fiftieth  year, 
Claudius  Aquaviva,  to  whom  he  presented  his  "  Com- 
ntetit"  while  he  vtfes  dying,  gave  orders  to  the  Jesuits  of 
Pont  a  Mottfcson  to  cause  it  to  hie  printed  frorti  a  copy 
which  Was  sent  them.  The  Jesuits,  in  the  preface  to  that 
work,  declare  that  they  had  inserted  something  of  their 
own,  according  to  their  manner ;  and  that  they  had  been 
obliged  to  Correct  the  manuscript  copy,  which  was  defec- 
tive in  some  places,  because  they  had  no  access  to  the 
original,  which  was  at  Rome.  Besides,  as  the  atfthor  had 
neglected  to  mark,  upon  the  margin*  of  his  copy,  the 
books  and  places  from  whence  he  had  taken  a  great  part  of 
his  quotations,  they  supplied  that  defect.  It  even  ap- 
peared, that  Maldonat  had  not  read  at  first  hand  all  that 
great  number  of  writers  which  he  quotes ;  but  that  lie  had 
made  use  of  the  labours  of  former  writers.  Thus  he  is  not 
quite  so  exact,  as  if  he  had  put  the  last  hand  to  his  Com- 
ment. Notwithstanding  these  imperfections,  and  softte 
others,  which  are  easily  corrected,  it  appears  plainly,  fbat 
this  Jesuit  had  bestowed  abundance  of  pains  upon  thaferf-* 
c'elleftt  work.  He  does  not  allow  one  difficulty  to  pass 
without  examining  it  to  the  bottom.  When,  a  grear  num- 
ber of  literal  interpretations  present  themselves  upoh  the 
sAme  passage,  he  usually  fixes  upon  the*  Best,  without 
playing  too  great  a  deference  to  the  ancient  commentators, 
or  even  to  the  majority,  regarding  nothing  but  truth  alone, 
ttript  of  all  authorities  but  her  own.n     Cardinal  Perron 

Vol.  XXL  N 


said,  that  he  "was  a  very  great  man,  and  a  true  divine;, 
that  be  had  an  excellent  elocution  as  a  speaker,  understood 
the  learned  languages  well,  was  deeply  versed  in  scholas- 
tic divinity  and  theology,  and  that  he  had  thoroughly 
read  the  fathers."  His  character  has  been  as  high  among 
the  Protestants,  for  an  interpreter  of  Scripture,  as  it  was 
among  the  Papists.  Matthew  Pole,  in  the  preface  to  the 
fourth  volume  of  his  "  Synopsis  Criticorum,*'  calls  him  a 
writer  of  great  parts  and  learning.  "  He  was/'  says  Dr. 
Jackson,  "  the  most  judicious  expositor  among  the  Jesuits. 
-His  skill  in  expounding  the  Scriptures,  save  only  where 
doting  love  unto  their  church  had  made  him  blind,  none 
of  theirs,  few  of  our  church,  have  surpassed."  His  "Com- 
mentaries upon  Jeremiah,  Baruch,  Ezekiel,  and  Daniel,". 
were  printed  at  Lyons  in  1609,  and  at  Cologne  ip  1611. 
To  these  were  added,  his  "  Exposition  of  the  cixth  Psalm,'* 
and  "  A  letter  concerning  a  celebrated  dispute  which  he 
had  with  above  twenty  Protestant  ministers  at  Sedan."  His 
treatise  "Defide,"  was  printed  at  Maienne  in  1600;  and 
that  upon  "Angels  and  Demons"  at  Paris,  in  1605.  In 
1677,  they  published  at  Paris  some  pieces  which  bad  never 
appeared  before ;  namely,  his  treatise.  "Of  Grace,"  that 
upon  "  Original  Sin,"  upon  "  Providence,"  upon  €t  Jus- 
tice," upon  "Justification,"  and  that  upon  "The  Merit 
of  Werks ;"  besides  "  Prefaces,  Harangues,  an<j  Letters*" 
one  volume,  folio. 

We  will  conclude  our  account  of  this  celebrated  Jesuit,  % 
with  mentioning  an  high  eulogium  of  him,  given  by  the  im-. 
partial  and  excellent  Thuanus;  who,  after  observing,  that 
he  "joined  a  singular  piety  and  purity  of  manners,  and  an 
exquisite  judgment,  to  an  exact  knowledge  of  philosophy 
and  divinity,"  adds,  "  that  it  was  owing  to  him  alone,  that 
the  parliament  of  Paris,  when  they  had  the  Jesuits  under 
their  consideration,  did  not  pronounce  any  sentence  to 
their  disadvantage,  though  they  were  become  suspected 
by  the  wisest  heads,  and  greatly  hated  by'  the  university." 
Nothing  can  set  the  importance  of  Maldonat  in  a  stronger 
light,  or  better  shew  the  high  opinion  that  was  had  of  his 

MALEBRANCHE   (Nicolas),   a  French  philosopher*; 
was  born  at  Paris,  Aug.  6,  1638,  and  was  first  placed  under 
a  domestic  tutor,  who  taught  hin»  Greek  and  Latin.     He 

Vfic&  Dick— Jficerw,  fpU2^J.-^©reri.~i)Bpin«^-S«aii0ii9ma*^ 


afterwards  went  through  a  course  of  philosophy  at  the  col- 
lege of  la  Marche,  and  that  of  divinity  in  the  Sorbonne; 
and  was  admitted  into  the  congregation  of  the  Oratory  at 
Paris,  in  1660.     After  he  had  spent  some  time  there,  he 
consulted  father  le  Cointe,  in  what  manner  he  should  pur* 
sue  his  studies ;  who  advised  him  to  apply  himself  to  eccle- 
siastical history.     Upon  this  be  began  to  read  Eusebius, 
Socrates,  Sozomen,  and  Theodoret ;  but  soon  grew  weary 
of  this  study,  and  next  applied  himself  to  father  Simon, 
who  recommended  Hebrew,   Arabic,    Syriac,    rabbinical 
learning,  and  critical  inquiries  into  the  sense  of  the  Scrip- 
tures.     But  this  kind  of  study  was  not  at  all  more  suitable 
to  his  genius,  than  the  former.     At  last,  in  1664,  he  met 
with  Des  Cartes' s  "  Treatise  upon  Man,"  which  he  read 
over  with  great  satisfaction,  and  devoted  himself  imme- 
diately to  the  study  of  his  philosophy ;  of  which,  in  a  few 
years,  he  became  as  perfect  a  master  as  Des  Cartes  him- 
self.    In  1699,  he  was  admitted  an  honorary  member  of 
the  royal  academy  of  sciences.     He  died  Oct.  13,  1715, 
being  then  seventy-seven  years  of  age.     From  the  time 
that  he  began  to  read  Des  Cartes,  he  studied  only  to  en- 
lighten his  mind,  and  not  to  furhish  his  memory ;  so  that 
he  knew  a  great  deal,  though  he  read  but  little.     He 
avoided  every  thing  that  was  mere  erudition ;  an  insect 
pleased  him  much  more  than  air  the  Greek  and  Roman 
history.     He  despised  likewise  that  kind  of  learning,  which 
consists  only  in  knowing  the  opinions  of  different  philoso- 
phers ;  since  it  was  his  opinion  that  a  person  may  easily 
know  the  history  of  other  men's  thoughts,  withqut  ever 
thinking  at  all  himself.     Such  was  his  aversion  to  poetry, 
that  he  could  never  read  ten  verses  together  without  dis- 
gust    He  meditated  with  his  windows  shut,  in  order  to 
keep  out  the  light,  which  he  found  to  be  a  disturbance  to 
him.     His  conversation  turned  upon  the  same  subjects  as 
his  books,  but  was  mixed  with  so  much  modesty  and  de- 
ference to  the  judgment  of  others,    that  it  was  much 
courted.     Few  foreigners,  who  were  men  of  learning,  neg- 
lected to  visit  him  when  they  came  to  Paris  :  and  it  is  said, 
that  an  English  officer,  who  was  taken  prisoner  during  the 
war  between  William  III.  and  the  king  of  France,  was 
content  with  his  lot,  when  he  was  brought  to  Paris,  be-, 
cause  it  gave  him  an  opportunity  to  see  Louis  XIV.  and 
father  Malebranche. 

He  wrote  several  works.    The  first  and  principal,  as 

■  n  i 


iifdeed'  it  gave  rise  to  almost  all  that  followed,  was  his 
V  De  la  Recherche  de  la  Verittf,".  or  his  "  Search  after 
Truth,"   printed  at  Paris  in  1674,  and  afterwards  aug- 
mented in  several  successive  editions.     His  design  in  this 
boo^  is  to  point  out  the  errors  into  which  we  are  daily  led 
hy  our  senses,  imagination,  and  passions ;  and  to  prescribe 
4  method  for  discovering  the  truth,  which  he  does,  by 
starting  the  notion  of  seeing  all  things  in  God.     Hence  he 
is  led  to  think  and  speak  meanly  of  human  knowledge, 
either  as  it  lies  in  written  books,  or  in  the  book  of  nature, 
compared  with  that  light  which  displays  itself  from  the 
ideal  world ;  and  by  attending  to  which,  with  pure  and  de- 
fecated minds,  he  supposes  knowledge  to  be  most  easily 
had.     These  sentiments,  recommended  by  various  beau- 
ties of  style,  made  many  admire  his  genius  who  could  not 
understand,    or  agree  to  his  principles.      Locke,    in  bia. 
"  Examination  of  Malebranche's  opinion  of  seeing  all  things, 
in  God,"  styles  him  an  <f  acute  and  ingenious  author ;" 
and  tells  us,    that  there  are  "a  great   many  very  fine 
thoughts,  judicious  reasonings,  and  uncommon  reflections 
in  his  Recherche  :"  but  in  that  piece,  endeavours  to  re- 
fute the  chief  principles  of  his  system.     Brucker  is  of  opi- 
nion that  the  doctrine  of  his- "  Search  after  Troth,"'  though 
in  many  respects  original,  is  raised  upon  Cartesian  prin- 
ciples, and  is,  in  some  particulars,  Platonic.     The  author 
represents,  in  streng  colours,  the  causes  of  error,  arising 
from  the  disorders  of  the  imagination  and  passions,   the 
abuse  .of  liberty,  and*  an  implicit  confidence  in  the  senses. 
He. explains  the  action  of. the  animal  spirits,  the  nature  of 
memory ;  the  connection  of  the  brain  with  other  parts  of 
the  body,  and  their  influence  upon  the  understanding  and 
will.     On   the  subject  of  intellect,    he  maintains,   that 
thought  alone  is  essential  to  mind,  aud  deduces  the  im- 
perfect state  of  science  from  the  imperfection  of  the  hu- 
man understanding,  as  well  as  from  the  inconstancy  of  the 
will  ia  inquiring  after  truth.     Rejecting  the  ancient  doc- 
trine of  species  sent  forth  from  material  objects,  and  deny- 
ing the  power  of  the  mind  to  produce  ideas,  he  ascribes 
their  production  immediately  to  God ;   and  asserts,  that 
the  human  mind  immediately  perceives  God,  and  sees  all 
things  in  him.      As  he  derives 'the  imperfection  of  the 
human  mind  from  its  dependence  upon  the  body,  so  he 
places  its  perfection  in  union  with  God,  by  means  of  the 
knowledge  of  truth  and  the  love  of  virtOe. 


Singular  and  paradoxical,  Brucker  adds,  as  the  notion 
of  "  seeing  all  things  in  God/'  and  some  other  dogihas  of 
this  writer,  miist  have  appeared,  the  work  was  written  with 
such  elegance  and  splendour  of  diction,  and  its  tenfets  were 
supported  by  such  ingenious  reasonings,  that  it  obtained 
general  applause,  and  procured  the  author  a  distinguished 
.name  among  philosophers,  and  a  numerous  train  of  fol- 
lowers. Its  popularity  might,  perhaps,  be  in  part  owing  to 
the  appeal  which  the  author  makes  to  the  authority  of  St 
.Augustine,  from  whom  he  professes  to  have  borrowed  his 
hypothesis  concerning  the  origin  of  ideas.  The  immediate 
intercourse  which  this  doctrine  supposes,  between  the  hu- 
man and  the  divine  mind,  has  led  some  to  remark  a  strong 
resemblance  between  the  notions  of  Malebranche,  and 
those  of  the  sect  called  Quakers. 

Dr.  Reid,  on  the  other  hand,  does  not  allow,  that  either 
Plato  or  the  latter  Platonists,  or  St.  Augustine,  or  the 
Mystics,  thought,  that  wte  perceive  the  cfbjects  of  sense  in 
the  divine  ideas.  This  theory  of  our  pereeiving  the  objects 
of  sense  in  the  ideas  of  the  Deity,  he  considers  as  the  in* 
vention  of  father  Malebranche  himself.    Although  St.  Au- 

J'ustine  speaks  in  a  very  high  strain  of  God's  being  thfe 
igbt  of  our  minds,  of  our  being  illuminated  immediately  by 
.the  eternal  light,  and  uses  other  similar  expressions ;  yet 
he  seems  to  apply  those  expressions  onty-to  our  ilhmtirta- 
tion  in  moral  and  divine  things,  and  not  to  thfe  pgrcfeptioh 
of  objects  by  the  senses.  Mr.  Bayle  imagines  that  somfe 
traces  of  this  opinion  of  Malebranche  'are  to  be  fourid  in 
Amelius  the  Platonist,  and  even  in  Democritus ;  but  his 
authorities  seem,  as  Dr.  Reid  conceive*,  to  be  strained. 
Malebranche,  with  a  very  penetrating  genius,  ehtered  intb 
a  more  minute  examination  of  the  powers  of  the  human 
jnind  than. any  one  before  hita;  aftd  h6  availed  himself  of 
the  previous  discoveries  made  by  Des  Cartes,  without  sef- 
yile  attachment.  He  lays  it  down  as  a  principle  admitted 
by  all  philosophers,  and  in  itself  tinquestionable,  that  wfe 
do  not  perceive  external  objects  immediately,  but  by  means 
of  images  or  ideas  of  them  present  to  the  mind.  "  The 
things  which  the  soul  perceives,"  says  Malebranche,  •'  are 
df  two  kinds.  They  are  either  in  the  tfool,  of  without  the 
adul:  those  that  are  in  the  soul  are  its  owft  thoughts,  thatt 
is  to  say,  all  its  different  modifications.  The  soul  has  ho 
need  of  ideas  for  perceiving  thestf  things.  Biit  with  regard 
to  things  withom  the  soul,  we  cannot  perceive  them  but 


by  means  of  ideas."  He  then  proceeds  to  enumerate  all 
the  possible  ways  by  which  the  ideas  of  sensible  objects 
may  be  presented  to  the  mind  :  either,  1st,  they  come  from 
the  bodies,  which  we  perceive ;  or,  2dly,  the  soul  has  the 
power  of  producing  them  in  itself;  or,  3dly,  they  are  pro- 
duced by  the  Deity  in  our.  creation,  or  occasionally  as 
there  is  use  for  them ;  or,  4thly,  the  soul  has  in  itself  vir- 
tually and  eminently,  as  the  schools  speak,  all  the  perfec- 
tions which  it  perceives  in  bodies:  or,  5thly,  the  soul  is 
united  with  a  Being  possessed  of  all  perfection,  who  has 
in  himself  the  ideas  of  all  created  things.  The  last  mode 
is  that  which  he  adopts,  and  which  he  endeavours  to  con- 
firm by  various  arguments.  The  Deity,  being  always  pre- 
sent to  our  minds  in  a  more  intimate  manner  than  any 
other  being,  may,  upon  occasion  of  the  impressions  made 
on  our  bodies,  discover  to  us,  as  far  as  he  thinks  proper, 
and  according  to  fixed  laws,  his  own  ideas  of  the  object ; 
and  thus  we  see  all  things  in  God,  or  in  the  divine  ideas. 

However  visionary  this  system  may  appear  on  a  super- 
ficial view,  yet  when  we  consider,  says  Dr.  Reid,  that  .he 
agreed  with  the  whole  tribe  of  philosophers  in  conceiving 
ideas  to  be  the  immediate  objects  of  perception,  and,  that 
he  found  insuperable  difficulties,  and  even  absurdities,  in 
every  other  hypothesis  concerning  them,  it-  will  not  seem 
so  wonderful  that  a  man  of  very  great  genius  should  fall 
into  this ;  and  probably  it  pleased  so  devout  a  man  the 
more,  that  it  sets  in  the  most  striking  light  our  dependence 
upon  God,  and  his  continual  presence  with  us.  He  dis- 
tinguished more  accurately  than  any  philosopher  bad  done 
before,  the  objects  which  we  perceive  from  the  sensations  in 
our  own  minds,  which,  by  the  laws  of  nature,  always  accom- 
-  pany  the  perception  of  the  object :  and  in  this  respect,  as 
well  as  in  many  others,  he  had  great  merit.  For  this,  as 
Dr.  Reid  apprehends,  is  a  key  that  opens  the  way  to  a 
right  understanding,  both  of  our  external  senses,  and  of 
other  powers  of  the  mind. 

The  next  piece  which  Malebranche  published,  was  bis 
"  Conversations  Cbretiennes,  dan*  lesquelles  sont  justified 
la  veritl  de  la  religion  &  de  la  morale  de  J.  C."  Paris, 
1.676.  He  Was  moved^  it  is  said,  to  write  this  piece,  at 
the  desire  of  the  duke  de  Chevreuse,  to  shew  the  consis- 
tency and  agreement  between  his  philosophy  and  religion. 
His  "  Traite*  de  la  nature  &  de  la  grace,"  1680,  was  occa- 
sioned by  a  conference  he  had  with  M.  Arnaud,  about  those 


peculiar  notions  of  grace  into  which  Malebranche's  system 
had  led  that  divine.     This  was  followed  by  other  pieces, 
which  were  all  the  result  of  the' philosophical  and  theolo- 
gical dispute  our  author  had  with  M.  Arnaud.     In  1688, 
he  published  his"*' Entretien  sur  la  metaphysique  &  la  re- 
ligion :"  in  which  work  he  collected  what  he  hod  written 
against  M.  Arnaod,  hut  disengaged  it  from  that  air  of  dis- 
pute which  is  not  agreeable  to  every  reader.     In  1697,  he 
published  his  "  TraitS  de  Papaour  de  Dieu."     When  the 
doctrine  of  the  new  mystics  began  to  be  much  talked  of  in 
France,  father  Lamy,  a  Benedictine,  ii\  bis  book  "  De  la 
connoissance  de  soim6me,"  cited  some  passages  out  of 
this  author's  "  Recherche  de  la  verity,"  as  favourable  to  that 
party ;  upon  this,  Malebranche  thought'  proper  to  defend 
himself  in  this  book,  by  shewing  in  what  sense  it  may  be 
said,  without  clashing  with  the  authority  of  the  church  or 
reason,  that  the  love  of  God  is  disinterested.     In  1708,  he 
published  his  "  Entretiens  d'un  philosophe  Chretien,  & 
d'un  philosophe  Chinois  sur  Pexistence  &  la  nature  de 
Dieu  :"  or,  "  Dialogues  between  a  Christian  philosopher 
and  a  Chinese  philosopher,  upon  the' existence  and  nature 
of  God."    The  bishop  of  Rozalie  having  remarked  some 
conformity  between  the  opinions  of  the  Chinese,  and  the 
notions  laid  down  in  the  "  Recherche  de  la  Verit6,"  men- 
tioned k  to  the  author,  who  on  that  account  thought  him- 
self obliged  to  write  this  tract.     Malebranche  wrote  many 
other  pieces  besides  what  we  have  mentioned,  all  tending 
some  way  or  other  to  conBrm  his  main  system  established 
in  the  u  Recherche,"  and  to  clear  it  from  the  objections 
which  were  brought  against  it,  or  from  the  consequences 
which  were  deduced  from  it :  and,  if  he  has  not  attained 
what  he  aimed  at  in  these  several  productions,  he  has  cer- 
tainly shewn  great  ingenuity  and  abilities.1 

MALELAS,  orMALALAS  (John),  of  Antioch,  a  so- 
phistf  who  was  a  teacher  of  rhetoric,  and  a  member  pf  the 
church  of  Antioch,  is  supposed  to  have  lived  about  the 
year  900,  though  some  authors  have  been  inclined  to  place 
him  earlier.  He  is  a  writer  of  little  value,  and  abounds  in 
words  of  a  barbarous  Greek.  He  must  not  be  confounded 
with  John  of  Antioch,  another  historian  of  the  same  place, 
who  was  a  monk.    We  have  a  chronicle  written  by  Malehts, 

" l  Geo.  Diet— Niceroo,  vol.  IL— Brucker.— Reid's  Essays,—- Keel's  Cyclo- 
juedia.  ' 

it*  M  A  L  E  L  A  S. 

which  expends  from  the  creation  to  the  reign  of  Justinian* 
but  is  imperfect.  His  history  was  published  by  Edward 
Chilmead  at  Oxford,  in  1691,  in  8vo»  from  a  manuscript 
in  the  Bodleian  library ;  and  republished  among  the  By«- 
zantine  historians,  as  a  kind  pf  appendix,  at  Venice,  19 
1733.  The  Oxford  edition  contains  an  interpretation  and 
notep  by  Cbiliqead,  with  three  indexes,  one  of  events,  a 
second  of  authors,  a  third  of  barbarous  words.  Prefixed  is 
a  discourse  concerning  thfe  author,  by  Humphrey  Hody; 
and  an  epistle  is  subjoined  from  Benttey  to  jkfill,  with  an 
index  of  author?  who  are  there  amended.1 

MALEbHERBES    (Chkistian-Wiluam  j>b   Lahqjwi- 
KON),  born  a*. Paris,  Dec.  16,  1721,  was  son  of  the  tita*- 
cellor  of  France,  William  de  Lamoignpn,  a  descendant  of 
mi  illustrious  family.     He  received  his  early  education,  at 
the  Jesuits'  college,  and  having  studied  law  and  political 
economy,  he  was  appointed  a  counsellor  in  {he  parlia- 
ment of  Paris,  and  in  December  1750  be  succeeded  bid 
father  as  president  of  the  "court  of  aids/'  the  duties  of 
which  w^re  to  regulate  the  public  taxes.     The  soperkv 
tendance  of  the  press  bad  been  conferred  upon  Mftlesherbea 
J>y  bis'  father,  at  the  same  time  that  he  received  the  presi- 
dentship of  the  court  of  aids;  ai>d  tt^is  function  be  exer* 
cise4  with  unusual  lenity,  promoting  rather  tb^u,  cheeking 
those  waitings  to  which  the  subsequent  iqiseciet  of  hip 
ponntry  have  been  attributed.     His  biographer  clashes  it 
MWfig  bis  great  merits  that  "  to  his  care.  an4.  befiewlent 
$xertion.s  France  is  indebted  for  the  Encyclopedia,  the 
york?  of  Rousseau,  and  many  other  productions,  which 
he  sheltered  from   proscription ;".  and  both  Vpl$aire  and 
P'Alembeft  acknowledged  the  obligation,    and  seem,  in 
.their  letters  to  hint  that  his  partiality  was  entirely  on  their 
side    In  this  view  of  the  subject,  Ma|qsherbea  must  he 
considered  as  in  some  degree  instrumental  in  preparing 
the  way  for  tha£  revolution  which  bus  been  the  pregnant 
§ource  of  so  many  calamities.         "     •    » 

In  1771,  when  the  government  had  dissolved  the  whole 
legal  constitution,  and  banished  the  parliaments,  Males* 
herbes  was  banished  to  his  country-seat  by  a;  "  Lettrq  de 
cqpbet,"  and  the  duke  de  Richelieu,  at  tbe  head  of  a# 
.  armed  force,  abolished  the  court  of  aids.  During  his,  re- 
tirement, Malesherbes's  time  was  occupied  with  bis  family 

1  Morerb— Gen.  Diet— Saxii  Ooonuurt. 


».■ 1 


and  his  books,  and  the  cultivation  of  big  grounds.     His 
expenditure  in  public  objects    was    large:    he   drained 
marshes,    cut  canals,  constructed   roads,   built    bridges, 
planted  walks,  and  carried  his  attention  to  the  comfort  of 
the  lower,  classes  so  far  as  to  raise  sheds  on  the  sides  of  the 
river  for  the  shelter  of  the  women  at  their  domestic  labours. 
He  was  thus  benevolently  and  usefully  employed  when 
the  accession  of  Lewis  XVI*  recalled  him  to  a  public  sta- 
tion, and  in  1774  Malesherbes  received  an  order  to  resume 
the  presidentship  of  the  court  of  aids,  on  which  occasion 
he  pronounced  a  very  affecting  and  patriotic  harangue, 
£pd  afterwards  addressed  the  king  in  an  eloquent  speech  of 
thanks.     His  majesty  was  so  well  pleased  with  him,  and 
with  the  freedom  of  bis  sentiments,  that  be  appointed  him 
painister  of  state  in  June  1775,  an  office  which  gave  Males* 
herbes  an  opportunity  of  extending  his  sphere  of  useful- 
ness.    One  of  his  first  concerto  was  to  visit  the  prisons, 
apd  restore  to  liberty  the  innocent  victims  of  former  tyran- 
ny, and  his  praises  were  carried  throughout  France  by  per- 
sons of  all  descriptions   returning  to  the  bosoms  of  their 
fsunilies  from  the  gloom  of  dungeons.    Although  he  failed 
in  his  attempt  to  abolish  the  arbitrary  power  of  issuing 
lettres  de  cachet,  he  procured  the  appointment  of  a  com*- 
tRJjssion*  composed  of  upright  and  enlightened  magistrates^ 
to  which  every  application  for  such  letters  should  be  sub*- 
mitted,  and  whose  unanimous  decision  should  be  requisite 
for  their  validity.     Malesherbes  was  also  a  great  encoura* 
ger  of  commerce  and  agriculture,  in  which  he  bad  the  car- 
dial co-operation  of  the  illustrious  Turgot,  at  that  period 
the  comptroller  of  the  revenue^  but,  owing  to  the  rejection 
of  some  important  measures  which  his  zeal  for  the  public 
good  led  him  to  propose,  Malesherbes  resigned  in  the 
monjth  of  May  1776.    To  obtain  an  accurate  view  of  the 
manners  and  policy  of  other  countries  and  foreign  states* 
he  set  out  on  his  travels*  and  visited  Switzerland  ind  HoL» 
lap<},  and  in  the  course  of  his  journey  he  noted,  down  every 
.  pcc^rrence  worthy  of  observation,  and  that  might,  here* 
after*  possibly  be  useful  to  himself,  and  promote  the  me» 
Jiioration  of  his  country.     On  his  return,  at  the  end  of  a 
few  years,  he  found  his  native  country  so  much  advanced 
in  what  he  thought  philosophical  principles,  that  be  was 
encouraged  to  present  to   the  king  two  elaborate   me* 
moirs,  one  on  the  condition  of  the  protestants,  the  other 
ja  %ot*r  of  the  principles,  of  civil  liberty,  and  tolera- 


186  M  A  L  ESHERBES, 

tion  in  general.     Difficulties,  however,  were  now  accu- 
mutating  in   the  management   of  the  government,    and 
the  king,  in  1786,  called  Malesherbes  to  his  councils,  but 
without  appointing  him  to  any  particular  post  in  the  ad- 
ministration.    He  soon  found  it  impossible  td  act  with  the 
men  already  possessed  of  the  powers  of  government,  and 
expressed  bis   opinion  in  two  energetic    memoirs  "  On 
the  Calamities  of  France,  and  the  means  of  repairing 
them ;"  but  it  does  not  appear  that  these  ever  reached 
his  majesty,  nor  could  Malesherbes  obtain  a  private  inter- 
view ;  he  therefore  took  his  final  leave  of  the  court,  and 
retreated  to  his  country  residence,  determined  to  consult 
the  best  means  of  serving  his  country  by  agricultural  pur- 
suits.    In  1790  he  published  "  An  Essay  on  the  means  of 
accelerating  the  progress  of  Rural  Economy  in  France,'*  in 
which  he  proposed  an  establishment  to  facilitate  the  na- 
tional improvement  in  this  important  point.     In  this  tran- 
quil state  he  was  passing  the  evening  of  his  days  when  the 
horrors  of  the*  revolution   brought  him  again   to   Paris. 
During  the  whole  of  its  progress,  he  had  his  eyes  con- 
stantly fixed  on  his  unhappy  sovereign;  and,  subduing  his 
natural  fondness  for  retirement,  went  regularly  to  court 
every  Sunday,  to  give  him  proofs  of  his  respect  and  attach* 
ment.     He  imposed  it  as  a  duty  on  himself  to  give  the 
ministers  regular  information  of  the  designs  of  the  regicide 
.  faction  ;  and  when  it  was  determined  to  bring  the  king  to 
trial,  he  voluntarily  offered  to  be  the  defender  of  his  master, 
in  his  memorable  letter  of  Dec.   11,   1792,  that  etefnal 
monument  of  his  loyalty  and  affection.     Three  counsel 
had  already  been  appointed,  but  one  having  from  pruden- 
tial  motives,  declined  the  office,  the  king,  »ho  wept  at 
this  proof  of  attachment  from  his  old  servant,  immediately 
■ominated  Malesherbes  in  his  stead.     Their  interview  was 
extremely  affecting,  and  his  majesty,  during  the  short  in- 
terval before  his  death,  shewed  every  mark  of  affection 
for,    and  confidence  in,  his  generous  advocate.     Males- 
herbes was  the  person  who  announced  to  him  his  cruel 
doom,  and  was  one  of  the  last  who  took  leave  of  him  pre- 
viously to  his  execution.     After  that  catastrophe  he  again 
withdrew  to  his  retreat,  and  with  a  deeply- wounded  heart, 
refused  to  hear  any  thing  of  what  was  acting  among  the 
blood-thirsty  Parisians.     As  he  was  one  morning  working 
in  his  garden,  be  observed  four  savage-looking  wretches 
directing  their  course  to  his  house,  and  hastening  home, 


be  found  tbem  to  be  officers  from  the  revolutionary  tribu- 
nal come  to  arrest  his  daughter  and  her  husband,  who  had 
formerly  been  president  erf  the  parliament  pf  Paris.     The 
separation  of  these  persons  from  his  family  was  deeply  af- 
flicting to  his  heart,  and  it  is  probable  that  his  own  arrest 
shortly  after  was  a  relief  to  his  feelings.     He  had  long  been 
esteemed  as  father  of  the  village  in  which  he  lived,  and 
the  rustic  inhabitants  crowded  round  to  take  leave  of  their 
ancient  benefactor  with  tears  and  benedictions.     Four  of 
the  municipality  accompanied  him  to  Paris,  that  he  might 
not  be  escorted  by  soldiers  like  a  criminal.     He  was  shut 
up  in  prison  with  bis  unfortunate. family ;  and  in  a  few  days 
the  guillotine  separated  his  son-in-law  Lepelletier  from  his 
wife  ;  and  the  accusation  of  Malesherbes  with  his  daughter 
and  grand-daughter,  "  for  a  conspiracy  against  the  liberties 
of  the  people,"  was  followed,  as  a  matter  of  course,  by  a. 
sentence  of  death.     The  real  erime,  as  it  was  basely  deno- 
minated, of  this  excellent  man  and  worthy  patriot,  and 
which  the  convention  never  pardoned,  was  his  defence  of 
the  king,  an  act  in  which  he  gloried  to  the  latest  hour  of 
his  existence.     He  probably  thought  it  an  honour  to  die 
by  the  same  ruffian  hands  that  had  spilt  the  blood  of  his 
.master.     The  condemnation  of  the  females  almost  over- 
came the  manly  fortitude  which  he  displayed  in  every  per- 
sonal suffering;    bis  courage,  however,  returned  at  the 
prison,  and  tbey  prepared  for  the  death  which  was  the  last 
and  only  important  event  that  they  had  to  encounter.    His 
daughter  had  exhibited  the  noble  spirit  with  which  she  was 
inspired,  for  upon  taking  leave  of  mademoiselle  Sombreuii, 
who  had  saved  her  father's  life  on  the  second  of  Septem- 
ber, she  said  to  her,  u  You  have  had  the  happiness  to  pre- 
serve your  father,  I  shall  have  the  consolation  of  dying 
with  mine"     On  the  fatal  day  Malesherbes  left  the  prison 
with   a  serene   countenance,  and   happening  to  stumble 
against  a  stone,  he  said  with  much  pleasantry,  "  a  Roman 
would  have  thought  this  an  unlucky  omen,  and  walked  back 
again.99     Thus  perished  the  venerable  Malesherbes  in  April 
1794,  when  he  had  attained  to  the  age  of  seventy-two  years 
four  months  and  fifteen  days.     His  character  may  be  in 
part  deduced  from  the.  preceding  narrative,  but  is  more 
fully  displayed  in  his  life  translated  by  Mr.  Man  gin.     The 
subsequent  government  has  since  made  some  reparation  for 
-the  injustice  done  him,  by  ordering  bis  bust  to  be  placed 

18*  MALEZIEU.     . 

among  those  of  the  great  na£n  who  haVe  reflected  honour 
upon  their  country. *  ■        ., 

MALEZIEU  (Nicolas  de),  a  French  author,  a  man  df 
extensive  and  almost  universal  learning,  was  born  at  Parts 
in  1650.  By.  Bossuet,  and  the  duke  of  Montausier,  who 
knew  his  merit,  he  was  appointed  preceptor  to  the  duke  of 
Maine ;  and  the  public  in  general  approved  the  choice.  In 
1696  Malezieu  was  chosen  to  instruct  the  duke  of  Bur- 
gundy in  mathematics.  In  1699  he  became  a  member  of 
the  academy  of  sciences,  and  in  two  years  after  of  the 
French  academy.  The  duke  of  Maine  rewarded  his  cans 
of  him  by  appointing  bim  the  chief  of  his  council,  and 
chancellor  of  Dombes.  Under  the  regency  of  the  duke  of 
Orleaus  he  was  involved  in  the  disgrace  which  fell  upon 
the  duke  his  pupil,  and  was  imprisoned  for  two  years* 
He  had  an  excellent  constitution,  which,  aided  by  regu- 
larity, conducted  him  nearly  to  the  close  of  life  without 
any  indisposition.  He  died  of  an  apoplexy  on  March 
4,1727,  at  the  age  of  seventy-seven.  Notwithstanding 
the  vast  extent  of  bis  learning,  and  many  occupations 
which  required  great  attention,  he  bad  an  easy  and  un- 
embarrassed air ;  his  conversation  was  lively  and  agreeabW, 
and  his  ntanners  polite  and  attentive.  He  published,  t. 
"  Elements  of  Geometry,  for  the  duke  of  Burgundy/'  17  L5* 
8vo,  being  the  substance  of  the  instructions  delivered  by 
him  to  that  prince.  2.  Several  pieces  in  verse,  songs,  &o. 
published  at  Trevoux  about  1712.  3.  There  has  also  been 
attributed  to  him  a  farce  in  one  act,  entitled,  "  Policb*- 
nelle  demandant  une  place  a  l'Academie."  He  had,  among 
other  talents,  that  of  translating  the  Greek  authors  into 
French,  particularly  the  tragic  writers,  in  a  style  of  har- 
mony and  energy  of  verse,  wbieh  approached  as  nearly, 
perhaps,  as  any  thing  in  his  language  could  do*  to  the 
excellence  of  the  originals.  * 

MALHERBE  (Francis  de),  a  celebrated  French  poet, 
has  always  been  considered  by  his  countrymen  as  the  father 
of  their  poetry;  since,  upon  his  appearance,  all  their 
former  poets  fell  into  disgrace.  Bayle  looks  upon  btifras 
one  of  the  first  and  greatest  masters,  who  formed  the  taste 
and  judgment  of  that  nation  in  matters  relating  to  polite 
literature.     Balzac  says,   that  the  French  poetry  before 

l  Life  translated  by  Mr.  Mangin.— Gleig^s  Supplement  to  the  Encyctoo.  Bfk. 
-*Reetb  Cyclopedia;  »  Mdreri.— Diet.  Hist. 

.  *■ 


Malherbe  was  perfectly  gothic;   but  Boilean,    a  better 
judge,  ha»  pronounced  that  be  was  the  first  in  France  who 
taught  tbe  muse   harmonious   numbers,  a  just  cadence, 
purity  of  language,  regularity  of  composition,  and  order ; 
in  short,  who  laid  down  all  those  rules  for  writing  which 
future  poets  were  to  follow,  if  they   hoped   to   succeed. 
The  poetical  works  of  Malherbe,  though  divided  into  six 
books,  yet  make  but  a  small  volume.     They  consist  of 
paraphrases  upon  the  Psalms,  odes,  sonnets,  and  epigrams  : 
and  they  were  published  in  several  forms,  to  1666,  when 
a  very  complete  edition  of  them  came  out  at  Paris,  with 
tbe  notes   and   observation?  of  Menage.     Malherbe  was 
certainly  the  first  who  gave  his  countrymen  any  idea  of  a 
legitimate  ode,  though  his  own  have  hardly  any  thing  but 
harmony  to  recommend  them.     He  also  translated  some 
works  of  Seneca,  and  some  books  of  Li vy  ;  and  if  be  was 
not  successful  in  translation,  yet  he  had  the  happiness  to 
be  very  well  satisfied  with  his  labour.     His  principal  busi- 
ness was  to  criticize  upon  the  French  language  ;  in  which 
be  was  so  well  skilled,  that  some  of  his  friends  desired  him 
one  day  to  make  a  grammar  for  the  tongue.     Malherbe 
•replied,  u  that  there  was  no  occasion  for  him  to  take  that 
pains,  for  they  might  read  bis  translation  of  the  thirty- 
third*  book  of  Livy,  and  he  would  have  them  write  after 
*  that  manner.'* 
'  Malherbe  was  born  at  Caen,  about  1555,  of  an  ancient 
a«d  illustrious  family,  who  had  formerly  borne  arms  in 
England,  under  Robert  duke  of  Normandy.     He  lived  to 
be  old  ;  and,  about  1601,  be  became  known  to  Henry  the 
Great,  firom  a  very  advantageous  mention  of  him  to  that- 
prince  by  cardinal  du  Perron.     The  king  asked  the  car- 
dinal2 one  day,  ""if  he  had  made  any  more  verses  ?"  To 
which  the  cardinal  replied,  that  "  he  had  totally  laid  aside 
ail  such  amusements  since  his  majesty  bad  done  him  the 
honour  to  take  him  into  his  service  ;  and  added,  that  every 
body  must  now  throw  away  their  pens  for  ever,  since  a 
gentleman  of  Normandy,  named  Malherbe,  had   carried 
the  French  poetry  to  such  a  height,  as  none  could  hope  to 
.   reach."    About  four  years  after,  he  was  called  to  court,  and 
enrolled  among  the   pensioners  of  that  monarch.     After 
the  death  of  Henry,  queen  Mary  of  Medicis  became  his 
patroness,  and  settled  upon  him  a -very  handsome  pension. 
This  he  enjoyed  to  the  time  of  his  death,  which  happened 
at  Paris  in  1628.     It  was  the  misfortune  of  this  poet,  that 


be  had  no  great  share  in  the  affection  of  cardinal  Richelieu* 
It  was  discovered,  that,  instead  of  taking  more  than  or- 
dinary  pains/ as  he  shonld  have  done,  to  celebrate  the 
glory  of  that  great  minister,  he  bad  only  patched  together 
old  soraps,  which  he  bad  found  among  his  papers.     This 
was  not  the  way  to  please  a  person  of  so  haughty  a  spirit ; 
and  therefore  be  received  this  homage  from  Malfaerbe  very 
coldly,  and  not  without  disgust     "  I  learned  from  M,  Ra- 
can,"  says   Menage,   "  that  Malberbe   wrote  those  two 
stanzas  above  thirty  years  before  Richelieu,  to  whom  he 
addressed  them,  was  made  a  cardinal ;  and  that  be  changed: 
only  the  four  first  verses  of  the  first  stanza,  to  accommo- 
date them  to  his  subject.     I  learned  also  from  the  same 
Racan,  that  cardinal  Richelieu  knew  that  these  verses  had 
nqt  been  made  for  him."    His  apparent  indolence  upon  such 
an  occasion  was  probably  owing  to  that  extreme  difficulty 
with  which  he  always  wrote.    Ail  writers  speak  of  the  time 
and  labour  it  cost  Malberbe  to  produce  his  poems* 

This  poet  was  a  man  of  a  very  singular  humour ;  and  many 
anecdotes  are  related  of  his  peculiarities,  by  Racan,  his 
friend  and  the  writer  of  his  life.  A  gentleman  of  the  law, 
and  of  some  distinction,  brought  him  one  day  some  indif- 
ferent commendatory  verses  on  a  lady ;  telling  him  at  the 
same  time,  that  some  very  particular  considerations  had  in* 
duced  him  to  compose  them.  Malberbe  having  run  them  over 
with  a  supercilious  air,  asked  the  gentleman  bluntly,  as 
his  manner  was,  "  whether  he  had  been  sentenced  to  be 
hanged,  or  to  make  those  verses  ?"  His  manner  of  punish- 
ing his  servant  was  likewise  characteristic,  and  partook 
not  a  little  of  the  caprice  of  Swift.  Besides  twenty  crowns 
a  year,  he  allowed  this  servant  ten-pence  a  day  board 
wages,  which  in  those  times  was  very  considerable ;  when, 
therefore  he  had  done  any  thing  amiss,  Malherbe  would 
very  gravely  say  :  "  My  friend,  an  offence  against  your 
master  is  an  offence  against  God,  and  must  ■  be  expiated 
by  prayer,  fasting,  and  giving  of  alms ;  wherefore  I  shall 
i\ow  retrench  five-pence  out  of  your  allowance,  and  give 
them  to  the  poor  on  your  account."  From  other  accounts, 
it  may  be  inferred  that  his  impiety  was  at  least  equal  to  bis 
wit.  When  the  poor  used  to  promise  him  that  they  would 
pray  to  God  for  him,  he  answered  them,  that  "  he  did  not 
believe  they  could  have  any  great  interest  in  heaven,  since 
they  were  left  in  so  bad  a  condition  upon  earth  ;  and  that 
be  should  be  better  pleased  if  the  duke  de  JLuyne,  or  some 


other  favourite,  had  made  him  the  same  promise.'9  He 
would  often  say,  that  "  the  religion  of  gentlemen  was  that 
of  their  prince.'*  During  his  test  sickness  he  was  with 
great  difficulty  persuaded  to  confess  to  a  priest ;  for  which 
he  gave  this  reason,  that  "  he  never  used  to  confess  but  at 
Easter."  And  some  few  moments  before  his  death,  when, 
he  had  been  in  a  lethargy  two  hours,  he  awaked  on  a  sud- 
den to  reprove  his  landlady,  who  waited  on  him,  for  using 
a  word  that  was  not  good  French  ;  saying  to  his  confessor, 
who  reprimanded  him  for  it,  that  "  he  could  not  help  it, 
and  that  he  would  defend  the  purity  of  the  French  language 
to  tbe  last  moment  of  his  life." ' 

MALINGRE  (Claude),  Sieur  of  St.  Lazaje,  a  French 
historian,  more  known  for  the  number,  than  esteemed  for 
the  value  of  his  books,  was  a  native  of  Sens.  In  spite  of 
every  artifice  to  sell  his  histories,  publishing  the  same  un- 
der different  titles,  filling  them  with  flatteries  to  the  reign- 
ing princes,  and  other  arts,  it  was  with  great  difficulty 
that  he  could  force  any  of  them  into  circulation.  It  was 
not  only  that  his  style  was  low  and  flat,  but  that  his  repre- 
sentation of  facts  was  equally  incorrect.  Latterly  his  name 
was  sufficient  to  condemn  a  book,  and  he  only  put  bis  ini- 
tials, and  those  transposed.  He  died  in  lf>55.  His  best 
work  is  said  to  be,  "  Histoire  des  dignit6s  honoraires  de 
France,"  8vo,  on  which  some  dependence  is  placed,  be- 
cause there  he  cites  his  authorities.  He  wrote  also,  2. 
"  L'histoire  generate  des  derniers  troubles ;"  comprising 
the  times  of  Henry  III.  and  Louis  XIII.  in  4to.  3.  "  His- 
toire d$  Louis  XIII."  4to,  a  miserable  collection  of  facts 
disguised  by  flattery,  and .  extending  only  from  1610  to 
1614.  4.  "  Histoire  de  la  naissance  et  des  progres  de 
l'Heresie  de  oe  siecle,"  3  vols.  4to,  the  first  of  which  is 
by  father  Richeomd.  5.  "  A  Continuation  of  the  Roman 
History, from  Constantine  to  Ferdinand  the  Third,"  2  vols, 
folio ;  a  compilation  which  ought  to  contain  the  substance 
of  Gibbon's  History,  but  offers  little  that  is  worthy  of  at- 
tention.- 6.  "  The  Annals  and  Antiquities  of  Paris,"  2 
vols,  folio. .  There  is  another  work  of  this  kind  by  a  P.  du  « 
BreuU  which  is  much  more  esteemed  ;  this,  however,  is 
consulted  sometimes  as  a  testimony  of  the  state  of  Paris  in 
the  time  of  the  author/         , 

1  Gteo.  Diet. — Niceron,  vol,  VI L— Afore*?.— Bullart's  Academie  des  Sciences,  ' 
vol.  II. 
»  Niceroii,  vol.  XXJCJV^Moreri.-^Dict  Hist. 

192  MALLET. 

MALLET  (David),  a  poet  and  miscellaneous  writer,  it 
said  to  bare  descended  from  the  Macgregors,  a  clan  wbicfer 
became  in  the  early  part  of  the  last  century,  under  the 
conduct  of  one  Robin  Roy,  so  formidable  for  violence  and 
robbery,  that  the  name  was  annulled  by  a  legal  prohibit 
tion ;  and  when  they  were  all  to  denominate  themselves* 
anew,  the  father,  as  is  supposed,  of  our  author  called  him- 
self Ma!  loch.    This  father,  James  Mai  loch,  kept  a  public- 
house  at  Crieff,  co.  Perth,  in  Seotland,  where  David  was 
born,  probably  about  1700.     Of  his  early  years  we  have 
but  scanty  and  discordant  memorials,  some  accounts  placing 
him  at  first  in  a  menial  situation  in  the  university  of  Edin- 
burgh; others  informing  us  that  he  was  educated  at  the 
university  of  Aberdeen.     The  latter  seems  most  probable, 
as  he  wrote  and  even  printed  some  lines  on  the  repairfe  of 
that  university,  in  which  he  could  not  have  been  interested* 
had  he  not  studied  there  for  some  time.     That  he  after- 
wards went  to  Edinburgh  is  not  improbable,  and  it  is  al- 
most certain  that  be  had  in  some  way  distinguished  himself 
at  that  university,  for  when  the  duke  of  Montrose  applied 
to  the  professors  for  a  tutor  to  educate  his  sons,  they  re- 
commended Malloch ;  a  mark  of  their  high  opinion   of 
him  ;  and  the  office  was  of  importance  enongh  to  have  ex- 
cited the  wishes  of  many  candidates,  there  being  no  surer 
step  to  future  advancement. 

After  making  the  usual  tour  of  Europe  with  the  duke's 
sons,  be  returned  with  them  to  London,  and  by  the  influ- 
ence of  the  family,  in  which  he  resided,  easily  gained  ad* 
mission  to  many  persons  of  the  highest  rank,  to  wits, 
nobles,  and  statesmen.  '<  By  degrees,99  says  Dr.  Johnson, 
"  having  cleared  his  tongue  from  his  native  pronunciation, 
so  as  to  be  no  longer  distinguished  as  a  Scot,  be  seems  in- 
clined to  disencumber  himself  from  all  adherences  of  his 
original,  and  took  upon  him  to  change  his  name  from 
Scotch  Malloch  to  English  Mallet,  without  any  imaginable 
reason  of  preference  which  the  eye  or  ear  can  discover: 
What  other  proofs  he  gave  of  disrespect  to  bis  native" 
country,  I  know  not;  but  it  was  remarked  of  bim  that  be 
was  the  only  Scot  whom  Scotchmen  did  not  commend." 
It  seems  unreasonable,  however,  to  impute  this  change!  of 
name  to  disrespect  for  his  country ;  with  his  countrymen 
many  of  his  most  intimate  connections  were  formed,  and 
his  friendship  for  Thomson  is  one  of  the  most  agreeable 
parts  of  bis  history ;    and  almost  the  last  character  he 

MALLET.  193 

sustained  was  that  of  an  intrepid  advocate  for  lord  Bute,  and 
what  were  then  called  the  Scotch  junto  who  ruled  the  king 
and  kingdom.  As  to  Scotchmen  not  commending  him,  he 
had  at  least  one  adherent  in  Smollet,  who  engaged  him  to 
write  in  the  Critical  Review,  where  all  Mallet's  works  am 
highly  praised,  particularly  his  "  Elvira."  The  late  com* 
mentator,  George  Steevens,  esq.  bit  upon  the  truth  more 
exactly,  when  he  wrote  in  a  copy  of  Gascoigne's  Works, 
purchased  in  1766,  at  Mallet's  sale,  "  that  be  was  the  only 
Scotchman  who  died,  in  his  memory,  unlamented  by  an 
individual  of  bis  own  nation."  Steevens  probably  made 
this  remark  to  Johnson,  who  forgot  the  precise  terms.  The 
first  time  we  meet  with  the  name  of  David  Mallet  is  in 
1726,  in  a  list  of  the  subscribers  to  Savage's  Miscellanies. 
Mallet's  first  production  in  England  was  the  celebrated 
and  affecting  ballad  of  "  William  and  Margaret,"  which 
was  printed  in.  Aaron  Hill's  "  Plain  Dealer,"  No.  36,  July 
14,  1724,  and  which  in  its  original  state  was  very  different 
from  what  it  is  in  the  last  editions  of  his  works.  Of  this, 
says  Dr.  Johnson,  he  has  been  envied  the  reputation ;  and 
plagiarism  has  been  boldly  charged,  but  never  proved. 
In  1728  he  published  "  The  Excursion,"  a  poem  in  two 
cantos,  containing  a  desultory  view  of  such  scenes  of  na« 
ture  as  his  fancy  or  his  knowledge  led  him  to  describe,  and 
which  is  not  devoid  of  poetical  spirit,  and  in  respect  to 
diction  is  a  close  imitation  of  Thomson,  whose  "  Seasons*' 
were  then  in  their  full  blossom  of  reputation. 

in  1731  his  first  tragedy,* called  "  Eurydice*"  was  per* 
forafed  at  Drury-lane,  and  very  unfavourably  received; 
nor. when  revived  thirty  years  after,  and  supported  by  Gar-* 
rick  and  Mrs.  Cibber,  could  the  town  endure  it  with  pa* 
tience.  On  ibis  last  occasion  Davies  informs  us  that  the 
author  would  not  take  the  blame  upon  himself;  "  he  sat 
in  the  orchestra,  and  bestowed  bis  execrations  plentifully 
upon  the  players,  to  whom  he  attributed  the  cold  recep* 
turn  of  his  tragedy."  About  this  time  we  find  him  an  in* 
mate  in  Mr.  Knight's  family  at  Gosfield,  probably  as  tutor 
to  Mn  Newsham,  Mrs.  Knight's  son  by  her  first  husband* 
Her  third  was  the  late  earl  Nugent.  We  shall  soon  have 
occasion  to  quote  a  very  remarkable  passage  from  a  letter 
of  Pope's  to  this  lady,  respecting  Mallet 

Soon  after  the  exhibition  of  "  Eurydice,"  Mr.  Mallet 
published  his  poem  on  "  Verbal  Criticism,"    a  subject 
which  he  either  did  not  understand,  or  willingly  misrepre* 
Vol.  XXI.  O 

194  MALLET. 

sented  *.  "There  is  in  this  poem,"  says  Dr.  Johnson,  "  more 
pertness  than  wit,  and  more  confidence  than  knowledge* 
The  versification  is  tolerable,  nor  can  criticism  allow  it  » 
higher  praise."  It  was  written  to  pay  court  to  Pope,  who' 
soon  after  introduced  him,  we  may  add,  "  in  an  evil  hour" 
to  lord  Bolingbroke.  The  ruin  of  Pope's  reputation  might 
have  been  dated  from  this  hour,  if  the  joint  malignity  of 
Bolingbroke  and  Mallet  could  have  effected  it.  Mallet 
was  now  in  the  way  to  promotion.  When  the  prince  of 
Wales,  at  variance  with  his  father,  placed  himself  at  the 
head  of  the  opposition,  and  kept  a  separate  court,  he  en- 
deavoured to  increase  his  popularity  by  the  patronage  of 
literature;  and  Mallet  being  recommended  to  him,  his  royal 
highness  appointed  him  his  under-secretary,  with  a  salary 
of  200/.  a  year. 

While  in  this  employment,  he  published  in  1739, "  Mus* 
taphfe"  a  tragedy,  dedicated  to  his  royal  patron.  Thom- 
son's "  Edward  and  Eleonora"   had  been   excluded  the 


stage,  because  the  licenser  discovered  in  it  a  formidable 
attack  on  the  minister,  yet  Mallet's  "  Mustapha,"  which 
was  thought,  and  was  no  doubt  intended,  to  glance  both 
at  the  king  and  sir  Robert  Walpole,  in  the  characters  of 
Solyman  the  Magnificent,  and  Rustan  his  visier,  was  al- 
lowed to  be  acted,   and  was  acted  with  great  applause. 
•The  language  of  this  tragedy  is  more  easy  and  natural  than 
that  of  "  Eurydice,"  but  its  success  was  much  owing  to 
its  political  allusions.     On  the  first  night  of  its  exhibition* 
,  the  heads  of  the  opposition  were  all  assembled,  and  many 
speeches  were  applied  by  the  audience  to  the  supposed 
grievances  of  the  times,  and  to  persons  and  characters. 
In  the  following  year,  Thomson  and  Mallet  were  com- 
manded by  the  prince  of  Wales  to  write  the  masque  of 
V  Alfred,"  in  honour  of  the  birth-day  of  lady  Augusta,  bis 
eldest  daughter  (the  late  duchess  of  Brunswick),  which  was 
twice  acted  in  the  gardens  of  Clifden  by  some  of  the  Lon- 
don performers.     After  the  death  of  Thomson  in   1748, 
Mallet  re-wrote  the  Masque  of  Alfred,  under  the  influence 
and  by  the  encouragement  of,  lord  Bolingbroke;  and  with 

*  Wart  on  says  he  wrote  this  poem  names  as  the  Scaligers,  Salmasinses, 

to  gratify  Pope,  by  abusing  Bentley,  Heiiwiuses,     Burmans,     Gronoviuses* 

which,  he  adds,  "  is  stuffed  with  i  Hi  be-  Retskiuses,    Marklands,  Gesners,  and 

rat  cant  about  pedantry,  and- collators  Heynes."— Essay  on  Pope,  vol*  II.  p. 

of  manuscripts.      Real   scholars  will  231,  edit.  1806. 
always  speak  with  due  regard  of  such 

MALLET.  19* 

the  assistance  of  music  and  gorgeous  scenery,  it  was  acted 
with  some,  but  no  great  success. 

In  1747  Mallet  published  his  "Hermit,  or  Amyntor 
and  Theodora,9'  a  poem  in  which  Dr.  Johnson  allows  that 
there  is  copiousness  and  elegance  of  language  (which  in- 
deed appear  in  most  of  Mallet's  works),  vigour  of  sentiment, 
and  imagery  well  adapted  to  take  possession  of  the  fancy. 
It  abounds  also  with  many  excellent  moral  precepts,  which 
receive  weight  and  energy  from  the  sanction  of  religion,  a 
foundation  on  which  Mallet  did  not  always  build.  Drr 
Warton  was  much  censured  for  saying  in  his "  Essay  on 
the  Life  and  Writings  of  Pope,"  that  "  the  nauseous  affec- 
tation of  expressing  every  thing  pompously  and  poetically, 
is  nowhere  more  visible  than  in  a  poem  lately  published, 
called  Amyntor  and  Theodora;"  but  Warton  was  not  a 
rash  critic,  and  retained  the  sentence  in  the  subsequent 
editions  of  his  "  Essay." 

Not  long  after  this,  Mallet  was  employed  by  lord  Bo* 
lingbroke  in  an  office  which  he  executed  with  all  the  malig- 
nity that  bis  employer  could  wish.  This  was  no  other  than 
to  defame  the  character  of  Pope*— Pope,  who  by  leaving 
the  whole  of  his  MSS  to  lord  Bolingbroke,  had  made  him 
in  some  respect  the  guardian  of  his  character — Pope,  on 
whose  death -bed  lord  Bolingbroke  looking  earnestly  down, 
repeated  several  times,  interrupted  with  sobs,  "  O  great 
God,  what  is  man?  I  never  knew  a  person  that  had  so 
tender  a  heart  for  his  particular  friends,  or  a  warmer  be- 
nevolence for  all  mankind !"  who  certainly  had  idolized  this 
nobleman  throughout  his  whole  life,  and  who  adhered  to 
his  lordship's  cause  through  all  the  vicissitudes  of  popular 
odium  and  exile.  What  could  have  induced  Bolingbroke 
to  the  gpplice  of  degrading  Pope's  character,  and  the  cow- 
ardice of  employing  a  hireling  to  do  it  ?  T|ie  simple  fact 
is,  that  after  Pope's  death  it  was  thought  to  be  discovered 
that  be  had  privately  printed  1500  copies  of  one  of  lord 
Bolingbroke's  works,  "The  Patriot  King,"  the  perusal  of 
which  his  lordship  wished  to  be  confined  to  a  select  few. 
This  offence,  which  Mallet  only  could  have  traced  to  a  bkd 
motive,  if  fairly  examined,  will  probably  seem  dispropor- 
tioned  to  the  rage  and  resentment  of  Bolingbroke.  A  very 
acute  examiner  of  evidence  (Mr.  D' Israeli)  has  therefore 
imputed  that  to  the  preference  with  which  Pope  had  dis- 
tinguished Warburton,  and  is  of  opinion  that  Warburton, 
much  more  than  Pope,   was  the  real  object.    Between 

o  2 

196  MALLET. 

Bolingbroke  and  Warburton  there  was,  it  is  well  known, 
a  secret  jealousy,  which  at  length  appeared  in  mutual  and 
undisguised  contempt  But  much  of  this  narrative  belongs 
rather  to  them  than  to  Mallet,  who  could  feel  no  resent- 
ment, could  plead  no  provocation.  On  the  contrary,  he 
had  every  inducement  to  reflect  with  tenderness  on  the 
memory  and  friendship  of  Pope,  who  speaks  of  him,  in  a 
letter  we  have  already  alluded  to,  in  the  following  terms  : 
'<  To  prove  to  you  how  little  essential  to  friendship  I  hold 
letter-writing — I  have  not  yet  written  to  Mr.  Mallet,  whom 
I  love  and  esteem  greatly,  nay  whom  /  knew  to  have  as 
tender  a  heart)  and  tYnx  feels  a  friendly  remembrance  as  long 
as  any  man"  Such  was  the  man  who  gladly  undertook 
what  Bolingbroke  was  ashamed  to  perform,  and  in  a  pre* 
face  to  the  "  Patriot  King"  misrepresented  the  conduct  of 
Pope  in  language  the  most  malignant  and  contemptuous** 
That  he  had  an  eye  to  his  own  interest  in  all  this,  it 
would  be  a  miserable  affectation  of  liberality  to  doubt.  No 
other  motive  can  account  for  his  conduct,  and  this  conduct 
will  be  foi/nd  to  correspond  with  *his  general  character. 
Bolingbroke  accordingly  rewarded  him  by  bequeathing  to 
him  all  his  writings  published  and  unpublished,  and  Mallet 
immediately  began  to  prepare  them  for  the  press.  His 
conduct  at  the  very  outset  of  this  business  affords  another 
illustration  of  bis  character,  franc kl in,  the  printer,  to 
whom  many  of  the  political  pieces  written  during  the  op- 
position to  Walpole,  had  been  given,  as  he  supposed,  in 
perpetuity,  laid  claim  to  some  compensation  for  those. 
Mallet  allowed  his  claim,  and  the  question  was  referred  to 
arbitrators,  who  were  empowered  to  decide  upon  it,  by 
an  instrument  signed  by  the  parties ;  but  when  they  de- 
cided unfavourably  to  Mr.  Mallet,  he  refused  to  yield  to 
the  decision,  and  the  printer  was  thus  deprived  of  the  be- 
nefit of  the  award,  by  not  having  insisted  upon  bonds  of 
arbitration,  to  which  Mallet  bad  objected  as  degrading  to 
a  man  of  honour/  He  then  proceeded,  with  the  help  of 
Millar,  the  bookseller,  to  publish  all  be  could  find ;  and 
so  sanguine  was  he  in  his  expectations,  that  he  rejected 
the  offer  of  3000/.  which  Millar  offered  him  for  the  copy* 
right,  although  he  was  at  this  time  so  distressed  for  money 
that  he  was  forced  to  borrow  some  of  Millar  to  pay  the  sta- 

■  ¥ 

*  After  all  that  has  been  said  on  this     of  the  "Patriot  King,"  as  we  shall 
subject,  Ralph  AUeu,  and  not  Pope,     have  occasion  to  notice  hereafter* 
Has  the  person  who  pirated  the  edition 

MALLET.  197 

tioner  and  printer.  Tbe  work  at  last  appeared,  in  5  vols. 
4to,  and  Mallet  had  soon  reason  to  repent  bis  refusal  of 
tbe  bookseller's  offer,  as  this  edition  was  not  sold  off  in 
twenty  years.  As  these  volumes  contained  many  bold  at- 
tacks on  revealed  religion,  they  brought  much  obloquy  on 
the  editor,  and  even  a  presentment  was  made  of  them  by 
tbe  grand-jury  of  Westminster.  His  memory,  however, 
will  be  thought  to  suffer  yet  more  by  his  next  appearance 
in  print  '  When  the  nation  was  exasperated  by  the  ill  suc- 
cess of  the  war,  and  the  ministry  wished  to  divert  public 
indignation  from  themselves,  Mallet  was  employed  to  turn 
it  upon  admiral  Byng<  In  this  be  entered  as  heartily  as, 
into  the  defamation  of  Pope,  and  wrote  a  letter  of  accusa- 
tion under  the  character  of  a  "  Plain  Man,"  a  large  sheet, 
which  was  circulated  with  great  industry,  and  probably 
was  found  to  answer  its  purpose.  The  price  of  blood,  on 
this  occasion,  was  a  pensiou  which  he  retained  till  his 

From  this  time  (1757)  until  1763,  we  hear  nothing  of 
Mr.  Mallet,  except  a  dedication  of  his  poems  to  tbe  late 
duke  of  Marlborough,  in  which  he  promises  himself 
speedily  tbe  honour  of  dedicating  to  him  the  life  of  his 
illustrious  predecessor.  The  cause  of  this  promise  is  ano- 
ther of  those  charges  which  have  been  brought  against 
Mallet,  and  which  it  will  be  difficult  to  repelL  When  the 
celebrated  John  duke  of  Marlborough  died,  it  was  deter* 
mined,  that  the  history  of  his  life  should  be  transmitted  to 
posterity,  and  the  papers  supposed  to  contain  the  neces- 
sary information  were  delivered  to  lord  Molesworth,  who 
had  been  his  favourite  in  Flanders.  When  Molesworth 
died,  the  same  papers  were  transferred  with  the  same  de- 
sign to  sir  Richard  Steele,  who  in  some  of  his  exigences 
put  them  to  pawn.  They  then  remained  with  the  old 
doofaessf  who  in  her  will  assigned  tbe  task  to  Mr,  Glover, 
the  author  of  "  Leonidas,"  and  Mr.  Mallet,  with  a  reward 
of  1000/.  and  a  curious  prohibition  against  inserting  any 
verses.  There  were  other  prohibitions  and  conditions, 
however,  which  induced  Glover,  a  man  of  spirit  and  vir- 
tue, to  decline  the  legacy.  Mallet  had  no  such  scruples, 
and  besides  the  legacy,  bad  a  pension  from  the  late  duke 
of  Marlborough  to  quicken  his  industry.  He  then  began, 
and  continued  to  talk  much  and  often  of  the  progress  he 
had  made,  but  on  bis  death,  not  a  scrap  could  be  disco- 
vered of  the  history. 

198  MALLET. 

In  the  political  disputes  which  commenced  at  the  be- 
ginning of  the  present  reign,  Mallet  espoused  the  cause 
of  his  countryman  lord  Bute,  and  is  said  to  have  written 
his  tragedy  of  "  Elvira,"  with  a  view  to  serve  his  lordship. 
This  play  was  performed  at  Drury-lane  in  1763  ;  its  ob- 
ject was  to  recommend  pacific  sentiments,  but  the  public 
was  dissatisfied  with  the  late  peace,  and  "  Elvira,9'  though 
well  performed,  was  easily  rendered  unpopular  by  the  op* 
ponents  of  the  ministry.  Dayies  gives  us  an  amusing 
anecdote  of  his  tricking  Garrick  into  the  performance  of 
this  piece,  by  making  him  believe  that  he  had  introduced 
the  mention  of  him  in  his  life  of  Marlborough,  a  bait 
which  Mallet's  principles  suggested,  and  which  Garrick's 
vanity  readily  swallowed.  Garrick  got  little  by  the  play, 
but  Mallet  was  rewarded  with  the  office  of  keeping  the 
book  of  entries  for  ships  in  the  port  of  London. 

Towards  the  end  of  his  life,  Mallet  went  with  his  wife 
to  France,  but  after  a  while  finding  his  health  declining, 
returned  alone  to'England,  and  died  April  21,  1765.  He 
was  twice  married.  Of  his  first  wife  we  find  no  mention, 
but  by  her  he  had  several  children.  One  daughter,  who 
married  an  Italian  of  rank,  named  Cilesia,  wrote  a  tragedy 
called  "  Almida,"  which  was  acted  at  Drury-lane.  This 
lady  died  at  Genoa  in  1790.  His  second  wife,  whom  he 
married  in  October  1742,  was  miss  Lucy  Elstob,  daughter 
to  lord  Carlisle's  steward.  She  had  a  fortune  of  10,000/. 
all  of  which  she  took  care  to  settle  upon  herself;  but  she 
was  equally  careful  that  Mallet  should  appear  like  a  gen* 
tleman  of  distinction,  and  from  her  great  kindness,  always 
chose  herself  to  purchase  every  thing  that  be  wore,  and  to 
let  her  friends  know  that  she  did  so.  This  lady's  senti- 
ments were  congenial  to  those  of  her  husband,  who  was 
a  professed  free-thinker.  Tbey  kept  a  good  table  (at 
which  Gibbon  appears  to  have  been  frequently  a  guest), 
and  the  lady,  proud  of  her  opinions,  would  often,  we  are 
told,  in  the  warmth  of  argument,  say,  "  Sir,  wc  deists"  . 

Mr.  Mallet's  stature,  says  Dr.  Johnson,  "  was  diminutive, 
but  he  was  regularly  formed.  His  appearance,  till  he 
grew  corpulent,  was  agreeable,  and  he  suffered  it  to  want 
no  recommendation  that  dress  could  give  it„  His  conver- 
sation was  elegant,  and  easy."  Of  his  character  in  other 
respects,  it  would  be  unnecessary  to  add  any  thing  to  the 
preceding  facts.  As-  a  writer  he  cannot  be  placed  in  any 
high  class,  nor  is  there  any  species  of  composition  in  whicj} 

MALLET.  19§ 

lie  is  eminent ;  yet  his  poetry  surely  entitles  him  to  a  place 
in  every  collection  of  English  bards.  In  his  poems  as  well 
as  his  prose  compositions,  elegance  of  style  predominates, 
and  he  appears  to  have  written  with  ease.  His  "  Life  of 
Lord  Bacon/'  prefixed  to  an  edition  of  that  illustrious  phi- 
losopher's works  in  1740,  has  been  censured  as  touching 
too  little  on  the  philosophical  part  of  the  character.  The 
writing  it,  however,  was  probably  a  matter  of  necessity 
rather  than  choice,  and  while  be  could  not  afford  to  refuse 
the  employment,  he  was  too  conscious  of  bis  inability  to 
attempt  any  other  than  what  he  has  accomplished,  an  ele- 
gant narrative  of  the  events  of  lord  Bacon's  life.  Of  Mal- 
let's works,  prose  and  verse,  aa  edition  was  published  in 
1769,  3  vols,  small  8vo.* 

MALLET  (Edmund),  was  one  of  the  writers  iu  the 
French  Encyclopedie,  and  one  of  those  whose  articles  are 
the  most  valuable  in  that  work.  They  are  chiefly  on  the 
subjects  of  divinity  and  belles  lettres,  and  if  only  men  as 
sound  and  judicious  as  the  abb6  Mallet  had  been  employed, 
that  publication  would  have  proved  as  useful  as  it  has  been 
found  pernicious.  He  was  born  at  Melun  in  1713,  and 
educated  at  the  college  of  the  Barnabites' at  Montargis. 
He  was  afterwards  engaged  as  tutor  in  the  family  of  a  far- 
mer general.  In  1742  he  was  admitted  into  the  faculty  of 
theology  at  Paris,  and  was  employed  on  a  cure  near  his 
native  town  till  1751,  when  he  was  invited  to  be  professor 
of  divinity  in  the  college  of  Navarre.  The  more  he  was 
known,  the  more  his  merits  were  perceived;  and  the  charge 
of  Jansenism,  which  had  been  circulated  against  him,  was 
gradually  cleared  away.  Boyer,  then  bishop  of  Mirepoix, 
as  a  testimony  of  his  regard,  presented  him  to  a  canonry 
of  Verdun.  He  died  at  Paris  in  1755.  Besides  his  share 
in  the  Encyclopedic,  he  wrote  several  works  on  the  prin- 
ciples of  poetry  and  eloquence.  His  style  is  neat,  easy, 
and  unaffected ;  and  he  has  great  skill  in  developing  the 
merits  of  good  writers,  and  illustrating  his  precepts  by  the 
most  apposite  examples  from  their  works.  He  published 
also  a  history  of  the  civil  wars  of  France,  under  the  reigns 

1  Johnson's  Poets. — Davies's  Life   of  Garrick,   vol.  II.  p.  27 — 60,  280.— 
Bowles's  edition  of  Pope.— Ruffhead's  Life  of  Pope,  4to  edit.  p.  414. — Swift's' 
Works,  rol.  XIX.— Boswell's  Tour  and  Life  of  Johnson. — Sheffield's  Life  of 
Gibson,  vol.  I.  p.  111.  422. — D'Israeli's  Quarrels  of  Authors,  vol.  I.-— Genlle- 
saafi's  Magazine  ;  see  Index. 


of  Fnuigois  II.  Charles  IX.  &c.  translated  from  the  Italian 
of  D'Avila,  and  published  at  Amsterdam  in  3  vols.  4to.1 

MALLET  (James).    See  DU  PAN. 

MALLET  (Paul  Henry),  a  learned  historian  and  anti- 
quary, first  professor  of  history  in  his  native  city,  was  born 
at  Geneva  in  1730,  became  afterwards  professor  royal  of 
the  belies  lettres  at  Copenhagen,  a  member  of  the  acade- 
mies of  Upsal,  Lyons,  Cassel,  and  of  the  Celtique  aca- 
demy of  Paris.  Of  his  life  no  account  has  yet  appeared. 
He  joined  an  extensive  acquaintance  with  history  and  ge- 
neral literature  to  great  natural  talents.  The  amenity  of 
his  disposition  caused  his  company  to  be  much  sought, 
while  his  solid  qualities  procured  him  friends  who  deeply 
regretted  his  loss.  The  troubles  of  Geneva  during  the  first 
revolutionary  war  deprived  him  of  the  greatest  part  of  his 
fortune;  and  he  was  indebted,  for  the  moderate  compe- 
tence he  retained,  to  pensions  from  the  duke  of  Brunswick 
and  the  landgrave  of  Hesse ;  but  the  events  of  the  late  war 
deprived  him  of  both  those  pennons.  The  French  govern* 
ment  is  said  to  have  designed  him  a  recompense,  but  this 
was  prevented  by  his  death,  at  Geneva,  Feb.  8,  1807.  His 
works  were:  1.  "  Histoire  de  Danemarck,"  to  the  eigh- 
teenth century,  the  best  edition  of  which  is  that  of  1787. 
2.  A  translation  of  Coxe's  "  Travels,"  with  remarks  and 
addition*,  and  a  relation  of  bis  own  Travels  in  Sweden,  2 
vols.  4 to.  3.  Translation  of  the  Acta  and  form  of  the 
Swedish  government,  12mo.  4.  "Histoire  de  Hesse/'  to 
the  seventeenth  century,  3  vols.  8vo.  5.  "  Histoire  de  la 
maisoti  de  Brunswick,"  to  its  accession  to  the  throne  of 
Great  Britain,  3  vols.  8vo.  6.  "  Histoire  des  Suisses," 
from  the  earliest  times  to  the  commencement  of  the  late 
revolution,  Geneva,  1803,  4  vols.  8vo.  7.  "  Histoire  de  la 
Ligne  Anseatique,"  from  its  origin  to  its  decline,  1 305,  2 
vols.  8vo.  He  had  discovered  at  Rome  the  chronological 
series  of  Icelandic  bishops,  which  bad  been  lost  in  Den- 
mark. It  is  published  in  the  third  volume  of  Langebeck's 
collection  of  Danish  writers.  The  late  Dr.  Percy,  bishop 
of  Dromore,  has  made  us  acquainted  with  professor  Mal- 
let's merit  as  an  antiquary  by  his  excellent  translation  en- 
titled " Northern  Antiquities;  or  a  Description  of  the 
manners,  customs,  religion,  aud  laws,  of  the  ancient 
Danes,  and  other  northern  nations  ;  including  those  of  our 


-i  Moreri,— -Diet  Hist.— Preface  to  the  Sixth  Vol.  of  the  Eftcyclopedie. 



own  Saxon  ancestors.  With  a  translation  of  the  Edda,  or 
system  of  Runic  mythology,  and  other  pieces  from  the 
ancient  Islandic  Tongue.  Translated  from  M.  Mallet's 
Introduction  k  l'Histoire  de  Danemarck,"  &c.  1770,  2  vols. 
$vo.  To  this  Dr.  Percy  has  added  many  valuable  and  cu- 
rious notes,  and  Goranson's  Latin  version  of  the  "  Edda." 
It  was  very  justly  said,  at  the  time,  by  the  Monthly  Re- 
viewer, that  Or.  Percy  bad,  in  this  instance,  given  a  trans* 
latioa  more  valuable  than  the  original.1 

MALLINKROTT  (Bernard),  dean  of  the  cathedral  of 
Munster,  and  celebrated  for  his  inquiries  into  typographi- 
cal antiquities,  was  certainly  a  learned  man,  but  very  tur- 
bulent and  ambitious.  Hence  it  happened  that  he  was 
named  to  two  bishoprics  without  taking  possession  of  either, 
and  that  he  died  in  prison  for  his  opposition  to  another 
prelate.  The  emperor  Ferdinand  I.  appointed  him  to  the 
bishopric  of  Ratzebourg,  and  he  was,  a  few  days  after, 
elected  to  the  see  of  Minden.  But  his  ambition  was  to  be 
bishop  of  Munster,  and  not  succeeding,  in  1650,  he  in- 
trigued and  raised  seditions  against  the  bishop  who  had 
succeeded,  till  in  1655,  he  was  degraded  from  his  dignity 
of  dean.  Nor  yet  warned,  he  continued  his  machinations, 
and  in  1657,  the  bishop  bad  bim  arrested  and  confined  in 
the  castle  of  Otteinzheim.  Here  he  continued  till  his 
death,  which  happened  suddenly,  March  7,  1664.  He 
wrote  in  Latin,  1.  "De  nAtura  et  nsu  Literarum,"  Mun- 
ster, 1638,  4to,  2.  "  De  ortu  et  progressu  artis  Typogra- 
phies," Cologne,  1639,  4to,  and  since  reprinted  in  Wolfs 
collection  of  "  Monumenta  Typographical'  vol.  I.  1740. 
3.  "  De  Archicancellariis  S.  R.  imperii,"  Munster,  1640, 
4to.  4.  "  Paralipomenon  de  Historicis  Gracis,"  Cologne, 
1656,  4to.« 

MALMSBURY  (William  of),  an  ancient  English  his- 
torian, who  flourished  in  the  twelfth  century,  was  born  in 
Somersetshire,  and,  on  that  account,  as  Bale  and  Pits  in-* 
.form  us,  was  called  Somersetanus.  When  a  child,  he  him- 
self says,  he  discovered  a  fondness  for  learning,  which  was 
encouraged  by  his  parents,  and  increased  with  his  years. 
Some  have  supposed  Oxford  to  have  been  the  place  of  his 
ediication*  He  became,  however,  a  monk  of  Malmsbury, 
and  it  reflects  no  small  honour  on  his  fraternity,  that  they 

»  Diet  Hwt— AthtMeum,  vol.  II. 

*  Niceron,  roi.  XXX— Lif«  by  Stnmat,  prafiied  to  kit  editioa  of  the  "  Dt 
Arohicancellariif,  &c." 

f  02  M  A  L  M  S  B  U  R  Y. 

elected  him  their  librarian.  He  had  studied  several 
sciences,  as  they  could  then  be  acquired,  logic,  physic, 
and  ethics,  but  history  appears  to  have  been  his  favourite 
pursuit.  After  studying  that  of  countries  abroad,  he  be- 
gan to  inquire  into  the  memorable  transactions  of  his  own 
nation ;  but  not  finding  any  satisfactory  history  already 
written,  he  resolved,  as  he  says,  to  write  one,  not  to  dis- 
play his  learning,  "  which  is  no  great  matter,  but  to  bring 
to  light  things  that  are  covered  with  the  rubbish  of  anti- 
quity." This  resolution  produced  his  valuable  work  "  De 
regibus  Anglorum,"  a  general  history  of  England  in  five 
books,  from  the  arrival  of  the  Saxons,  in  the  year  449  to 
the  26  Henry  I.  in  1126;  and  a  modern  history,  in  two 
books,  from  that  year  to  the  escape  of  the  empress  Maud 
out  of  Oxford  in  1143;  with  a  church  history  of  England 
iu  four  books,  published  in  sir  H.  Savile's  collection,  1596. 
His  merits  as  a  historian  have  been  justly  displayed  and 
recommended  by  lord  Lyttelton  in  his  "  History  of  Henry 
II."  In  all  his  works  (the  Latin  style  of  which  is  more 
pure  than  that  of  any  of  his  contemporaries),  he  discovers 
great  diligence,  much  good  sense,  and  a  sacred  regard  to 
truth,  accompanied  with  uncommon  modesty.  He  says 
that  he  can  scarcely  expect  the  applause  of  his  contempo- 
raries, but  he  hopes  that  when  both  favour  and  malevo- 
lence are  dead,  he  shall  obtain  from  posterity  the  charac- 
ter of  an  industrious,  though  not  of  an  eloquent  historian. 
Besides  what  we  have  mentioned,  Gale  has  printed  his 
"  Antiquities  of  Glastonbury,9*  aud  Wharton  his  "  Life  of 
St  Adhelm."  But  his  abilities  were  not  confined  to  prose. 
He  wrote  many  pieces  of  Latin  poetry ;  and  it  is  remark- 
able, says  Warton,  that  almost  all  the  professed  prose 
writers  of  this  age  made  experiments  in  verse.  William  of 
Malmsbufy  died  in  that  abbey  in  1143.1 

MA  LONE  (Edmond),  a  gentleman  of  great  literary 
research,  and  one  of  the  ablest  commentators  on  Shaks- 
peare,  was  descended  from  an  Irish  family  of  the  highest 
antiquity,  an  account  of  which  may  be  found  in  the  se- 
venth volume  of  ArcbdalPs  Peerage  of  Ireland,  which,  it 
is  believed,  was  drawn  up  by  Mr.  Malone  himself.  All  his 
immediate  predecessors  were  distinguished  men.  His 
grandfather)  while  only  a  student  at  the  Temple,  was  en- 

i  Nicolson's  Enelish  Hist.  Library.— Henry's  Hist  of  Gr.  Britain,  vol.  VI.  p. 
136 .— Leland. — Bale,  and  Pits.— Wharton's  Aoglia  Sacra.— Warton' s  History 
of  Poetry. 

MALONE.    .  SOS 


v         * 

trusted  with  a  negotiation  in  Holland  ;  and  so  successfully 
acquitted  himself,  that  be  was  honoured  and  rewarded  by 
king  William  for  his  services.  Having  been  called  to  the 
Irish  bar  about  1 700,  he  became  one  of  the  most  Eminent 
barristers  that  have  ever  appeared  in  that  country.  His 
professional  fame  has  only  been  eclipsed  by  that  of  his 
eldest  son,  the  still  more  celebrated  Anthony  Malone,  who 
as  a  lawyer,  an  orator,  and  an  able  and  upright  statesman, 
was  confessedly  one  of  the  most  illustrious  men  that  his 
country  has  produced.  Edmond,  the  second  son  of  Richard, 
and  the  father  of  the  late  Mr.  Malone,  was  born  on  the 
16th  of  April,  170*.  He  was  called  to  the  English  bar  in 
1730,  where  he  continued  for  ten  years  to  practise;  and, 
in  1740,  removed  to  the  Irish  bar.  After  having  sat  in 
several  parliaments,  and  gone  through  the  usual  gradation* 
of  professional  rank,  he  was  raised,  in  1766,  to  the  dig- 
nity of  one  of  the  judges  of  the  court  of  common  pleas  in 
Ireland,  an  office  which  he  filled  till  his  death  in  1774. 
He  married,  in  1736,  Catherine,  only  daughter  and  heir 
of  Benjamin  Collier,  esq.  of  Ruckholts,  in  the  county  of 
Essex,  by  whom  he  had  four  sons,  Richard,  now  lord  Sun* 
derlin ;  Edmond,  the  subject  of  our  present  memoir ;  An- 
thony and  Benjamin,  who  died  in  their  infancy ;  and  two 
daughters,  Henrietta  and  Catherine. 

Edmond  Malone  was  born  at  his  father's  house  in  Dub- 
lin, on  the  4th  of  October,  1741.  He  was  educated  at 
the  school  of  Dr.  Ford,  in  Molesworth-street ;  and  went 
from  thence,  in  1756,  to  the  university  of  Dublin,  where 
he  took  the  degree  of  batchelor  of  arts.  Here  his  talents 
very  early  displayed  themselves  ;  and  he  was  distinguished 
by  a  successful  competition  for  academical  honours  with 
several  young  men,  who  afterwards  became  the  ornaments 
of  the  Irish  senate  and  bar.  It  appears  that  at  his  outset 
he  had  laid  down  to  himself  those  rules  of  study  to  which 
he  ever  afterwards  steadily  adhered.  When  sitting  down 
to  the  perusal  of  any  work,  either  ancient  or  modern,  his 
attention  was  drawn  to  its  chronology,  the  history  and  cha- 
racter of  its  author,  the  feelings  and  prejudices  of  the  times 
in  which  he  lived  ;  and  any  other  collateral  information 
which  might  tend  to  illustrate  his  writings,  or  acquaint  us 
with  his  probable  views,  and  cast  of  thinking.  In  later 
years  he  was  more  particularly  engrossed  by  the  literature 
of  his  own  country ;  but  the  knowledge  he  had  acquired  in 
(lis  youth  had  been  too  assiduously  Collected,  and  to* 


firmly  fixed  in  his  mind,  not  to  retain  possession  of  his 
memory,  and  preserve  that  purity  and  elegance  of  taste 
which  is  rarely  to  be  met  with  but  in  those  who  have  early 
derived  it  from  the  models  of  classical  antiquity.     He  ap- 
pears frequently  at  this  period,  in  common  with  some  of 
his  accomplished  contemporaries,  to  hate  amused  himself 
with  slight  poetical  compositions  ;  and  on  the  marriage  of 
their  present  majesties  contributed  an  ode  to  the  collection 
of  congratulatory  verses  which  issued  on  that  event  from 
the  university  of  Dublin.     In  1763  he  became  a  student  in 
the  Inner  Temple ;  and  in  1767  was  called  to  the  Irish  bar, 
and,  at  his  first  appearance  in  the  courts,  he  gave  every 
promise  of  future  eminence.     But  an  independent  fortune 
having  soon  after  devolved  upon  him,  he  felt  himself  at 
liberty  to  retire  from  the  bar,  and  devote  his  whole  atten- 
tion in  future  to  literary  pursuits,  for  which  purpose  be 
soon  after  settled  in  London,  and  resided  there  with  very 
little  intermission  for  the  remainder  of  his  life.     Among 
the  many  eminent  men  with  whom  he  became  early  ac- 
quainted, he  was  naturally  drawn  by  the  enthusiastic  ad- 
miration which  he  felt  for  Shakspeare,  and  the  attention 
which  he  bad  already  paid  to  the  elucidation  of  his  works, 
into  a  particularly  intimate  intercourse  with  Mr.  Steevenst 
The  just  views  which  he  himself  had  formed  led  him  to 
recognize  in  the  system  of  criticism  and  illustration  which 
that  gentleman  then  adopted,  the  only  means  by  which  a 
correct  exhibition  of  our  great  poet  could  be  obtained. 
Mr.  Steevens  was  gratified  to  find  {hat  one  so  well  ac- 
quainted with  the  subject  entertained  that  high  estimation 
of  his  labours  which  Mr.  Malone  expressed;  and  very  soon 
discovered  the  advantage  he  might  derive  from  the  com* 
munications  of  a  mind  so  richly  stored.     Mr.  Malone  was 
ready  and  liberal  in  imparting  his  knowledge,  which,  on 
the  other  part,  was  most  gratefully  received. 

Mr.  Steevens  having  published  a  second  edition'  of  bis 
Shakspeare,  in  177S,  Mr.  Malone,  in  1780,  added  two 
supplementary  volumes,  which  contained  some  addi- 
tional notes,  Shakspeare's  poems,  and  seven  plays  which 
have  been  ascribed  to  him.  There  appears  up  to  this 
time  to  have  been  no  interruption  to  their  friendship ;  but* 
on  the  contrary,  Mr.  Steevens,  having  formed  a  design  of 
relinquishing  all  future  editorial  labours,  most  liberally 
made  a  present  to  Mr.  Malone  of  bis  valuable  collection  of 
old  plays,  declaring  that  he  himself  was  now  become  "  a- 

M  A  L  O  N  E.  20S 

dowager  commentator."  It  is  painful  to  think  that  this 
harmony  should  ever  have  been  disturbed,  or  that  any  thing 
should  have  created  any  variance  between  two  such  men, 
who  were  so  well  qualified  to  co-operate  for  the  benefit  of 
the  literary  world.  Mr.  Malone,,  having  continued  his  re- 
searches into  all  the  topics  which  might  serve  to  illustrate 
our  great  dramatist,  discovered,  that  although  much  had 
been  done,  yet  that  much  still  remained  for  critical  indus- 
try ;  and  that  a  still  more  accurate  collation  of  the  early 
copies  than  had  hitherto  taken  place  was  necessary  towards 
a  correct  and  faithful  exhibition  of  the  author's  text.  His 
materials  accumulated  so  fast,  that  he  determined  to  ap- 
pear before  the  world  as  an  editor  in  form.  From  that  mo- 
ment he  seepis  to  have  been  regarded  with  jealousy  by  the 
elder  commentator,  who  appears  to  have  sought  an  oppor- 
tunity for  a  rupture,  which  be  soon  afterwards  found,  or 
rather  created.  But  it  is  necessary  to  go  back  for  a  mo- 
ment, to  point  out  another  of  Mr.  Malone*  s  productions. 
There  are  few  events  in  literary  history  more  extraordinary 
in  all  its  circumstances  than  the  publication  of  the  poems 
attributed  to  Rowley.  Mr.  Malone  was  firmly  convinced 
that  the  whole  was  a  fabrication  by  Cbatterton ;  and,  to 
support  his  opinion,  published  one  of  the  earliest  pam- 
phlets which  appeared  in  the  course  of  this  singular  con- 
troversy. By  exhibiting  a  series  of  specimens  from  early 
English  writers,  both  prior  and  posterior  to  the  period  in 
which  this  .supposed  poet  was  represented  to  have  lived,  he 
proved  that  his  style  bore  no  resemblance  to  genuine  an- 
tiquity; and  by  stripping  Rowley  of  his  antique  garb, 
which  was  easily  done  by  the  substitution  of  modern  syno- 
nymous .words  in  the  places  of  those  obsolete  expressions 
which  are  sprinkled  throughout  these  compositions,  and  al 
the  same  time  intermingling  some  archaeological  phrases  in 
the  acknowledged  productions  of  Cbatterton,  he  clearly 
showed  that  they  were  all  of  the  same  character,  and 
equally  bore  evident  marks  of  modern  versification,  and  a 
modern  structure  of  language.  He  was  followed  by  Mr. 
Warton  and  Mr.  Tyrwhitt,  in  his  second  Appendix ;  and 
the  controversy  was  soon  at  an  end.  While  Mn  Malone 
was  engaged  in  his  Shakspeare,  he  received  from  Mr. 
Steevens  a  request  of  a  most  extraordinary  nature*  In  a 
third  edition  of  Johnson  and  Steevena's  Shakspeare,  which 
had  been  published  under,  the  superintendance  of  Mr. 
Reed,  in  1785,  Mr.  Malone  had  contributed  some  notes 


in  which  Mr.  Steevens' s  opinions  were  occasionally  con* 
troverted.  These  he  was  now  desired  to  retain  in  his  new 
.edition,  exactly  as  they  stood  before,  in  order  that  Mr.  S, 
might  answer  them.  Mr.  Malone  replied,  that  he  could 
make  no  such  promise ;  thatbe  must  feel  himself  at  liberty 
to  correct  his  observations,  where  they  were  erroneous ; 
to  enlarge  them,  where  they  were  defective ;  and  even  to 
expunge  them  altogether,  where,  upon  further  considera- 
tion, he  was  convinced  they  were  wrong ;  in  short,  he  was 
bound  to  present  his  work  to  the  public  as  perfect  a&  he 
could  make  it.  But  he  added,  that  he  was  willing  to  trans- 
mit every  note  of  that  description  in  its  last  state  to  Mr. 
Steevens,  before  it  went  to  press ;  that  he  might  auswer  it 
if  he  pleased;  and  that  Mr.  Malone  would  even  preclude 
himself  from  the  privilege  of  replying.  Mr.  Steevens  per- 
sisted in  requiring  that  they  should  appear  with  all  their  im- 
perfections on  their  head ;  and  on  this  being  refused,  de- 
clared that  all  communication  on  the  subject  of  Shakspeare 
was  at  an  end  between  them*.  In  1790,  Mr.  Malone' s 
edition  at  last  appeared ;  and  was  sought  after  and  read 
with  the  greatest  avidity.  It  is  unnecessary  to  point  out 
its  merits ;  the  public  opinion  upon  it  has  been  long  pro- 
nounced. It  cannot  indeed  be  strictly  said  that  it  met 
with  universal  approbation.  Mr.  Ritson  appeared  against 
it  in  an  angry  and  scurrilous  pamphlet,  replete  with  mis- 
representations so  gross,  and  so  easy  of  detection,  though 
calculated  to  mislead  a  careless  reader,  that  Mr.  Malone 
thought  it  worth  his  while  to  point  them  out  in,  a  letter 
which  he  published,  addressed  to  his  friend  Dr.  Farmer. 
Poor  Ritson,  however,  has  not  been  the  only  one  who  has 
attempted  to  persuade  the  world  that  they  have  been  mis- 
taken in  Mr.  Malone's  character  as  a  critic.  Mr.  Home 
Tooke  in  particular,  who,  whatever  were  his  talents  as  a 
grammarian,  or  his  knowledge  as  an  Anglo-Saxon,  had  by 
no  means  an  extensive  acquaintance  with  the  literature  of 
Shakspeare's  age,  has  mentioned  Mr.  Malone  and  Dr. 
Johnson  with  equal  contempt,  and  immediately  after  pro- 
ceeds to  sneer  at  Mr.  Tyrwhitt.  It  may  readily  be  sup- 
pqsed  that  Mr.  Malone  would  not  feel  very  acutely  the 
satire  which  associated  hjm  with  such  companions.  But, 
to  counterbalance  these  puny  hostilities,  his  work  gained 

*  These  particulars  are  collected  from  the   correspondence  which  pissed 
between  them,  which  Mr.  Malone  preserved. 

M  A  L  O  N  E.  20? 


the  highest  testimonies  of  applause  from  all  who  were  besl 
qualified  to  judge  upon  the  subject,  and  from  men  whose 
approbation  any  one  would  be  proud  to  obtain.  Dr.  J. 
Warton,  in  a  most  friendly  letter,  which  accompanied  a  cu- 
rious volume  of  old  English  poetry  which  had  belonged  to 
his  brother  Thomas,  and  which  he  presented  to  Mr.  Ma- 
lone  as  the  person  for  whom  its  former  possessor  felt  the 
highest  esteem  and  the  most  cordial  regard,  observes  to 
him  that  his  edition  is  by  far,  very  far,  the  best  that  had 
ever  appeared.  Professor  Porson,  who,  as  every  one  who 
knew  him  can  testify,  was  by  no  means  in  the  habit  of  be- 
stowing hasty  or  thoughtless  praise,  declared  to  Mr.  Ma* 
lone's  biographer,  that  he  considered  the  Essay  on  the 
three  parts  of  Henry  the  Sixth  as  one  of  the  most  convin- 
cing pieces  of  criticism  that  he  bad  ever  read ;  nor  was 
Mr.  Burke  less  liberal  in  his  praises. 

Having  concluded  his  laborious  work,  Mr.  Malone  paid 
a  visit  to  his  friends  in  Ireland  ;  but  soon  after  returned  to 
his  usual  occupations  in  London.     Amidst  his  own  numer- 
ous and  pressing  avocations  be  was  not  inattentive  to  the 
calls  of  friendship.     In  1791  appeared  Mr.  BoswelPs  Life 
of  Dr.  Johnson,  a  work  in  which  Mr.  Malone  felt  at  all 
times  a  very  lively  interest,  and  gave  every  assistance  to 
its  author  during  its  progress  which  it  was  in  his  power  to 
bestow.  .  His  acquaintance  with  this  gentleman  commenced 
in  17,85,  when,  happening   accidentally  at  Mr.  Baldwin's 
printing-house  to  be  shewn  a  sheet  of  the  Tour  to  the  He- 
brides, which  contained  Johnson's  character,  he  was  so 
much  struck  with  the  spirit  and  fidelity  of  the  portrait, 
that,  he  requested  to  be  introduced  to  its  writer.     From 
this  period  a  friendship  took  place  between  them,  which 
ripened  into  the  strictest  and  most  cordial  intimacy,  and 
lasted  without  interruption  as  long  as  Mr.  Boswell  lived. 
After  his  death,  in  1795,  Mr.  Malone  continued  to -show 
every  mark  of  affectionate  attention  towards  his   family ; 
and  in  every  successive  edition  of  Johnson's   Life  took 
the  most  unwearied  pains  to  render  it  as  much  as  possible 
correct  and  perfect.     He  illustrated  it  with  many   notes 
of  his   own,  and    procured   many   valuable   communica- 
tions from  his  friends,  among  whom  its  readers  will  readily 
distinguish   Mr.   Bindley.     Any  account  of  Mr.  Malone 
would  be  imperfect  which  omitted  to  mention  his  long  in- 
timacy with  that  gentleman,  who.  is  not  so  remarkable  as 
the  possessor  of  one  of  the  most  valuable  libraries  in  this 


country,  as  he  is  for  the  accurate  and  extensive  informa- 
tion which  enables  him  to  use  it,  and  the  benevolent  po- 
liteness with  which  be  is  always  willing  to  impart  his  know- 
ledge to  others.  There  was  no  one  whom  Mr.  Malone 
more  cordially  loved. 

In  1795  he  was  again  called  forth  to  display  his  zeal  in 
defence  of  Shakspeare,  against  the  contemptible  fabrica- 
tions with  which  the  Irelands  endeavoured  to  delude  the 
public.     Although  this  imposture,    unlike  the  Rowleian 
poems,  which  were  performances  of  extraordinary  genius, 
exhibited  about  the  same  proportion  of  talent  as  it  did  of 
honesty,  yet  some  persons  of  no  small  name  were  hastily 
led  into  a  belief  of  its  authenticity.     Mr.   Malone  saw ' 
through  the  falsehood  of  the  whole  from  its  commence- 
ment; and  laid  bare  the  fraud,  in  a  pamphlet,  which  was 
written  in  the  form  of  a  letter  to  his  friend  lord  Cbarle- 
inont,  a  nobleman  with  whom  he  lived  on  the  most  intimate 
footing,  and   maintained  a  constant  correspondence.     It 
has  been  thought  by  some  that  the  labour  which  he  be* 
stowed  upon  this  performance  was  more  than  commensurate 
with  the  importance  of  the  subject ;  and  it  is  true  that  a 
slighter  effort  would  have  been   sufficient  to  have  over-* 
thrown  this  wretched  fabrication;  but  we  have  reason  to 
rejoice  that  Mr.  Malone  was  led  into  a  fuller  discussion 
than  was  bis  intention  at  the  outset ;  we  owe  to  it  a  work 
which,  for  acute ness  of  reasoning,  and  the  curious  and  in* 
teresting  view  which  it  presents  of  English  literature,  will 
retain  its  value  long  after  the  trash  which  it  was  designed 
to  expose  shall  have  been  consigned  to  oblivion.     Mr.  Ma- 
lone, in  1792,  had  the  misfortune  to  lose  his  admirable 
friend  sir  Joshua  Reynolds,  and  bis  executors,  of  whom 
Mr.  Malone  had  the  honour  to  be  one,  having  determined 
in  1797  to  give  the  world  a  complete  collection  of  his 
works,  he  superintended  the  publication,  and  prefixed  to 
ip  a  very  pleasing  biographical  sketch  of  their  author.     Al- 
though his  attention  was  still  principally  directed  to  Shak- 
speare, and  be  was  gradually  accumulating  a  most  valuable 
mass  of  materials  for  a  new  edition  of  that  poet,  he  found 
time  to  do  justice  to  another.     He  drew  together,  from 
various  sources,  the  prose  works  of  Pryden,  which,  as 
they  had  lain  scattered  about,  and  some  of  thorn  appended 
to  works  which  were  little  known,  had  never  impressed 
the  general  reader  with  that  opinion  of  their  excellence 
which  they  deserved;  and  published  them  in  1800.    The 

MALONE.  20* 

narrative  which  he  prefixed  is  a  most  important  accession 
to  biography.  By  active  inquiry,  and  industrious  and 
acute  research,  he  ascertained  many  particulars  of  his  life 
and  character  that  had  been  supposed  to  be  irrecoverably 
lost,  and  detected  the  falsehood  of  many  a  traditionary  tale 
that  bad  been  carelessly  repeated  by  former  writers.  In 
1808  he  prepared  for  the  press  a  few  productions  of  his 
friend,  the  celebrated  William  Gerard  Hamilton,  with 
which  he  had  been  entrusted  by  his  executors ;  and  pre- 
fixed to  this  also  a  brief  but  elegant  sketch  of  his  life.  In 
1811  his  country  was  deprived  of  Mr.  Windham.  Mr. 
Malone,  who  equally  admired  and  loved  him,  drew  up  a 
short  memorial  of  his  amiable  and  illustrious  friend,  which 
originally  appeared  in  the  Gentleman's  Magazine;  and 
was  afterwards,  in  an  enlarged  <and  corrected  state,  printed 
in  a  small  pamphlet,  and  privately  distributed.  But  the 
kind  biographer  was  too  soon  to  want  "  the  generous  tear 
he  paid."  A  gradual  decay  appears  to  have  undermined 
his  constitution ;  and  when  he  was  just  on  the  point  of 
going  to  the  press  with  his  new  edition  of  Shakspeare,  he 
was  interrupted  by  an  illness,  which  proved  fatal ;  and,  to 
the  irreparable  loss  of  all  who  knew  him,  he  died  on  the 
25th  of  May,  1812,  in  the  70th  year  of  his  age.  In  his 
last  illness  he  was  soothed  by  the  tender  and  unremitting 
attentions  of  his  brother,  lord  Sunderiin,  and  his  youngest 
sister ;  the  eldest,  from  her  own  weak  state  of  health,  was 
debarred  from  this  melancholy  consolation.  He  left  no 
directions  about  his  funeral;  but  his  brother,  who  was 
anxious,  with  affectionate  solicitude,  to  execute  every  wish 
he  had  formed,  having  inferred  from  something  that  dropt 
from  him,  that  it  was  his  desire  to  be  buried  among  his 
ancestors  in  Ireland,  his  remains  were  conveyed  to  that 
country,  and  interred  at  the  family  seat  of  Baronston,  in 
the  county  of  Wiestmeath. 

Mr.  Malone,  in  his  person,  was  rather  under  the  middle 
size.  The  urbanity  of  his  temper,  and  the  kindness  of  his 
disposition,  were  depictured  in  his  mild  and  placid  coun- 
tenance. His  manners  were  peculiarly  engaging.  Accus- 
tomed from  his  earliest  years  to  the  society  of  those  who 
were  distinguished  for  their  rank  or  talent,  he  was  at  all 
times  and  in  all  companies  easy,  unembarrassed,  and  un- 
assuming. It  was  impossible  to  meet  him,  even  in  the 
most  casual  intercourse,  without  recognizing  the  genuine 

Vol.  XXL.  P 

210  M  A  L  O  N  E. 

and  unaffected  politeness  of  the  gentleman  born  and  bred* 
His  conversation  was  in  a  high  degree  entertaining  and  in- 
structive; his  knowledge  was  various  and  accurate*  and 
his  mode  of  displaying  it  void  of  all  vanity  or  pretension. 
Though  he  had  little  relish. for  noisy  convivial  merriment, 
his  habits  were  social,  and  his  cheerfulness  uniform  and 
unclouded.  As  a  scholar,  he  was  liberally  communicative. 
Attached,  from  principle  and  conviction,  to  the  constitu- 
tion of  his  country  in  church  and  state,  which  his  intimate 
acquaintance  with  its  history  taught  him  how  to  value,  he 
was  a  loyal  subject,  a  sincere  Christian,  and  a  true  son  of 
the  Church  of  England.  His  heart  was  warm,  and  his 
benevolence  active.  His  charity  was  prompt,  but  judicious 
and  discriminating ;  not  carried  away  by  every  idle  or  fic- 
titious tale  of  distress,  but  anxious  to  ascertain  the  nature 
and  source  of  real  calamity,  and  indefatigable  in  his  efforts 
to  relieve  it.  His  purse  and  his  time  were  at  all  times 
ready  to  remove  the  sufferings,  and  promote  the  welfare  of 
others,  and  as  a  friend  he  was  warm  and  steady  in  his  at- 
tachments. l 

MALOUIN  (Paul  James),  an  eminent  French  chemist 
and  physician,  was  born  at  Caen  in  1701,  and  was  the  son 
of  a  counsellor,  who  sent  him,  when  of  a  proper  age,  to 
study  law  at  Paris.  Young  Malouin,  however,  as  soon  as 
he  arrived  there,  without  ever  informing  bis  father,  began 
the  study  of  medicine,  and  pursued  it  with  such  success 
as  well  as  secrecy,  that  on  his  return  home  in  1730,  his 
father,  whom  he  had  always  satisfied  in  every  respect  as 
to  moral  conduct,  expenses,  &c.  and  who  expected  to  see 
him  return  as  a  licentiate  in  law,  was  astonished  to  find 
him  a  doctor  of  medicine,  but  was  obliged  at  the.  same 
time  to  yield  to  a  choice  which  indicated  so  much  zeal 
and  decision.  Nor  was  this  a  new  profession  in  the  family, 
his  uncle  and  grandfather  having  both  been  physicians,. 
After  remaining  at  home  about  three  years,  he  went  again 
to  Paris,  and  assisted  Geoffroi  in  his  chemical  lectures, 
and  would  probably  have  succeeded  him  had  he  been  on 
the  spot  when  he  died;  but  it  was  not  until  1767  that  he 
was  appointed  in  the  room  of  Astruc,  who  was  the  imme- 

1  From  a  "  Biographical  Memoir  of  the  late  Edmond  M alone,  esq."  written 
by  James  Boswelf,  esq,  of  ihe  Middle  Temple,  originally  for  the  Gentleman'* 
Magazine,  but  afterwards  enlarged  and  reprinted  for  private  distribution  among 
the  friends  of  Mr.  Malone.  To  Mr.  Boswell  we  acknowledge  our  obligations 
for  a  copy  of  this  last  edition  of  a  vtry  interesting  and  affectionate  biographical 
tribute,  -  -     ' 


M  A  L  O  U  I  N. 


diate  successor  of  Geoffiroi.     At  Paris,  where  be  got  into 
practice,  it  lay  much  among  literary  men,  whom  he  found 
generally  very   incredulous  in   the  virtues  of  medicine. 
Malouin,  who  was  a  perfect  enthusiast  in  his  art,  had 
many  contests  with  them  on  this  account.     When  a  certain 
great  philosopher  had  been  cured  by  taking  Malouin's  pre- 
scriptions for  a  considerable  time,  and  came  to  acknow- 
ledge  the   obligation,    Malouin   embraced   him   and  ex-* 
claimed,  "  you  deserve  to  be  sick."  (Vous  etes  digne  d'etre 
maladej.     He  could  not,  however,  bear  those  who,  after 
being  cured,  indulged  their  pleasantries  at  the  expence  of 
the  faculty,  and   he  broke  off  his  acquaintance  with  an 
eminent  writer,  who  had  been  his  patient,  on  this  account. 
On  another  occasion,  when  one  of  these  wits  with  whom 
he  had  had  a  warm  dispute  about  his  favourite  art,  and 
had  quarrelled,   fell   ill,    Malouin  sought  hinf  out,   and 
his  first  address  was,  "  I  know  you  are  ill,  and,  that  your 
case  has  been  improperly  treated ;  I  am  now  come  to  visit 
you,  although  I  hate  you ;  but  I  Will  cure  you,  and  after 
that  never  see  your  face  more,'*  and  he  kept  his  word  in  aUL 
these  points.     This  was,  however,  in  him  pure  enthusiasm, 
without  any  mixture  of  quackery.     His  liberal  conduct  and 
talents  were  universally  acknowledged,  and  he  filled  with 
great  reputation  the  honourable  offices  of  professor  of  me- 
dicine in  the  college  of  Paris,  and  physician  in  ordinary  to 
the  queen.     He  was  also  a  member  of  the  academy  of 
sciences,  and  of  our  royal  society.     His  love  of  medicine 
did  not  binder  him  from  paying  equal  attention  to  preven- 
tatives, and  he  was  distinguished  for  a  habit  of  strict  tem- 
perance, which  preserved  his  health  and  spirits  to  the  ad- 
vanced age  of  seventy-seven,  without  any  of  its  infirmities. 
His  death  was  at  last  occasioned  by  a  stroke  of  apoplexy, 
which  happened  Dec.  31,  1777.     He  left  a  legacy  to  the 
faculty  on  condition  of  their  assembling  once  a  year,  and 
giving  an  account  of  their  labours  and  discoveries.     His 
principal  works  were,  1.  "Traite*  de  Chimie,"  1734,  12mo. 
2.  "  Chimie  medicinale,"   1755,  2  vols.  12 mo,  a  work  in 
a  very  elegant  style,  and  including  many  valuable  obser- . 
vations.     He  wrote  also  several  articles  in  the   dictionary 
"  Des   arts   et  metiers,"    published   by   the  academy   of 
sciences,  and  the  chemical  part  of  the  u  Encyclopedic"  [ 

1   Eloges  d«s  Academiciens,  ro\*  II.— Diet.  Hist. 

P   2 

212  M-ALPIGHI. 

MALPIGHI  (Marcellus),    an  Italian  physician  and 
anatomist,  was  born  March  10,  162$,  at  Crevalcuore,  near 
Bologna,  in  Italy,  where  he  was  taught  Latin  and  studied 
philosophy.     In  1649,  losing  his  parents,  and  being  obliged 
to  choose  his  own  method  of  life,  he  determined  to  apply 
himself  to  physic.     The  university  of  Bologna  was  then 
supplied  with  very  learned  professors  in  that  science,  par- 
ticularly Bartholomew  Massari,  and  Andrew  Mariano,  under 
whose  instructions  Malpighi  in  a  short  time  made  great 
progress  in  physic  and  anatomy.    'After  he  had  finished 
the  usual  course,  he  wasadmitted  doctor  of  physic,  April  6, 
1653.      In    1655    Massari   died,    a  loss  which  Malpighi 
severely  felt,  as  independent  of  his  esteem  for  him  as  a 
master,  he  had  become  more  nearly  related  to  him  by  mar- 
rying his  sifter.     In  1656,  the  senate  of  Bologna  gave  him 
a  professorship,  which  he  did  not  long  hold ;  for  the  same 
year  the  grand  duke  of  Tuscany  invited  him  to  Pisa,  to  be 
professor  of  physic  there.     Here  he  contracted  a  strict 
friendship  with  Borelli,  whom  he  subsequently  owned  for 
his  master  in  philosophy,  and  to  whom  he  ascribed  all  the 
discoveries  which  he  afterwards  made.     They  dissected 
animals  together,  and  it  was  in  this  employment  that  ha 
found  the  heart  to  consist  of  spiral  fibres;  a  discovery, 
which  has  been  ascribed  to  Borelli  in  his  posthumous  works. 
The  air  of  Pisa  not  agreeing  with  Malpighi,  he  continued 
there  but  three  years:  and,  in  1659,  returned  to  Bologna 
to  resume  his  former  posts,  notwithstanding  the  advan- 
tageous offers  which  were  made  him  to  stay  at  Pisa.     In 
1662  he  was  sent  for  to  Messina,  in  order  to  succeed  Peter 
Castello,  first  professor  of  physic,  who  was  just  dead.     It 
was  with  reluctance  that  he  went  thither,  though  the  sti- 
pend was  great ;  and  although  he  was  prevailed  on  at  last 
by  his  friend  Borelli,  to  accept  it;  yet  in  1666  he  returned 
to  Bologna.     In   1669  he  was  elected  a  member  of  the 
royal  society  of  London,  with  which  he  ever  after  kept  a 
correspondence  by  letters,  and  communicated  his  disco- 
veries in  anatomy.     Cardinal  Pignatelli,  who  had  known 
him  while  he  was  legate  at  Bologna,  being  chosen  pope  in 
1691,  under  the  name  of  Innocent  XII.  immediately  sent 
for  him  to  Rome,  and  appointed  him  his  physician.     In 
1694  he  was  admitted  into  the  academy  of  the  Arcadians 
3t  Rome.  July  the  25th,  of  the  same  year,  he  had  a  fit,  which 
struck  half  his  body  with  a  paralysis ;  and,  November  the 
29th  following,  he  had  another,  of  which  he  died  the  same 


M  A  L  P  I  G  H  I.  21S 

day,  iu  bis  67  th  y$*r«  His  remains  were  embalmed,  and 
conveyed  to  Bologna,  where  they  were  interred  with  great 
funeral  honours  in  the  church  of  St.  Gregory,  and  a  statuq 
was  erected  to  bis  memory.  Malpighi  is  described  as  a 
man  of  a  serious  au4  melancholy  temperament,  which  is 
confirmed  by  his  portrait  in  the  meeting-room  of  the  royal 
society  at  Somerset-hovise.  He  was  indefatigable  in  the 
pursuit  of  knowledge,  on  the  sure  ground  of  experience 
and  observation,  ever  candid  in  his  acknowledgments  tp 
those  who  bad  given  him  any  information,  and  devoid  of. 
all  ostentation  or  pretension  on  the  score  of  his  own  merits. 
He  ranks  very  high  amoqg  the  philosophers  of  the  physio- 
logical age  in  which  he  lived,  when  nature  began  to  be 
studied  instead  of  books,  and  the  dreams  of  the  schools. 
Hence  arose  the  discoveries  of  the  circulation  of  the  blood, 
the  absorbent  system  of  the  animal  body,  and  the  true 
theory  of  generation.  To  spch  improvements  the  investi- 
gations of  Malpighi,  relative  to  the  anatomy  and  trans- 
formation of  insects,  particularly  the  silk- worm,  and  the 
developetnent  of  the  chick  in  the  egg,  lent  no  small  aid. 
From  these  inquiries  he  wps  led  to  the  anatomy  and  physio- 
logy of  plants,  in  which  he  is  altogether  an  original,  as 
well  as  a  very  profound,  observer*  His  line  of  study  was 
the  sarpe  as  that  of  Grew,  but  these  philosophers  laboured 
independent  of  each  other,  and  their  frequent  coincidence 
evinces  the  accuracy  of  both. 

The  first  work  which  he  published  in  1661,  and  which 
was  afterwards  frequently  reprinted,  comprised  his  micro- 
scopical observations  relative  to  the  intimate  structure  of 
the  lungs,  and  was  entitled  "  Observations  Anatomicae  de 
Pulmooibus,"  fol.  He  published  separate  tracts  concerning 
the  brain,  the  tongue,  the  external  organ  of  touch,  the 
omentum,  throat,  and  the  adipose  ducts,  between  the  years 
1661  and  1665  ;  and  subsequently,  other  tracts,  respecting 
the  structure  of  the  viscera,  the  kidneys,  spleen,  liver, 
membranes  of  the  brain,  &c. 

In  1669,  when  he  became  a  fellow  of  our  royal  society, 
his  essay  "  de  formatione  pulli  in  ovo"  was  first  printed,  in 
London,  in  quarto,  as  well  as  his  remarks  on  the  "  Bombyx" 
or  silk-worm,  and  "  De  Glandulis  conglobatis,"  forming  his 
three  "  Dissertationes  Epistolicae."  His  "  Anatome  Plan- 
terum,"  addressed  to  the  royal  society,  accompanied  by 
observations  on  the  incubation  of  the  egg,  was  published 
by  that  learned  body  in  folio,  with  »any  plates,  in  1675 

tU  M  A  L  P  I  G  H  I. 

and  1 679.  His  works  were  republished  at  London  in  1 686, 
making  two  folio  volumes;  and  more  correctly  at  Amster- 
dam, in  1687,  4to,  and  a  posthumous  volume  appeared 
here,  accompanied  with  an  account  of  his  life,  in  1697,  of 
which  a  re-impression  was  given  at  Venice,  and  another  at 
Leyden,  the  ensuing  year.  Some  other  dissertations  are 
to  be  found  in  the  "  Bibliotheca  Anatomica,"  published  by 
Le  Clerc  and  Manget  at  Geneva  in  1685;  especially  MDe 
Cornuum  Vegetatione,"  "  DeUtero  et Viviparorum  Avis;" 
and  "  Epistol©  quaedam  circa  illam  de  ovo  dissertatio- 
nem."  His  only  medical  work,  "  Consultationum  Medi- 
cinalium  Centuria  prima,"  was  edited  by  Gaspari,  in 
1713,  4to,  Patau.  He  is  not,  indeed,  distinguished  as  a 
practitioner,  but  he  deserves  praise  for  pointing  out  the 
mischiefs  of  blood-letting,  in  the  malignant  epidemics 
prevalent  in  Italy  in  his  time.  Aft  edition  of  the  whole  of 
his  works  was  printed  at  Venice,  in  1733,  in  folio,  by 
Gavinelli. l 

1VJALUS  (Stephen  Louis),  a  distinguished  mathema- 
tician, philosopher,  and  military  engineer,  was  born  at 
Paris  July  23,  1775.  His  first  education  was  principally 
directed  to  classical  and  polite  literature,  pnd  at  seventeen 
years  of  age  he  composed  a  tragedy  in  five  acts,  called 
"  The  Death  of  Cato."  These  pursuits,  however,  did  not 
prevent  him  from  a  study  apparently  not  very  compatible, 
that  of  the  mathematics ;  for  at  the  above  age  he  passed  an 
examination  which  gained  him  admittance  into  the  school 
of  engineers.  After  having  distinguished  himself  there  by 
his  genius  for  analysis,  he  was  about  to  leave  it  in  quality 
of  officer  of  military  engineers,  but  was  rejected  on  politi- 
cal grounds,  and  as  this  repulse  deprived  him  of  all  hope 
of  promotion  there,  he  repaired  to  the  army  in  the  north, 
where  he  was  incorporated  in  the  1 5th  battalion  of  Paris, 
and  was  employed  as  a  common  soldier  in  the  fortifications 
of  Dunkirk.  The  officer  of  engineers,  who  superintended 
those  works,  perceiving  that  Mai  us  was  deserving  of  a 
better  station,  represented  his  merits  to  the  government, 
and  he  was  recalled  and  sent  to  the  Polytechnic  school, 
where  he  was  soon  appointed  to  the  analytic  course  in  the 
absence  of  M.  Monge.     Being  now  re-established  in  his 

1  Life  prefixed  to  his  "Opera  Postharoa,"  Lond.  1 697.— Reel's  Cyclopaedia, 
t— Fabroni  Vitae  Italorura,  vol.  III. — Niceron,  vol.  IV. — Ward's  Gresham  Pro- 
fessor*, p.  320.— Thomson's  Hist  of  the  Royal  Society.— Eloy,  Diet.  Hist,  de  fa 


M  A  L  U  S,  215 

former  rank  at  the  date  of  his  first  nomination,  he  suc- 
ceeded almost  immediately  to  that  of  captain,  and  was  em- 
ployed at  the  school  at  Metz  as  professor  of  mathematics. 

It  was  at  this  period  (1797),  that  his  military  career 
commenced,  and  in  the  army  of  the  Sambre  and  Meuse 
be  was  present  at  the  passage  of  the  Rhine.  The  same 
year  he  formed  an  attachment  to  the  lady  who  afterwards 
became  his  wife.  She  was  the  daughter  of  the  chancellor 
of  the  university  of  Giessen ;  but  honour  and  duty  pre- 
vented him  from  then  realising  bis  wishes.  He  was  ob- 
liged to  embark  for  Egypt,  and  assisted  at  the  battles  of 
Chebreis,  and  of  the  Pyramid?.  He  was  chosen  member 
of  the  Institute  of  Cairo,  but  his  life  was  too  active  and 
busy  to  allow  him  to  indulge  his  taste  for  ,  the  sciences. 
One  only  occasion  presented  itself,  of  which  be  knew  how 
to  take  advantage.  In  a  reconnoitre  on  which  he  was  or- 
dered along,  with  M.  Lef£vre,  engineer  of  bridges  and 
causeways,  he  had  the  satisfaction  to  discover  £  branch  of 
the  Nile,  hitherto  unknown  to  travellers,  and  to  draw  a 
description  and  map  of  a  country  wh/ere  no  Frenchman  had 
penetrated  since  the  crusades;  and  the  memoir  which  he 
wrote  on  this  subject  forms  part  of  the  first  volume  of  "  La, 
Decade  Egyptienne."  But  it  was  as  a  military  engineer 
that  he  principally  distinguished  himself  during  this  me? 
morable  expedition,  particularly  during  the  dangers  of  all 
kinds  which  attended  him  in  Syria,  and  at  the  siege  of 
Ei-Harisch,  and  Jaffa,  where  he  filled  the  office  of  en- 
gineer* After  the  capture  of  this  town,  he  received  or- 
ders to  repair  the  fortifications,  and  to  establish  military 
hospitals-  Here  he  was  attacked  by  the  plague,  of  which 
he  had  the  good  fortune  to  cure  himself  without  any  fo- 
reign assistance.  Scarcely  recovered,  he  hastened  to  Da- 
mietta  on  business,  and  from  thence  marched  against  the 
Turks  who  had  landed  at  Lisbech ;  and  was  present  at  the 
battle  of  Heliopolis  and  Coraim,  and  at  the  siege  of  Cairo. 
After  other  movements,  which  will  be  found  in  the  history 
of  that  expedition,  he  embarked  at  Aboukir,  and  arrived 
in  France  in  Oct.  1801. 

;  Although  exhausted  by  so  many  fatigues,  and  by  the 
dreadftj  diseases  which  had  undermined  his  constitution, 
he  did  not  neglect  his  promise  to  his  mistress,  but  married 
her  soon  after  his  arrival,  and  their  union,  though  short, 
was  happy.  About  the  time  of  his  marriage,  Mai  us  gained 
new  celebrity  by  a  work  in  which  he  treated  all  the  opti-i 

216  M  A  L  U  S. 

cal  questions  which  depend  on  geometry,  and  in  which  he 
expounded  and  calculated  all  the  phenomena  of  reflection 
and  refraction,  and  followed  the  ray  of  light  through  all  its 
various  courses.     This  production  called  the  attention  of 
the  learned  to  the  phenomenon  of  double  refraction^  which 
had  occupied  Huygens  and  Newton ;  atod  hopes  were  en- 
tertained of  obtaining  an  explanation  of  a  fact  which  had 
defied  the  penetration  of  the  greatest  geniuses.    The  In- 
stitute  of  France  made  it  the  subject  of  a  prize,  which 
Malus  gained,  and  shewed  that  to  the  analytical  knowledge 
of  which  he  bad  given  proofs  in  his  first  work,  he  coukl 
unite  the  patience,  the  skill,  and  the  sagacity,  which  con-* 
stitute  a  great  philosopher*     By  very  nice  experiments  he 
discovered  a  remarkable  and  totally  unknown  property  of 
light,  that  is,  the  resemblance  between  the  loadstone  and 
a  particle  of  light,  the  latter  of  which  he  found  to  acquire 
polarity  and  a  determined  direction.     This  success  opened 
the  doors  of  the  Institute  to  him,  where  be  supplied  the 
place  of  a  philosopher  whose  name  had  been  immortalized 
by  a  brilliant  discovery  (Montgolfier). 

Malus  was  a  member  of  the  legion  of  honour,  and  under 
director  of  the  fortifications  at  Antwerp  in  1 804 ;  under- 
director  of  the  barracks  in  the  department  of  the 'Seine,  in 
1809  ;  member  of  the  committee  of  fortifications,  and  ma- 
jor of  engineers,  in  1810.  In  1811  he  was  second  in  com- 
mand, director  of  the  studies  of  the  Polytechnic  school,  in 
which  he  performed  for  several  years,  to  the  satisfaction  of 
the  directors  and  pupils,  the  arduous  duties  of  examiner. 
These  various  occupations  did  not  prevent  him  from  conti- 
nuing the  ingenious  experiments  on  which  his  fame  was  to 
be  chiefly  founded,  and  which  procured  him  the  Copley 
medal  from  our  royal  society. 

The  activity  of  Malus  was  equal  to  so  many  different 
pursuits.  Though  he  carried  in  his  habit  the  seeds  of  that 
severe  illness  which  was  so  soon  to  terminate  his  life, 
scarcely  a  week  elapsed  without  his  submitting  to  the  Insti- 
tute new  fruits  of  his  researches  -,  and  his  name  being  at- 
tached to  the  phenomenon  of  polarised  light,  which  he 
discovered,  all  future  discoveries  of  this  kind  must  recall 
the  remembrance  of  the  philosopher  who  first  opened  this 
hew  road,  and  who,  if  he  had  lived,  would  have  probably 
completed  the  theory  of  light.  He  died  February  24th, 
1812,  in  the  thirty-seventh  year  of  his  age,  a  loss  which 
cannot  be  sufficiently  deplored,  as  his  learning,  his  genius, 

MALUS,  J17 

and  indefatigable  industry,  afforded  every  hope  that 
length  of  years  would  have  added  to  his  discoveries,  and 
extended  the  boundaries  of  science.  His  discovery  of  the 
polarisation  of  light  by  oblique  reflection  is  perhaps  the 
most  important  that  optics  has  received  since  the  discovery 
of  the  achromatic  telescope.1 

MALVENDA  (Thomas),  a  learned  Dominican,  born 
hi  1566,  at  Xativa,  taught  philosophy  and  divinity  with 
great  reputation  in  his  order.  Baronius,  hearing  of  his 
abilities,  persuaded  his  general  to  send  for  him  to  Rome, 
that  he  might  have  the  benefit  of  his  advice.  Malvenda 
accordingly  gbve  Baronius  great  assistance,  and  was  em- 
ployed, at  the  same  time,  to  correct  all  the  ecclesiastical 
books  of  his  order,  which  he  did  with  much  accuracy.  He 
died  May  7,  1628,  at  Valencia  in  Spain,  aged  sixty-three. 
His  most  esteemed  works  are,  a  treatise  "  De  Anti-Christo," 
the  best  edition  of  which  is  that  of  Valencia,  1621,  folio ; 
*'  A  new  Version  of  the  Hebrew  Text  of  the  Bible,  with 
Notes,"  Lyons,  1650,  5  vols,  folio;  "Annales  Ordinis 
Praedicatorum,"  Naples,  1627,  folio.* 

MALVEZZI  (Virgil),  commonly  called  the  marquis 
Malvezzi,  an  Italian  writer  of  eminence,  was  bom  of  a 
noble  family  at  Bologna,  in  1599.  After  having  finished 
his  classical  and  philosophical  studies,  he  applied  to  the 
law,  and  became  a  doctor  in  that  faculty  in  1616,  although 
not  quite  seventeen  years  of  age.  After  this  he  cultivated 
other  sciences,  and  spent  some  time  and  pains  upon  phy- 
sic, mathematics,  and  divinity.  He  even  did  not  neglect 
astrology ;  in  favour  of  which  he  always  entertained  high 
prejudices,  although  he  affected-  outwardly  to  despise  it. 
Music  and  painting  were  also  among  the  arts  in  which  he 
exercised  himself  for  his  amusement.  He  afterwards  be- 
came a  soldier,  and  served  under  the  duke  Feria,  governor 
of  the  Milanese.  Philip  the  Fourth  of  Spain  employed 
him  in  several  affairs,  and  admitted  him  into  his  council 
of  war.  Letters,  however,  occupied  a  good  part  of  his 
time, -and  he  was  membqjr  of  the  academy  of  the  G^lati  at 
Bologna.  He  was  the  author  of  several  works  in  Spanish 
and  Italian :  among  the  latter  were,  i6  Discourses  upon 
the  first  book  of  Tacitus's  Annals,"  which  he  composed  at 
the  age  of  twenty-three,  and  dedicated  to  Ferdinand  II. 

1  Notice  historique  par  M.  le  Chevalier  Delambre,  read  at  the  Institute  of 
France,  Jan.  3,  1814  ',  and  obligingly  communicated  by  Dr.  Kelly  of  Fiusbury- 
Square.  2  Dupiu.— -Moreri. 



*  &r*~ 

M  A  N  A  R  A.  M\ 

as  presents  to  his  friends ;  but  in  poetry  be  reached  the 
highest  degree  of  merit,  and  seemed  to  have  well  availed 
himself  of  those  favourable  circumstances  which  the  spirit 
of  the  age  had  introduced.  The  abb£  Frugoni  was  then 
ene  of  the  most  conspicuous  leaders  of  the  new  poetical 
band ;  and  having  fixed  his  residence  at  Parma,  he  natu- 
rally became,  in  that  small  metropolis,  the  head  of  a  school, 
in  which,  by  exploding  the' frequent  antitheses,  the  infla- 
tion of  style,  the  wantonness  of  conceits,  and  the  gigantic 
strains  of  imagination,  he  introduced  an  easy,  regular, 
descriptive,  vsentimental,  and  elegant  poesy,  and  what  was 
more  remarkable,  gave  to  blank  verse  a  strength  and  har- 
mony till  then  unknown.  Mr.  Manara,  although  a  pro- 
fessed admirer  of  Frugoni  and  his  disciples,  did  not  choose 
to  be  of  their  number  as  far  as  regarded  their  enthusiasm, 
imagery,  rapidity  of  thoughts,  and  luxury  of  versification. 
He  was  conscious  that  his  own  poetical  fire  was  like  his 
temper,  endowed  with  gentleness  and  sensibility ;  and  with 
this  spirit  wrote  those  elegant  eclogues,  which  soon  proved 
rivals  to  the  pastoral  songs  of  the  celebrated  Pompei ;  and 
in  the  opinion  of  the  best  judges,  united  the  flowing  style 
of  Virgil  with  the  graces  of  Anacrfcon.  His  sonnets,  too, 
though  not  numerous,  might  be  put  in  competition  with 
those  of  Petrarch. 

During  his  retreat  also,  he  wrote  his  very  excellent  trans- 
lation of  the  Bucolics  of  Virgil,  which  was  thought  to  dis- 
play taste,  elocution,  harmony,  and  such  an  happy  sub- 
stitution of  the  Italian  for  the  Latin  graces,  as  to  give  it 
the  double  appearance  of  a  faithful  translation  and  an  ori- 
ginal composition.  It  rapidly  went  through  several  editions, 
and  raised  the  name  of  the  author  to  the  firtt  rank  among 
his  contemporaries  in  the  art  of  poetry. 

In  1749,  and  the  thirty- fifth  year  of  his  age,  Manara 
was  called  to  town  by  his  sovereign,  and  the  place  to  which 
he  was  appointed,  the  first  he  bad  filled  at  court,  was  ad- 
mirably adapted  to  his  temper.  No  sooner  had  the  high- 
Spirited  Infant  Don  Philip  become  the  pacific  possessor  of 
that  principality,  than  he  thought  of  reviving  the  languid 
progress  of  scientific  and  literary  pursuits  ;  and  instituted 
that  famous  academy  of  arts,  which,,  except  those  of  Rome 
and  Bologna,  was  soofi  accounted  the  best  in  Italy.  He 
bitaself  was  appointed  academician  and  counsellor,  invested 
with  a  vote;  and  he  greatly  distinguished  himself,  as  might 
be  expected,  in  the  sessions  -of  the  society,  and  in  the 

S29  M  A  N  A  R  A« 

annual  speeches  on  the  solemn  distribution  of  its  premiums 
The  first  minister  of  state,  marquis  of  Felin,  a  man  of 
great  discernment  and  sagacity,  was  not  long  in  perceiving 
that  Manara,  by  his  uncommon  abilities,  was  entitled  to 
higher  honours  and  employments  at  court.  Accordingly, 
in  1760  be  appointed  him  a  chamberlain  of  the  royal  house, 
and  soon  after,  superintendant  of  the  newly-projected  high 
road,  through  that  lofty  branch  of  the  Apennines  which 
connects  the  Ligurian  with  the  Parmesan  dominions ;  and 
from  that  time  be  was  gradually  promoted  to  more  con- 
spicuous and  important  places.  He  succeeded  the  abb6 
de  Condillac  in  the  education  of  the  young  Infant  (bis  late 
royal  highness)  Ferdinand,  and  acquitted  himself  of  this 
task  to  the  complete  satisfaction  of  his  friends  and  coun- 
trymen. The  amiable  prince  himself  was  so  duly  sensible 
of  his  services  in  this  respect  that  he  rewarded  him  with 
ah  extraordinary  pension  for  life,  and  with  the  eminent 
dignity  of  first  chamberlain  of  his  royal  family. 

From  1767  to  1781  his  farther  advancements  were  so 
rapid,  that, we  can  only  slightly  glance  at  them.  The  ce- 
lebrated Theatin  Paciaudi  being  directed  to  new  model  the 
university  of  Parma,  he  established  it  on  the  same  plan  as 
that  of  Turin  :  he  invested  a  committee  of  secular  clergy* 
men  with  the  power  of  directing  all  moral  and  religious 
concerns  in  it,  and  another  committee  of  lay  noblemen, 
under  the  name  of  magistracy  of  reform,  with  that  of  su- 
perintending all  its  temporal  and  economical  transactions. 
Manara  was  appointed  one  of  these  magistrates,  with  the 
additional  prerogative  of  being  the  exclusive  director  of 
that  branch  of  the  establishment  which  was  called  the 
royal  college  of  noblemen,  and  in  this  double  capacity  he 
answered  the  most  sanguine  expectations.  In  1771  he 
was  appointed  counsellor  of  state  to  his  royal  highness, 
and  in  1773  was  sent  ambassador  to  the  court  of  Turin,  for 
the  purpose  of  felicitating  his  late  Sardinian  majesty  on 
his  accession  to  the  crown. 

It  reflects  no  small  honour  on  him,  that  during  these 
numerous  occupations  in  the  court  and  in  the  state,  from 
1749  to  1773,  he  wrote  his  masterly  translation  of  the 
Georgics  of  his  favourite  Latin  poet.  The  great  success 
of  bis  former  essays  on  the  Bucolics,  inspired  him  with  the 
design  of  some  farther  similar  exertions  of  his  powers ;  but 
he  had  no  sooner  written  the  first  two  books,  than  he  was 
trusted  with  a  charge  utterly  incompatible  with  his  literary 

M  A  N  A  R  A.  MS 

avocations,  as  it  deprived  him  of  any  tolerable  degree  of 
leisure;  being  in  1779  appointed  tutor  to  the  infant  here- 
ditary prince,  don  Luigi,  the  late  king  of  Etruria.  He 
was  not,  however,  suffered  to  remain  long  in  this  employ* 
meat,  being  before  the  expiration  of  three  years,  appointed 
minister  of  state,  to  which  he  acceded  with  great  reluc- 
tance, and  at  length  bis  age  being  too  much  advanced  to 
suffer  him  to  continue,  he  solicited,  and  obtained  from  bis 
sovereign  permission  to  retire.  His  retreat  was  attended 
by  the  warmest  mark  of  good- will  from  the  court,  by  all 
the  honours  suitable  to  his  station,  and  by  an  additional 

Soon  after  his  retreat  from  the  ministry, v  though  he  had 
already  reached  the  sixty-ninth  year  of  his  age,  he  thought 
of  bestowing  his  now  uninterrupted  leisure  on  the  transla- 
tion  of  the  other  two  books  of  the  Georgics,  a  performance 
for  which,  owing  to  his  past  occupations,  no  hopes  perhaps 
were  entertained  by  the  public.  This  task  he  actually 
performed  with  so  much  care,  attention,  and  zeal,  that 
these  last  two  books  were  decidedly  better  translated  than 
the  two  former ;  a  truth  of  which  the  respectable  writer 
himself  was  so  convinced,  that  he  carefully,  revised,  and 
almost  totally  altered  the  preceding  part  of  his  work.  This 
uncommon  zeal,  however,  was  attended  by  a  fatal  conse- 
quence; for  being  determined  to  copy,  as  he  did,  the 
whole  manuscript  with  his  own  hand,  he  fell  into  a  giddi- 
ness which  prevented  him  from  any  literary  labour  during 
the  last  days  of  his  life,  and  scarcely  left  him  the  power  of 
perusing  historical  books  and  periodical  works  for  the  sake 
.of  amusement. 

Although  Manara  never  wrote  any  large  work  in  prose, 
his  letters  to  his  friends  and  relatives  were  considered  as  a 
model  of  epistolary  style.  He  must  have  kept  up  indeed 
a  large  correspondence  with  his  poetical  contemporaries  of 
Italy,  as  it  was  his  custom  to  shew  his  compositions  previous 
to  publication,  to  the  most  intelligent  persons,  and  to 
listen  with  docility  to  their  respective  opinions.  Canonici, 
Mazza,  Pagnini,  and  many  others  were  of  the  number. 
To  the  last  mentioned  poet,  already  celebrated  as  the 
translator  of  Theocritus  and  Anacreon,  he  was  indebted 
for  some  valuable  hints  when  about  to  publish  his  transla- 
tion of  the  Georgics.  The  marquis  Prosper  Manara  died 
Oct.  13,  1800.  All  his  poetical  works,  with  his  life  by 
Mr.  Cerati,  (from  which  the  preceding  account  is  abridged) 

12*  MANBY. 

were  published  in  the  following  year*  1801,  in  4  elegant 
little  volumes,  by  the  celebrated  Bodoni.1 
.  MANBY  (Peter),  a  Roman  catholic  writer,  was  the  son 
of  lieutenant-colonel  Manby,  and  after  being  educated  at 
the  university  of  Dublin,  became  chaplain  to  Dr.  Michael 
Boyle,  archbishop  of  Dublin,  and  at  length  dean  of  Derry. 
During  the  reign  of  James  II.  in  1686,  being  disappointed 
of  a  bishopric,  which  he  had  hopes  of  obtaining  by  means 
of  the  lord  primate,  he  attempted  to  rise  by  popish  interest, 
and  publicly  embraced  that  religion,  in  vindication  of 
which  he  wrote  several  books.  But  the  revolution  pre- 
venting the  accomplishment  of  his  wishes,  he  removed  to 
France,  and  thence  to  England,  and  died  at  London  in 
1697.  He  wrote  "  A  Letter  to  a  Nonconformist  minister," 
Lond.  1677,  4to.  2.  "  A  brief  and  practical  Discourse  on 
Abstinence  in  Lent,"  Dublin,  1682,  4to.  3.  "  Of  Con- 
fession to  a  lawful  Priest/'  &c.  Lond.  1686,  4to.  4.  "The 
Considerations  which  obliged  Peter  Manby,  Dean  of  Derry, 
to  embrace  the  Catholic  religion.  Dedicated  to  the  Lord 
Primate  of  Ireland,"  Dublin,  1687.  This  was  ably  an- 
swered by  Mr.  William  King,  afterwards  archbishop  of 
Dublin,  and  by.  Dr.  Clagett  in  England.  Manby  replied 
to  Mr.  King,  in  "A  reformed  Catechism  in  two  Dialogues," 
the  first  only  of  which  appeared  in  1687,  and  was  answered 
Jby  King.* 

MANCINELLI  (Antonio),  an  Italian  grammarian,  poet, 
and  orator,  was  born  atVelitri,  in  1452.  He  taught  clas- 
sical learning  in  different  parts  of  Italy  with  considerable 
( success.  He  published  in  1492  a  poem  ^entitled  "  Silva 
vitae  suae,"  or  an  account  of  his  own  life,  which  Meusche- 
nius  reprinted,  in  1735,  in  the  first  volume  of  his  collection, 
entitled  "  Vitae  summorum  dignitate  et  eruditione  viro- 
rum."  He  was  distinguished  also  by  some  other  poems, 
as  "de  Floribus,  de  Figuris,  de  Poetica  virtute."  2.  "  Epi- 
grams," published  at  Venice  in  1 500,  in  4to.  3.  Notes  upon 
some  of  the  classic  authors.  He  died  some  time  after 
1506  ;  but  the  story  of  his  having  his  hands  cut  off,  and 
his  tongue  cut  out,  by  order  of  the  pope  Alexander  VI. 
for  having  made -an  insolent  speech  to  him,  and  which  was 
related  by  Flaccius  Illyricus,  appears  to  be  without  foun- 
dation. 3 

1  Baldwin's  Literary  Journal,  vol.  II.  *  Harris's, edition  of  Ware. 

3  Moreri.— Gen.  Diet.— Niceron,  vol.  XXXVLH. 


MANDEVILE  (Sir  John),  a  celebrated  English  tra* 
veller,  was  born  at  St.  A 1  ban's,  in  the  beginning  of  the 
fourteenth  century,  of  a  family  whose  ancestor  is  said  to 
have  come  into  England  with  William  the  Conqueror* 
Leland,  who  calls  this  knight  Magdovillanusy  affirms  that 
he  was  a  proficient  in  theology,  natural  philosophy,  and 
physic,  before  he  left  England,  in  1322,  to  visit  foreign 
countries.  He  returned,  after  having  been  long  reputed 
dead,  at  the  end  of  thirty-four  years,  when  very  few 
people  knew  him ;  and  went  afterwards  to  Liege,  where 
it  seems  he  passed  under  the  name  of  Joannes  de  Barbant, 
and  where  he  died,  according  to  Vossius,  who  has  recorded 
the  inscription  on  his  tomb,  Nov.  17,  1372.  His  design 
seems  to  have  been  to  commit  to  writing  whatever  he  had 
read,  or  heard,  Or  knew,  concerning  the  places  which  he  saw, 
or  has  mentioned  in  his  book.  Agreeably  to  this  plan,  he 
has  described  monsters  from  Pliny,  copied  miracles  from  le- 
gends, and  related,  without  quotation,  stories  from  authors 
who  are  now  ranked  among  writers  of  romances  and  apo- 
cryphal history,  so  that  many  or  most  of  the  falsehoods  in 
his  work  properly  belong  to  antecedent  relators,  but  who 
were  certainly  considered  as  creditable  authors  at  the  time 
he  wrote. 

Sir  John  Mandevile  visited  Tartary  about  half  a  century 
after  Marco  Polo,  who  was  there  in  1272.  In  this  interval 
a  true  or  fabulous  account  of  that  country,  collected  by  a 
cordelier,  one  Oderic  D'Udin,  who  set  out  in  1318,  and 
returned  in  1330,  was  published  in  Italian,  by  Guillaume 
de  Salanga,  in  the  second  volume  of  Ramusio,  and  in 
Latin  and  English  by  Hakluyt.  It  is  suspected  that  sir 
John  made  too  much  use  of  this  traveller's  papers ;  and  it 
is  certain  that  the  compilers  of  the  "  Histoire  Generate 
des  Voyages"  did  not  think  our  English  knight's  book  so 
original,  or  so  worthy  of  credit,  as  to  give  any  account  of 
it  in  their  excellent  collection.  Sir  John  indeed  honestly 
acknowledges  that  his  book  was  made  partly  of  hearsay, 
and  partly  of  his  own  knowledge ;  and  he  prefaces  his  most 
improbable  relations  with  some  such  words  as  these,  thei 
seyne,  or  men  seyn9  but  I  have  not  sene  it.  His  book,  how- 
ever, was  submitted  to  the  examination  of  the  pope's 
council,  and  it  was  published  after  that  examination,  with 
the  approbation  of  the  pope,  as  Leland  thinks,  of  Urban  V, 
Leland  also  affirms  that  sir  John  Mandevile  had  the  repu- 
tation of  being  a  conscientious  man,    and  that  he  had 

Vol.  XXI.  Q 

526  MAK  BE  V  ILE. 

religiously  declined  an  honourable  alliance  to  the  Sol  dan  of 
Egypt,  whose  daughter  he  might  have  espoused,  if  he 
would  have  abjured  Christianity,  It  is  likewise  very  cer* 
tain  that  many  things  in  his  book,  which  were  looked  upon 
ds  fabulous  for  a  long  time,  have  been  since  verified  be-* 
yond  all  doubt.  We  give  up  his  m$n  of  6 fry  feet  high, 
but  his  hens  that  bore  wool  are  at  this  day  very  well  known, 
under  the  name  of  Japan  and  silky  fowls,  &c.  Upon  the 
whole,  there  does  not  appear  to  be  any  very  good  reason 
why  sir  John  Mandevile  should  not  be  believed  in  any 
thing  that  he  relates  on  his  own  observation.  He  was*  as 
may  be  easily  credited,  an  extraordinary  linguist,  and 
wrote  his  book  in  Latin,  from  which  he  translated  it  into 
French,  and  from  French  into  English,  and  into  Italian ; 
and  Vossius  says  that  he  knows  it  to  be  in  Belgic  and  Ger- 
man. The  English  edition  has  the  title  of  "  The  Voiyage 
and  Travaile  of  Sir  John  Maundevile,  knight,  which  treateth 
4>f  the.  way  to  Hierusalem,  and  marvayles  of-Iude,"  &c 
Lond.  1569, 4to,  reprinted  in  1684,  same  form,  and  again  iu 
1727,  8vo«  AH  these  are  in  the  British  Museum,  together 
with,  copies  of  the  French,  Spanish,  Latin,  and  Italian. 
Of  the  last  there  are  two  editions,  printed  at  Venice  in 
1537  and  1567,  both  in  8vo.  The  original  English  MS, 
is  in  the  Cotton  library.  The  English  editions  are  the 
most  valuable  to  us,  as  written  in  the  very  language  used 
by  our  countrymen  three  hqndred  years  ago,  at  a  time 
when  the  orthography  of  the  English  language  was  so  little 
fixed,  that  it  seems  to  have  been  the  fashionable  affecta- 
tion of  writers,  to  shew  their  wit  and  scholarship  by  spelling 
the  same  words  in  the  greatest  variety  of  ways  imaginable. 
The  reader  will  be  amused  by  Addison's  pretended  disco- 
very of  sir  John  Mandevile's  MSS.  and  the  pleasant  fiction 

vof"  the  freezing  and  thawing  of  several  short  speeches 
which  sir  John  made  in  the  territories  of  Nova.  Zembla." 
This  occurs  in  the  Tatler,  No.  254,  the  note  upon  which 

,  has  principally  furnished  us  with  the  above  account1 

MANDEVILLE  (Bernard  de),  an  author  of  temporary 

.  celebrity  ia:  the  last  century  for  his  writings,  was  born 
about  1670,  in  Holland,  where  be  studied  physic,  and 
took  the  degree  of  doctor  in  that  faculty.     He  .afterwards 

.  came  over  into .  England,   and  wrote  several  books,  not 

i  Tatter,  with  Annotations,  vol.  IV.  edit,  1806.— Vossius  de  Hilt,  I*U«- 
.  Leland.— Bale.— Tanner. 


Without  ingenuity,    but  some  of  them  were  justly  con- 
sidered as  likely  to  produce  a  bad  effect  upon  society.     In 
1709  he  published  his  "  Virgin  Unmasked,  or  A  dialogue 
.  between  an  old  maiden  aunt  and  her  niece,  upon  love, 
marriage,1'  &c.  a  piece  not  very  likely  to  increase  virtue 
and  innocence  among  his  female  readers.     In  1711  came 
out  his  "  Treatise  of  the  hypocondriac  and  hysteric  pas- 
sions, vulgarly  called  the  hyppo  in  men,  and  the  vapours 
in  women."     This  work,  which  is  divided  into  three  dia- 
logues, may  be  read  with  amusement  at  least,  and  contains 
some  shrewd  remarks  on-  the  art  of  physic  and  the  modern 
practice  of  physicians  and   apothecaries,  among  whom  he 
probably  did  not  enjoy  much  reputation.     In  17 14  he  pub- 
lished a  poem  entitled  "  The  grumbling  hive,  or  knaves 
turned  honest;"  on  which  he  afterwards  wrote  remarks, 
and  enlarged  the  whole  into  bis  celebrated  publication, 
which  was  printed  at  London  in  1723,  under  the  title  of 
"  The  Fable  of  the  Bees,  or  private  vices  made  public  be- 
nefits ;  with  an  Essay  on  charity  and  charity-schools,  and 
a  search  into  the  nature  of  society.91     In  the  preface  to 
this  book  he  observes,  that  since  the  first  publication  of 
his  poem  he  had  met  with  several,  who,  either  wilfully  or 
ignorantly  mistaking  the  design,  affirmed  that  the  scope  of 
it  was  a  satire  upon  virtue  and  morality,  and  the  whole 
written  for  the  encouragement  of  vice.     This  made  him 
resolve,  whenever  it  should  be  reprinted,    some  way.  or 
other  to  inform  the  reader  of  the  real  intent  with,  which 
that  little  poem  was  written.     In  this,  however,  be  was  so 
unfortunate,*  that  the  book  was  presented  by  the  grand 
jury  of  Middlesex  in  July  the  same  year,  and  severely 
animadverted  upon  in  "  A  Letter  to  the  Right  Honourable 
Lord  C."  printed  in  the  London  Journal  of  July  the  27th, 
1723.     The  author  wrote  a  vindication  of  his  book  from 
the  imputations  cast  upon  it  in  that  Letter,  and  in  the  pre- 
sentment of  the  fgrand  jury,   which  he  published  in  the 
"  London  Journal"  of  August  the  10th,  1723.     It  was  at- 
tacked, however,  by  various  writers,  to  whom  Mandeville 
made  no  reply  until  1728,  when  he  published,  in  another 
8vo  volume,  a  second  part  of  "  The  Fable  of  the  Bees,"  in 
order  to  illustrate  the  scheme  and  design  of  the  first.     In 
1720,  he  published  "  Free  thoughts  on  Religion,"  built 
upon  the  system  called  rational;  an  arrogant  epithet,  which 
geperaUy  excludes  from. the  province  of  reason  a  belief 
in  the  truths  of  revelation.     In  1732  he'  published  "  An 

q   2 


inquiry  into  the  origin  of  honour,  and  usefulness  of 
Christianity  in  war;"  a  work  which  abounds  in  paradoxi- 
cal ppinions. 

Mandeville  died  Jan.  21,  1733,  in  his  sixty-third  year. 
He  is  said  to  have  been  patronized  by  the  first  earl  of  Mac- 
clesfield, at  whose  table  he  was  a  frequent  guest,  and  had 
an  unlimited  licence  to  indulge  his  wit  as  w^Jil  as  his  appetite. 
He  lived  in  obscure  lodgings,  in  London,  and  never  had 
much  practice  as  a  physician.  Besides  the  writings  already 
enumerated,  which  came  spontaneously  from  his  pen,  we  are 
told  by  sir  John  Hawkins  that  he  sometimes  employed  his 
talents  for  hire,  and  in  particular  wrote  letters  in  the 
"  London  Journal"  in  favour  of  spirituous  liquors,  for  which 
he  was  paid. by  the  distillers.  Sir  John  adds,  that "  he  was 
said  to  be  coarse  and  overbearing  in  his  manners,  where 
he  durst  be  so,  yet  a  great  flatterer  of  some  vulgar  Dutch 
merchants,  who  allowed  him  a  pension."  The  principles 
indeed,  inculcated  in  some  of  his  works,  although  there 
are  many  ingenious  and  many  just  remarks  in  them,  forbid 
us  to  entertain  any  very  high  opinion  of  his  morals ;  and 
among  all  his  faults,  we  do  not  bear  that  he  ever  acted  the 
hypocrite,  or  was  ashamed  of  what  he  had  written. 

The  "  Fable  of  the  Bees,"  as  we  have  observed,  was 
attacked  by  Several  writers  ;  particularly  by  Dr.  Fiddes,  in 
the  preface  to  his  "  General  treatise  of  morality  formed 
upon  the  principles  of  natural  religion  only,"  printed  in 
1724 ;  by  Mr.  John  Dennis,  in  a  piece  entitled  «"  Vice 
and  luxury  public  mischiefs,"  in  1724;  by  Mr.  William 
Law,  in  a  book  entitled  "  Remarks  upon  the  Fable  of  the 
Bees,"  in  1724;  by  Mr.  Bluet,  in  his  "  Enquiry,  whether 
the  general  practice  of  virtue  tends  to  the  wealth  or  po- 
verty, benefit  or  disadvantage,  of  a  people  ?  In  which  the 
pleas  offered  by  the  author  of  The  Fable  of  the  Bees,  for 
the  usefulness  of  vice  and  roguery,  are  considered  ;  with 
some  thoughts  concerning  a  toleration  of  public  stews,"  in 
1725;  by  Mr.  Hutcheson,  author  of  the  "  Inquiry  into 
the  original  of  our  ideas  of  beauty  and  virtue,  in  several 
papers  published  at  Dublin,  and  reprinted  in  the  first  vo- 
lume of  Hibernicus's  Letters ;"  and  lastly,  by  Mr.  Archi- 
bald Campbell,  in  his  "  Apdntoyto,"  fif8t  published  by  Alex- 
ander Innis,  D.  D.  in  his  own  name,  but  claimed  afterwards 
by  the  true  author.  Mandeville's  notions  were  likewii 
animadverted  upon  by  Berkeley,  bishop  of  Cloy ne  in  ~ 


land,  in  his  "  Alciphron,  or  the  Minute  Philosopher/9 
printed  in  1732;  in  answer  to  which  Mandeville  published , 
the  same  year,  "  A  Letter  to  Dion,  occasioned  by  his 
book  called  Alciphron.9'  In  this  year  also  a  pamphlet  ap- 
peared, entitled  "  Some  remarks  on  the  Minute  Philoso- 
pher, in  a  letter  from  a  country  clergyman  to  his  friend  in 
London ;"  the  anopymous  author  of  which,  supposed  to 
have  been  John  lord  Harvey,  interferes  in  the  controversy 
betweeu  Mandeville  and  Berkeley  with  an  apparent  im- 
partiality. It  would  be  very  unnecessary  now,  however, 
to  enter  minutely  into  tue  merits  of  a  work  no  longer  read. 
The  prevailing  error  in  the  "  Fable  of  the  Bees"  appears 
to  us  to  be,  that  the  author  did  not  sufficiently  distinguish 
between  what  existed,  and  what  ought  to  be ;  that  while 
he  could  incontestibly  prove  "  private  vices"  to  be  in  some 
degree  "  public  benefits,"  that  is,  useful  to  the  grandeur 
and  financial  prosperity  of  a  state,  he  did  not  distinguish 
between  vices  properly  so  called,  and  superfluities,  or  ar- 
ticles of  luxury,  which  are  the  accompaniments,  and  the 
useful  accompaniments  too,  of  certain  ranks  of  life.  As 
to  his  tracing  good  actions  to  bad  motives,  and  the  general 
disposition  he  has  to  dwell  on  the  unfavourable  side  of 
appearances  in  human  nature  and  conduct,  no  apology  can 
be  offered,  and  none  can  be  wanted  for  the  contempt  into 
which  his  writings  have  fallen.1 

MANES,  MANI,  or  MANICHMEUS,  the  founder  of  a 
remarkable  sect  of  heretics,  flourished  towards  the  conclu- 
sion of  the  third  century,  and  began  about  the  year  267 
to  propagate  bis  doctrines,  which  he  bad  taken  from  the 
books  of  one  Scythianus.  Scythianus  was  an  Arabian, 
educated  upon  the  borders  of  Palestine,  and  extremely 
well  skilled  in  all  the  learning  of  the  Greeks.  Afterwards 
he  went  to  Alexandria,  where  he  studied  philosophy,  and 
acquainted  himself  also  with  the  leaf  ning  of  the  Egyptians. 
Here  he  espoused  the  opinion  of  Empedocles,  concerning 
two  co-eternal  principles,  one  good  and  the  other  bad ; 
the  former  of  which  he  called  God  and  light,  the  latter 
matter  and  darkness ;  to  which  he  joined  many  dogmas  of 
the  Pythagorean  school.  These  he  formed  into  a  system, 
comprised  in  four  books ;  one  of  which  was  called  "  Evan- 
gelium,"  another  "  Capita,"  a  third  "  Mysteria,"  and  a, 

*  Gen.  Diet.—  Life  by  Dr.  Birth  —  Biog.  Brit.  Supplement,  vol.  VII.— Haw-- 
kias's  Life  of  Johnson.— Lounger's  Common-place  Book,  vol.  II. 

230  MANES. 

fourth   "  Thesauri."     After  this  he  went  to  Jerusaletrt, 
where  he  disputed  with  the  Jews,  and  taught  openly  his 
opinions.     Upon  the  death  of  Scythianus,  his  books  and 
effects  devolved  by  will  to  Terebinthus  his  disciple,  who, 
however,  soon   quitted  Palestine,    and  fled   into   Persia, 
where,  to  avoid  the  persecutions  to  which  his  doctrines 
exposed  him,  he  took  up   his  abode  with  a  certain  rich 
widow.     Here  he  died,  by  a  sudden  and  violent  death,  as 
it  is  commonly  related.     When,  according  to  his  usual 
way,  he  had  ascended  to  the  top  of  the  house,  in  order  to 
invoke  the  demons  of  the  air,  which  custom  the  Manichees 
afterwards  practised  in  their  ceremonies,  he  was  in  a  mo- 
ment struck  with  a  blow  from  heaven,  which  threw  him 
headlong  down  and  fractured  his  skull.     St.  Epiphanius 
says,  that  Scythianus  had  also  met  with  the  same  fate  be* 
fore  him.     Here,  however,  it  was  that  Manes  became  ac« 
quain ted  with  the  writings  of  Scythianus ;  for,  having  a  hand- 
some person  and  a  ready  wit,  this  widow,  who  had  bought 
him,  adopted  him  for  her  son,  and  took  care  to  have  him 
instructed  by  the  magi  in  the  discipline  and  philosophy  of 
the  Persians,  in  which  he  made  so  considerable  a  progress 
that  he  acquired  the  reputation  of  a  very  subtile  and  learned 
philosopher.     When  this  lady  died,  the  writings  of  Tere-, 
binthus,  to  whom  she  had  been  heir,  or  rather  of  Scythianus, 
from  whom  Terebinthus  had  received  them,  fell  of  CQurse 
into  the  hands  of  Manes. 

Manes  now  began  to  think  of  founding  his  system.  He 
made  what  use  he  could  of  the  writings  of  Scythianus  ;  he 
selected  from  the  heathen  philosophy  whatever  was  for  his 
purpose,  and  he  wrought  it  all  up  together  with  some  in- 
stitutes of  Christianity  ;  which  made  Socrates  call  his  he- 
resy a  motley  mixture  of  Christianity  and  Paganism.  Al- 
though Manes  wrote  a  great  many  pieces  himself,  we  have 
nothing  remaining,  except  a  few  fragments  preserved  in 
the  writings  of  Epiphanius.  Manes  became  famous  all 
over  Persia,  engaged  the  attention  of  the  court,  and  as  he 
pretended  to  the  gift  of  working  miracles,  he  was  called 
by  king  Sapor  to  cure  his  son,  who  was  dangerously  ill, 
This  he  undertook  at  the  hazard  of  his  life,  and  the  under- 
taking in  the  end  proved  fatal  to  him.  This  bold  impostor 
was  no  sooner  called  than  he  dismissed  all  the  physicians 
who  were  about  the  young  prince;  and  promised  the  king 
that  he  would  recover  him  presently  by  the  help  of  a  fety 
medicines,  accompanied  with  his  prayers :  but  the  chiU 

MANES.  231 : 

4ying  in  his  arms,  the  king,  enraged  to  .the  last  degree,  -. 
caused  him  to  be  thrown  into  prison  ;  whence  by  the  force  z 
of  bribes  he  made  his  escape,  and  fled  into  Mesopotamia.  - 
There  he  was  taken  again  by  persons  sent  in  quest  of  him,  ) 
and  carried  to  Sapor,  who  caused  him  to  be  flead  alive,  ^ 
and  after  that  his  body  to  be  given  to  the  dogs,  and  bis  * 
skin  to  be  stuffed  with  chaff,  and  hung  before  the  city 
gates,  where,  Epiphanius  tells  us,  it  was  remaining  torf 
his  time.  His  death  is  supposed  to  have  happened  about 4 
the  year  2  7  8.  „ 

Manicheism,  as  we  have  seen,  is  a  great  deal  older  than.; 
Manes.  The  Gnostics,  the  Cordonians,  the  Marcionites,  f 
and  several  other  sectaries,  who  introduced  this  doctrine  > 
into  Christianity  before  Manes  occasioned  any  contest: f 
about  it,  were  by  no  means  its  inventors,  but  found  it  iris 
the  books  of  the  heathen  philosophers.  In  truth,  th$i 
Manicheau  doctrine  was  a  system  of  philosophy  rather  thatvf 
of  religion.  They  made  use  of  amulets,  in  imitation  <rft 
the  Basilidians ;  and  are  said  to  have  made  profession  q£t 
astronomy^and  astrology.  They  denied  that  Jesus  Christy 
who  was  only  God,  assumed  a  true  human  body,  and  mairvr^ 
tained  it  was  only  imaginary ;  and,  therefore,  they  denied!) 
his  incarnation,  death,  &c.  They  pretended  that  the  law-> 
of  Moses  did  not  come  from  God,  or  the  good  principle,^ 
but  from  the  evil  one ;  and  that  for  this  reason  it  was  abro^, 
gated,  They  rejected  almost  all  the  sacred  books,  if*, 
which  Christians  look  for  the  sublime  truths  of  their  hojjh 
religion.  They  affirmed  that  the  Old  Testament  was  not* 
the  work  of  God,  but  of  the  prince  of  darkness,  who  was* 
substituted  by  the  Jews  in  the  place  of  the. true  God.  ThpyT 
abstained  entirely  from  eating  the  flesh  of  any  anima)j< 
following  herein  the  doctrine  of  the  ancient  Pythagoreans,^ 
they  also  condemned  marriage.  The  rest  of  their  error*; 
may  be  seen  in  St.  Epiphanius  and  St.  Augustin;  which* 
last,  having  been  of  their  sect,  may  be  presumed,  to  h^ye; 
been  thoroughly  acquainted  with  them. 

Though  the  Manichees  professed  to  receive  the  books, of ^ 
the  New  Testament,  yet,  in  effect,  they  only  took  so  mqchj 
of  them  as  suited  with  their  own  opinions.     They  first, 
formed  to  themselves  a  certain  idea  or  scheme  of  Chris- 
t&ruty*  and  to  this  adjusted  the  writings  of  the  apostles  y 
pretending  that  whatever  was  inconsistent  with  this,  badt 
been  foisted  into  the  New  Testament  by  later  writers,  who 
were  half  Jews.     On  the  other  hand,  they  made  fables  and 

23*  MANES. 

apocryphal  bobks  pass  for  apostolical  writings ;  and  even 
are  Suspected  to  have  forged  several  others,  the  better  to 
maintain  their  errors.  St.  Epiphanius  gives  a  catalogue 
of  several  pieces  published  by  Manes,  and  adds  extracts  out 
of  some  of  them.  These  are  the  Mysteries,  Chapters,  Gos- 
pel, and  Treasury. 

The  rule  of  life  andtnanners  which  Manes  prescribed  to 
his  followers,  was  most  extravagantly  rigorous  and  severe. 
However,  he  divided  his  disciples  into  two  classes;  one  of 
which  comprehended  the  perfect  Christians,  under  the 
name  of  the  elect ;  and  the  other,  the  imperfect  and  feeble, 
under  the  title  of  auditors  or  hearers.  The  elect-  were 
obliged  to  a  rigorous  and  entire  abstinence  from  flesh,  eggs, 
milk,  fish,  wine,  all  intoxicating  drink,  wedlock,  and  all 
amorous  gratifications  ;  and  to  live  in  a  state  of  the  severest 
penury,  nourishing  their  emaciated  bodies  with  bread, 
herbs,  pulse,  and  melons,  and  depriving  themselves  of  &1I 
the  comforts  that  arise  from  the  moderate  indulgence  of 
natural  passions,  and  also  from  a  variety  of  innocent  and 
agreeable  pursuits.  The  auditors  were  allowed  to  possess 
-Rouses,  lands,  and  wealth,  to  feed  on  flesh,  to  enter  into 
the  bonds  of  conjugal  tenderness ;  but  this  liberty  was 
granted  thdm  with  many  limitations,  and  under  the  strictest 
conditions  of  moderation  and  temperance.  The  general 
assembly  of  the  Manicheans  was  headed  by  a  president, 
who  represented  Jesus  Christ.  There  was  joined  to  him 
twelve  rulers  or  masters,  who  were  designed  to  represent 
the  twelve  apostles,  and  these  were  followed  by  seventy- 
two  bishops,  the  images  of  the  seventy-two  disciples  of  our 
Lord.  These  bishops  had  presbyters  or  deacons  under 
them,  and  all  the  members  of  these  religious  orders  were 
chosen  out  of  the  class  of  the  elect.  Their  worship 
was  simple  and  plain  ;  and  consisted  of  prayers,  reading 
the  scriptures,  and  hearing  public  discourses,  at  which 
both  the  auditors  and  elect  were  allowed  to  be  present. 
They  also  observed  the  Christian  appointments  of  baptism 
of  infants  and  the  eucharist,  communicating  frequently  in 
both  kinds.  They  kept  the  Lord's  day,  observing  it  as  a 
fast ;  and  they  likewise  kept  Easter  and  Pentecost.  \ 

MANETHOS  was  an  ancient  Egyptian  historian,  who 
pretends  to  take  all  his  accounts  from  the  sacred  inscrip* 
tions  on  the  pillars  of  Hermes  Trismegistus,  to  whom  the 

i  Geo.  Diet.— Cave. — D'Herbelot^-Ltidner. — Motheim. 


Egyptians  ascribed  tbe  6rst  invention  of  their  learning,  and 
all  excellent  arts,  and  from  whom  they  derived  their  his- 
tory. Manethos,  as  Eusebius  tells  us,  translated  the  whole 
Egyptian  history  into  Greek,  beginning  from  their  gods, 
and  continuing  his  history  down  to  near  the  time  of  Darius 
Codomannus,  whom  Alexander  conquered ;  for  in  Euse* 
bius's  "  Chronica,'9  mention  is  made  of  Manethos' s  history, 
ending  in  the  sixteenth  year  of  Artaxerxe9  Ochus,  which, 
says  Vossius,  was  in  the  second  year  of  the  third  olympiad* 
Manethos,  called  from  his  country  Sebennyta,  was  high-* 
priest  of  Heliopolis  in  tbe  time  of  Ptolemy  Philadelphus, 
at  whose  request  he  wrote  his  history,  and  digested  it  into 
three  tomes ;  the  first  containing  the  eleven  dynasties  of 
tbe  >*ods  and  heroes,  the  second  eight  dynasties,  tbe  third 
twelve,  and  altogether,  aecording  to  his  fabulous  compu- 
tation, the  sum  of  .53,535  years.  These  dynasties  are  yet 
preserved,  being  first  epitomized  by  Julius  African  us,  from 
him  transcribed  by  Eusebius,  and  inserted  iu  his  "  Chro- 
nica ;"  from  Eusebius  by  Georgius  Syncellus,  out  of  whom 
they  are  produced  by  Joseph  Scaliger,  and  may  be  seen 
both  in  his  Eusebius  and  his  "  Canones  Isagogici."  Ma* 
nethos,  as  appears  by  Eusebius,  vouches  this  as  the  priti* 
cipal  testimony  of  the  credibility  of  his  history,  that  he 
took  bis  relations  "  from  some  pillars  in  the  land  of  Seriad, 
on  which  they  were  inscribed  in  the  sacred  dialect  by  the 
first  Mercury  Thotb,  and  after  the  flood  were  translated  out 
of  the  sacred  dialect  into  the  Greek  tongue  in  hieroglyphic 
characters,  and  are  laid  up  in  books  among  the  reveries 
of  the  Egyptian  temples  by  Agathodemon,  the  second 
Mercury,  die  father  of  Tat"  "  Certainly,"  says  bishop 
Stillingfleet,  in  his  "  Origines  Sacra,"  "  this  fabulous  au- 
thor could  not  in  fewer  words  have  more  manifested  his 
own  impostures,  or  blasted  bis  own  credit,  than  he  hath 
4ene  in  these."  i 

MANETTI  (Giannozzo,  or  Janutibb),  a  very  learned 
scholar,  was  born  at  Florence,  June  5,  1396,  of  an  illus- 
trious family  that  had  fallen  into  decay.  After  a  course  of 
philosophical,  theological  and  mathematical  studies,  he 
became,  in  the  Greek  language,  the  pupil  of  Camaldoli, 
who  then  taught  that  lariguage  at  Florence,  and  not  of 
Chrysoloras,  as  Vossius,  and  Hody,  if  we  mistake  not, 
have  reported.     Manetti  then  lectured  on  philosophy  in 

*  Vossius  Hist.  Graec— StilliDgfleet't  Origines  Saorst ,  book  I.  o.  II.  §•  2.-« 
Moreri.— ' Saxii  Ooomast, 

M4  MA  N  E  T  T  I. 

that  city  to  a  numerous  auditory.  He  was  afterwards  em* 
ployed  by  the  state  in  various  negociations ;  and  became 
successively  governor  of  Pescia,  Pistoria,  and  Scarperia, 
and  commissary  of  the  army  along  with  Bernardetto  de 
Medicis.  He  filled  also  several  offices  in  the  government 
of  Florence,  and  rendered  his  own  country  many  im- 
portant services.  When  at  Rome  in  1452,  at  the  corona- 
tion of  the  emperor  Frederick,  pope  Nicholas  V.  bestowed 
on  him  the  honour  of  knighthood.  His  talents  and  services, 
however,  excited  the  envy  of  some  of  the  families  of  Flo- 
rence, and  even  the  favour  he  acquired  with  the  princes 
at  whose  courts  he  had  been  employed  as  ambassador,  was 
considered  as  a  crime  ;  and  a  heavy  fine  being  imposed  on 
him,  he  found  it  necessary  to  leave  his  country,  and  take 
refuge  in  Rotae,  where  pope  Nicholas  V.  made  him  one  of 
his  secretaries,  with  a  handsome  salary,  besides  the  per- 
quisites of  his  place.  He  remained  in  the  same  office 
under  the  succeeding  popes  Calixtus  HI.  and  Pius  II. 
which  last  made  him  librarian  of  the  Vatican.  Manetti  at 
length  left  Rome  to  reside  with  Alphonsus,  king  of  Naples, 
who  had  a  great  esteem  for  him,  and  gave  him  an  annuity 
4>f.  900  golden  crowns.  He  did  not,  however,  enjoy  this 
-situation  long,; dying  Oct.  26,  1459,  in  his  sixty- third  year. 
He  was  an  excellent  scholar  in  Latin,  Greek,  and  Hebrew, 
which  at  that  time  was  little  known  in  Italy,  and  employed 
twenty- two  years  on  those  languages.  He  kept  three 
domestics,  two  of  whom  were  Greeks,  and  the  third  a 
Syrian,  who  knew  Hebrew,  and  whom  he  ordered :  always 
to.  speak  to  him  in  their  respective  languages.  He  was  the 
.author  of  a  great  many  works,  most  of  which  remain  in 
.manuscript  in  the  Laurentian  Library.  Those  published 
were,  1.  "  De  dignitate  et  exceilentia  hominis,"  Basle, 
1532,  8vo.  2.  "  Vita  Petrarch®."  This  life  of  Petrarch 
is  inserted  in  Tomtiiasini's  "  Petrarcha  redivivus."  3w 
"  Oratio  ad  regem  Alphonsum  in  nuptiis  filii  sui."  This, 
which  was  spoken  in  1445,  was  printed  by  Marquard  Freher, 
in  1611,  4to,  along  with  three  other  orations,  addressed  to 
Alphonsus  on  the  peace,  to  the  emperor  Frederic  on  his 
coronation,  and  to  pope  Nicholas  V.  Other  ujorks  have 
been  attributed  to  him,  as  a  "  History  of  Pistoria,"  and 
the  lives  of  Dante,  Boccacio,  and  .Nicholas  V.;  but  we  find 
no  particular  account  of  them. ' 

>  Cfraufepie,— £Iiceron,  vol.  XXXVI.—Tiraboschv  > 

M  A  N  F  R  E  D  I.  235 

MANFREDI  (Eustachio),  a  celebrated  astronomer  and* 
mathematician,  was  born  at  Bologna  in  1674,  and  soon 
displayed  a  genius  above  his  age.  He  wrote  ingenious 
verses  while  he  was  but  a  child,  and  while  very  young 
formed  in  his  father's  house  an  academy  of  youth  of  his 
own  age,  which  in  time  became  the  Academy  of  Sciences, 
or  the  Institute,  there.  He  was  appointed  professor  of  ma- 
thematics at  Bologna  in  1693,  and  superintendant  of  the 
waters  there  in  1704.  The  same  year  he  was  placed  at  the 
head  of  the  college  of  Montaho,  founded  at  Bologna  for 
young  men  intended  for  the  church.  In  171 1  he  obtained 
the  office  of  astronomer  to  the  institute  of  Bologna.  He 
became  member  of  the  Academy  of  Sciences  of  Paris  in 
1726,  arid  of  the  Royal  Society  of  London  in  1729;  and 
died  on  the  15th  of  February  1739.  His  works  are: 
1.  "Ephemerides  Motuum  Coelestium  ab  anno  1715  ad 
annum  1750;"  4  vols.  4to.  The  first  volume  is  an  excel- 
lent introduction  to  astronomy ;  and  the  other  three  con- 
tain numerous  calculations.  His  two  sisters  were  greatly 
assisting  to  him  in  composing  this  work.  2.  "  De  Transitu 
Mercurii  per  Solem,  anno  1723,"  Bologna,  1724,  4to. 
S.  "Deannuk  Inerrantium  Stellarum  aberrationibus,"  Bo* 
logna,  1729,  in  4to;  besides  a  number  of  papers  in  the 
Memoirs  of  the  Academy  of  Sciences,  and  in  other  places, 
which  are  enumerated  by  Fabroni.  The  best  edition  of  his 
Poems,  which  are  still  in  repute,  is  that  by  Bodoni,  in  1793, 
8vo,  with  a  life  of  the  author. l 

MANFREDI  (Gabriel),  brother  to  the  preceding,  was 
born  at  Bologna,  March  25,  1681,  and  having  devoted 
himself  to  mathematical  studies  acquired  the  reputation  of 
the  best  algebraist  in  Italy.  At  the  age  of  twenty  he  com* 
posed  a  work  on  the  equations  of  the  first  degree,  which 
obtained  the  praises  of  the  learned  world.  In.  1708,  the 
senate  of  Bologna  appointed  him  one  of  their  secretaries ; 
and  in  1720  he  was  made  professor  of  mathematics  in  the 
university  of  that  city,  of  which,  in  1726,  he  became 
chancellor.  He  was  much  employed  in  hydrostatic*  la- 
bours, and  with  great  success :  nor  did  he  shew  less  skill 
in  the  science  of  geography.  He  died  in  176 1.  He  pub- 
lished "  De  oonstructione  aequationum  differentfialium  pri- 
ori gradus,"  Bonon.  1 707.  This  procured  him  a  letter  of 
congratulation  from  the  celebrated  Leibnitz.     His  other 

1  Fabroni  Vit«  Italorum,  vol,  V.— • Moreri.— Hutton'f  Diet. 


works  are  principally  among  the  memoirs  of  the  institute  of 
Bologna.  * 

MANGEART  {Thomas),  called,  like  other  Benedic- 
tines, Dom  Thomas,  did  considerable  honour  to  his  order 
by  the  extent  of  his  learning,  which  obtained  him  the  placet 
of  antiquary,  librarian,  and  counsellor  to  Charles  duke  of 
Lorraine.  He  died  in  1763,  when  he  was  preparing  a 
work,  which  was  published  in  the  course  of  the  same  year, 
by  the  abb6  Jacquin.  The  title  is,  "  Introduction  i  la 
science  des  Medailles  pour  servir  a  la  connoissance  des 
Dieux,  et  de  la  Religion,  des  Sciences,  des  Arts,  et  do 
tout  ce  qui  appartient  a  PHistoire  ancienne,  avec  lea 
preuves  tir£s  des  Medailles,'1  folio.  Mangeart  is  here  said 
to  hare  comprised,  in  a  single  volume,  the  elementary 
knowledge  of  medals  which  had  before  been  treated  but 
too  slightly ;  and  the  most  valuable  information  which  is 
scattered  through  many  prolix  dissertations  on  particular 
parts  of  the  subject.  Mr.  Pinkerton,  however,  pronounces 
it  to  be  a  dry  compilation  concerning  antiquities  found  on 
medals,  in  which  the  author  shews  no  knowledge  of  the 
medals  themselves.  It  is  a  kind  of  supplement  to  Mont* 
faucdn's  antiquities,  Mangeart  published  also,  2.  Eight 
sermons,  with  a  treatise  on  Purgatory,  at  Nancy,  1739,  in 
2  vols.  12  mo.  * 

MAN  GET  (John-James),  a  learned  physician  and  la- 
borious historian  of  that  science,  was  born  June  19,  1652, 
at  Geneva,  where  his  father  was  an  eminent  merchant.  His 
father's  brother,  author  of  a  work  6n  fevers,  was  physician 
to  the  king  of  Poland.  Manget,  having  finished  his  clas- 
sical studies  at  the  age  of  fourteen,  bestowed  two  years  on 
philosophy,  and  then  studied  theology  for  five  years,  when, 
changing  his  destination,  he  entered  on  a  course  of  medi- 
cal reading  (for  he  says  he  had  no  teacher  but  bis  books), 
and  made  such  proficiency,  that  in  1678,  he  received  his 
doctor's  degree  at  Valence,  along  with  the  celebrated 
Hartman.  On  his  return  home  he  entered  upon  practice, 
to  which  he  joined  the  laborious  perusal  of  many  medical 
works,  which  served  as  the  foundation  of  his  own  publi- 
cations. In  1699,  the  elector  of  Brandenburgh  appointed 
him,  by  letters  patent,  his  first  physician,  and  the  kings 
of  Prussia  continued  this  title  to  him  during  his  life.  He 
was  dean  of  the  faculty  at  Geneva  at  the  time  of  his  death, 

»  Fabroni,  Vol.  V. 

*  Diet.  Hilt— Piokerton's  Essay  oa  Medals,  Pref.  p.ix. 

MAN«ET.  23T 

Aug.  15,  1742,  in  the  ninetieth  year  of  bis  age.    His  works 
are:  l."Messii,Medico-8pagyrica,  &c."  Geneva,  1683,  folio, 
which  contains  a  most  abundant  collection  of  pharmaceu- 
tical preparations,  arranged  in  a  very  complex  order.  2.  In 
the  same  year  he  edited,  "  Pauli  Barbetti  Opera  omnia 
Medica  et  Chirurgica,"  with  additional  cases  and  illustra- 
tions.    3.  "  Bibliotbeca  Anatoroica,"  1685,  two  vols,  folio ; 
a  work  which  was  executed  in  conjunction  with  Daniel  le 
Clerc.      He  afterwards  edited,     4.  The  "  Compendium 
Medicinse    Practicum,"   of   J.    And.    Schmitz.      5.  The 
" Phprmcopeia  Schrodero-Hoffmanniana."    6.  The  "Trac- 
tates de  Febribus,"  of  Franc.  Pieus ;  and,  7.  The  "  Se- 
phlchretum"  of  Bonetus,  to  which  be  added  several  re- 
marks and  histories*     8.  In  1695,  he  published  his  "  Bib* 
liotheca  Medico-Practica,"  four  vqls-  folio;    a  vast  col- 
lection of  practical  matter  relative  to  all  the  diseases  -of  the 
human  body,  arranged  in  alphabetical  order.     9.  "  Bib- 
liotbeca Chemica  curiosa,"  1702,  two  vols,  folio.   10.  Bib- 
liotbeca Pharmaceutico-Medica,"   1703,  two  vols,   folio; 
and,    11.  n  Bibliotheca  Chirurgica,"   1721,  four  vols,,  in 
two,  folio.     19.  "  Theatrmn  Anatomicum,  cum  Eustachii 
Tabulis  Anatomicis,"  1716,  two  vols,  folio,  a  description 
of  all  the  parts  of  the  body,  abridged  from  various  authors. 
On  the  appearance  of  the  plague  at  Marseilles,  he  pub- 
lished a  collection  of  facts  and  opinions  on  that  disease, 
under  the  title  of  "  Trait6  de  la  Peste  recueilli  des  meil- 
leurs  Auteurs,"  1731,  two  vols.  12mo;  and  in  the  follow- 
ing year,    14.  "  Nouvelles  Reflexions   sur  l'Origine,  la 
Cause,  la  Propagation,  les  Preservatifs,  et  la  Cure  de  la 
Peste,"  12 mo.     15.  His  "  Observations  sur  la  Maladie  qui 
a  coirtmencl  depuis  quelques  amines  a  attaquer  le  gros 
Betail,"  was  a  collection  of  the  opinions  of  the  Genevese 
physicians  concerning  the  distemper  of  horned  cattle.  The 
last  work  of  Man  get  was  his  "  Bibliotheca  Scriptorum  Me- 
dicorum  veterum  et  recentiorum,"  at  which  he  laboured 
when  at  least  eighty  years  of  age,  and  published  it  in  1731, 
in  four  vols,  folio.     It  is  the  most  important  of  his  pro- 
ductions, being  an  useful  collection  of  medical  lives,  and 
catalogues  of  writings.     It  has  not  been  so  much  thought 
of  since  the  appearance  of  Haller's  Bibliotheca,  and  par- 
ticularly of  Eloy's ;  but  the  plans  are  different,  and  Man- 
get's,  as  welt  as  the  rest  of  his  voluminous  compilations, 
may  be  yet  consulted  with  advantage.   Although  he  was  so 

.  \ 

53$  MARGE  T. 

intent  on  accumulating  information,  and  reprinting  scarce 
works  and  tracts,  that  he  did  not  employ- his  judgment  al- 
ways, either  in  selection  or  arrangement,  yet  those,  who, 
like  himself,  wish  to  trace  the  progress  of  medical  know- 
ledge, will  find  his  works  of  great  use.  They  contain,  in- 
deed, the  substance  of  many  libraries,  and  a  variety  of 
treatises  which  it  would  not  be  easy  to  procure  in. their  se- 
parate form.  ' 

MANGEY  (Thomas),    a  learned  English  divine,   was 
born  at  Leeds  in  1684,  and  was  educated  at  St.  JohnVcot- 
Jege,  Cambridge,  where  be  was  admitted  to  his  degree, 
that  of  B.  A.  in  1 707,  M.  A.  1711,   LL.D.  1719,  and  D.D. 
1725.     He  was  also  a  fellow  of  the  society  of  antiquaries, 
and  rector  of  St.  Mildred,  Bread-street,  London.     He  was 
early  distinguished  by  his  "  Practical  Discourses  upon  the 
,  Lord's  Prayer,  preached  before  the  Honourable  Society  of 
Lincoln's  Inn  ;  published  by  the  special  order  of  the  Bench," 
1716,  8vo.     These  discourses  were  again  printed  in  1717, 
and  in  1721;  and  in  1718  he  published  "  Remarks  upon 
Nazarenns;  wherein  the  falsity  of  Mr.  Toland'*  Mahome- 
tan  Gospel,    and    his  misrepresentations   of.  Mahometan 
sentiments  in  respect  of  Christianity,  are  set  forth;  the 
history  of  the  old  Nazaraeans  cleared  up,  and  the  whole 
conduct  of  the  first  Christians,  in  respect  to  the  Jewish 
laws,  explained  and  described."     The  author  then  stiled 
himself  "  Rector  of  St.  Nicholas's  in  Guilford,"  to  which, 
be  was  instituted  in  1717,  and  resigned  in  1719*20.     la 
January  1719,  he  published  "Plain  Notions  of  our  Lord's 
Divinity,"  a  sermon  preached  on  Christmas«day  ;  in  June 
1719,  "The  eternal  Existence  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ," 
a  Visitation-sermon ;  iitt'October  that  year,  "  The  Holiness 
of  Christian-churches,"  a  sermon  preached  at  Sunderland, 
on'  consecrating  a  new  church  there;  aud  in  1720,  "The 
providential  Sufferings  of  good  men,"  a  30th  4)f  January 
sermon  before  the  House  of  Commons,     In  1 7 1 9,  Dr.  Man- 
gey  wrote  "A  Defence  of  the  Bishop  of  London's  Letter,** 
8vo;  and,  besides  the  sermons  already  mentioned,  pub- 
lished five  single  ones,  in  1716,   1726,   1729,   1731,  and 
1733.     On  May  11,  1721,  he  was  presented  to  a  prebend, 
the  fifth  stall  in  the  cathedral  church  of  Durham,  being  at 
that  time  chaplain  to  Dr.  Robinson  bishop  of  London,  and 
vicar  of  Yealing,  or  Ealing,  in  the  county  of  Middlesex* 


1  Life  by  himself  in  his  Bibl.  Script.  Med.— Moreri. — Efoy  Diet  de  Medicine, 


MANGEY,    i  239 

He  was  advanced  to  the  first  stall  of  Durham,  Dec.  22, 
1722;  and,  when  treasurer  of  the  chapter,  greatly  ad* 
vanced  the  fines  upon  the  tenants,  and  improved  the  rents 
of  his  prebendal  lands  nearly  a  hundred  pounds  a  year* 
He  was  one  of  the  seven  doctors  in  divinity  created  July  6, 
172$,  when  Dr.  fientley  delivered  the  famous  oration  pre-, 
fixed  to  his  Terence  ^  and  at  the  end  of  1726  he  circulated 
proposals  for  an  edition  of  "  Philo  Judseus,"  which  he  com- 
pleted in  1742,  under  the  title  of  "  Philonis  Judsei  Opera 
omnia  quae  reperiri  potuerunt,"  2  vols,  folio.  He  died 
March  6,  1755,  and  was  interred  in  the  cathedr&l  of  Dur- 
ham, where  is  an  elegant  Latin  inscription  to  his  memory, 
composed  by  Dr.  Sharp,  then  a  prebendary  and  archdeacon 
of  Northumberland.  His  manuscript  remarks  on  the  New 
Testament  came  into  the  possession  of  Mr.  Bowyer,  who 
extracted  from  them  many  short  notes,  which  are  printed 
in  his  "  Conjectures."  A  very  elegant  inscription  to  Dr. 
Mangey  by  Dr.  Taylor  is  prefixed  to  "  Lysiae  Fragmenta." 

Dr.  Mangey  married  Dorothy,  daughter  of  archbishop 
Sharp,  by  whom  he  had  one  son,  John,  vicar  of  Dunmow 
in  Essex,  and  a  prebendary  of  St.  Paul's.  He  died  in  1782. 
Mrs.  Mangey,  widow  of  the  doctor,  died  in  17  SO. l 

MANI,     See  MANES. 

MAN1LIUS  (Marcus),  was  a  Latin  poet,  who  lay  bu- 
ried in  the  German  libraries,  and  never  was  beard  of  in 
the  modern  world,  till  Poggius  published  him  from  some, 
old  manuscripts  found  there  about  two  centuries  ago.  He 
is  mentioned  by  no  ancient  writer,  and  the  moderns  are  so 
little  able  to  fix  the  time  when  he  lived,  that  while  some 
place  him  as  high  as  the  age  of  Augustus,  others  bring, 
him  dowh  to  the  reign  of  Theodo.;us  the  Great.  Indeed, 
the  only  account  to  be  had  of  him  must  be  drawn  from  his 
poem ;  and  from  this,  his  translator  Creech  thinks  that  he 
was  born  a  Roman,  and  lived  in  Rome,  when  Rome  was 
in  her  glory,  as  he  says  appears  from  several  passages  ia 
the  poem.  In  the  beginning  of  it  he  invokes  the  emperor; 
who  from  the  description  must  be  Augustus  Caesar.  Creech 
•likewise  infers  that  he  was  of  illustrious  extraction,  and  a 
branch  of  that  noble  family  the  Manilii,  who  so  often  filled 
the  consul's  chair,  and  supplied  the  greatest  offices  in  the 
commonwealth.     Some,  indeed,  have  thought  that  he  was 

1  Nichols's  Bowyer,  —Manning's  Surrey,    vol.  I.  —  Hutchinson7* Durham, 
tol.  XL  p.  173. 

«0  MANItlUB. 

a  Tyrian  slave,-  and  that  being  made  free,  he  took,  ac- 
eording  to  custom,  the  name  of  his  patron.  But  this  seems 
very  improbable ;  and  he  almost,  says  Creech,  expressly 
declares  the  contrary  in  the  fortieth  verse  of  his  fourth 
book,  where  he  shews  a  concern  for  the  interest  of  the  Ro* 
man  commonwealth,  as  far  back  as  the  age  of  Hannibal : 

"  Speratum  Hannibalem  nostris  cecidbse  catenis : 
fiannibal  then  destined  to  our  chains :" 

Which  he  could  not  have  done  with  propriety,  had  bis  re* 
lation  to  that  state  commenced  so  lately,  or  had  his  ances- 
tors had  no  interest  in  the  losses  and  victories  of  Rome  in 
that  age.  But  this  verse,  as  well  as  the  776th  line  of  the 
tame  book,  Bentley  proves  to  be  spurious,  and  overthrows 
the  whole  of  Creech's  conjectures.  It  may,  however,  still 
be  allowed  that  he  was  conversant  at  court,  and  acquainted 
with  the  modish  Battery  of  the  palace,  and  that  he  made 
his  compliments  in  the  same  phrase  that  w?ls  used  by  the 
most  finished  courtiers  of  his  time,  which  renders  it  not 
improbable  that  he  was  of  a  good  family. 

The  "  Astronomicon"  of  Maniljus  contains  a  system  of 
the  ancient  astronomy  and  astrology,  together  with  the 
philosophy  of  the  Stoics.  It  consists  of  five  books,  and  he 
also  wrote  a  sixth,  which  has  not  been  recovered.  That 
he  was  young  when  he  composed  this  work,  his  translator 
thinks  demonstrable  from  almost  every  page  of  it ;  and  had 
he  lived  to  revise  the  whole  composition,  as  he  seems 
to  have  done  the  first  book,  we  should  perhaps  have 
had  a  more  correct  performance.  He  had  a  genius  equal 
to  his  undertaking;  his  fancy  was  bold  and  daring;  his 
skill  in  mathematics  great  enough  for  his  design  ;  and  bis 
knowledge  of  the  history  and  mythology  of*  the  ancients 
general.  As  he  is  now,  some  critics  have  placed  him 
among  the  judicious  and  elegant  writers ;  and  all  allow  him 
to  be  useful,  instructive,  and  entertaining.  He  hints  at 
some  opinions,  in  which  later  ages  have  been  ready  t9 
glory  as  their  own  discoveries.  Thus  he  defends  fcbe 
fluidity  of  the  heavens  against  the  hypothesis  of  Aristotle; 
he  asserts  that  the  fixed  stars  are  not  all  in  the  same  conr 
cave  superficies  of  the  heavens,  and  equally  distant  from 
the  centre  of  the  world :  he  maintains,  that  they  are  aU  of 
the  same  nature  and  substance  with  the  sun,  and  that  each 
of  them  hath  a  particular  vortex  of  its  own  ;  and  lastly,  he 
says  that  the  milky  way  is  only  the  undistinguished  lustre 

M  A  N  I  L  I  U  8.  241 

off  a  great  many  stnall  stars,  which  the  modems  now  see  to 
be  such,  through  their  telescopes.  So  that  perhaps,  upon 
the  whole,  ana  notwithstanding  all  bis  defects,  one  may 
▼emtdfe  to  say  that  he  is  one  of  the  most  discerning  philo- 
sophers antiquity  can  shew.  The  first  edition  of  Manilius, 
with  ar date,  is  that  of  Bologna,  by  Rugerius  arid  Bertho- 
cns>  1474.  The  best  editions  since,  are  thfet  of  Joseph 
ScaJiger,  printed  at  Leyden,  1 600,  4to ;  that  of  Bentley, 
at  London,  1738,  4to ;  that  of  Edmund  Burton,  esq.  "cum 
nods  Variorum,"  London,  1783,  8vo;  and  that  of  Stceber, 
publish*!  ait  Sttftftburg,  in  1767,  8vo.1 

MAN  LEY  (De  la  Riviere),  an  English  lady,  authoress 
of  ai  rioted  piece  of  scandal  called  "  The  Atalantis,"  was 
born  in  Guernsey,  or  one  of  those  small  islands,  of  which 
her  father,  sir  Roger  Manley,  was  governor.  He  was  the 
secortd  sttfl  of  an  ancient  family,  and  had  been  a  great  suf- 
ferer for  his  loyalty  in  the  reign  of  Charles  I.  without  re* 
ccrttirig  either  preferment  or  recompense  in  that  of  Charles 
II.  Re  waii  a  man  of  considerable  literary  talents,  which 
appeared  in  several  publications,  particularly  his  Latin 
cotm&efttariee  ori  the  rebellion,  under  the  title  of  "  Com- 
m«ntafte  de  Rebellione  Anglicana,  abanno  1640  ad  annum 
16^85^  Lond:  1086,  8v6,  and  of  which  an  English  trans- 
lation wiff  published  in  1691 ;  and  his  "  History  of  the  late 
wars  of  Dtenmark,"  1670.  He  is  also  said  to  have  been 
the  author  Of  thesfirst  volume  of  the  "  Turkish  Spy,"  which 
Waa  found  Among  his  papers,  ancl  continued  to  its  present 
n  timber  of  voltimes  by  Dr.  Midgley,  a  physician,  who  had 
thr  Cafe  Of  his  papers  ;  but  this  has  been  justly  doubted 
(See  MaRA^A).  fits  daughter,  the  subject  of  this  article, 
jrWfeived  ah  education  suitable  to  her  birth,  and  gave  indi- 
cations of  genius  above  her  years,  arid,  as  her  biographer 
sAyft,  #r  rhUth  superior  to  What  is  usually  to  be  found 
amongst  bfer  sex/9  The  loss  of  her  parents  before  she 
wto  settled  in  life,  stems'  to  have  been  peculiarly  unfortu- 
nate, far  her  father  confided  the  care  of  her  to  his  nephew, 
a  iflfcrried  rriafc,  who  first  pretended  that  his  wife  was  dead, 
then  by  a  series  of  seductive  manoeuvres  cheated  her  into 
»'  marriage.  When  he  could  no  longer  conceal  his  infamy, 
be  deserted  her,  and  the  world  turned  its  back  upon  her. 
in  this  situation,  she  accidentally  acquired  thfefpa- 

*  Greectt'*  Pfrefiute  ta  hi*  Tfeufcfetton,  bat  especially  Beotiey>s  |Mfftee,. 
SazQ  Onomaftt— Huttoa'*  Dictionary. 

Vol.  XXL  & 


tronage  of  the  duchess  of  Cleveland!  one  of  Charles  ILV* 
mistresses,  having  been  introduced  to  her  by  an  acquaint- 
ance to  whom  she  was  paying  a  visit ;  but  the  duchess,  a  • 
woman  of  a  very  fickle  temper,  grew  tired  of  Mrs.  Manley 
in  six  months,  and  discharged  her  upon,  a  pretence  that  • 

she  intrigued  with  hef  son.     When  this  lady  was  thus  dis- 
missed,   she  was  solicited  by  general  Tidcomb    to  pass 
some  time  with  him  at  his  country-seat';  but  she  excused 
herself  by  saying,  "  that  her  love  of  solitude  was  improved 
by  her  disgust  of  the  world ;  and  since  it  was  impossible 
for  her  to  be  in  public  with  reputation,  she  was  resolved 
to  remain  concealed."     In  this  solitude  she  wrote  her  first 
tragedy,  called  "  The  Royal  Mischief,"  which  was  acted 
at  the  theatre  in  Lincoln's-inn-fields,  in  1696.     This  play 
succeeded,  and  she  received  such  unbounded  incense  from 
admirers,  that  her  apartment  was  crowded  with  men. of  wit 
and  gaiety,,  which  proved  in  the  end  very  fatal  to,  her 
virtue,  and  she  afterwards  engaged  in  various  intrigues. 
In  her  retired  hours  she  wrote  h§r  four  volumes  of  the 
"  Memoirs  of  the  New  Atalantis,"  in  whic^  she  was  y**ry 
free  with  her  own  sex,  in  her  wanton  description  of  love- 
adventures,  and  with  the  characters  of  many  high  and  dis- 
tinguished personages.     Her  father  had  always  b^en  at- 
tached to  the  cause  of  Charles  I.  and  she  herself  having  a 
confirmed  aversion  to  the  Whig  ministry,  took  this  method 
of  satirising  those  who  had  brought  about  the  revolution. . 
Upon  this  a  warrant  was  granted  from  the  secretary  of  state's*   . 
office,  to  seize  the  printer  and  publisher  of  those  volumes* 
Mrs.  Manley  had  too  much  generosity  to  let  innocent  per* 
sons  suffer  on  her  account ;  and  therefor^  voluntarily  pre- 
sented herself  before  the  court  of  King's4)encb,  as.  the 
author  of  the  "  Atalantis."     When  she  was  examined  be- 
fore  lord  Sunderland,  then  the  secretary,  he  was  curious 
to  know  from  whom  she  got  information  of  some  particulars 
which  they  imagined  to  be  above  her  own  intelligence. 
She  p}eaded  that  her  only  design  in  writing  was  her  own     » 
amusement  and  diversion  in  the  country,  without  intending 
particular  reflections  and  characters;  and  assured  them  ~ 
that  nobody  was  concerned  with  her.     When  this  was  not 
believed,  and  the  contrary  urged  against  her  by  several 
circumstances,  she  said,  "  then  it  must  be  hy  inspiration, 
becaiise,  knowing  her  own  innocence,  she  could  account 
for  it  no  6ther  way."     The  secretary  replied,  that "  inspi- 
ration  used  to  be  upon  a  good  account ;  but  that  her  writings: 

M  A  N  L  E  T.  r  24S 

were  stark  naught,"  .  8he  acknowledged,  that  u  his  lord- 
ship's observation  might  be  true $  but,  as  there  were  evil 
apgefs  as  well  as  good,  that  what  she  had  wrote  ipight  still 
be  by  inspiration.9'  .  The  consequence  of  this  examination 
was,  that  Mrs.  Manley  was  close  shut  up  hi  a  messenger's 
house,  without  being  allowed  pen,  ink,  and  paper.  Her 
counsel,  however,  sued  out  her  habeas'  corpus  at  the 
-  King's-bench  bar,  and  she  was  admitted  to  bail.  Whether 
those  in  power  were  ashamed  to  bring  a  woman  to  a  trial ' 
for  this  book,  or  whether  the  laws  could  not  reach  her, 
because  she  had  disguised  her  satire  under  romantic  names,  • 
and  a  feigned  jgene  of  action,  she.  was  discharged,  after 
several  tiipes  exposing  herself  in  person,  to  oppose  the  - 
court  before  the  bench  of  judges,  with  her  three  attend-* 
ants,  the  printer,  and  two  publishers.  Not  long  after,  a 
total  change  of  the  ministry  ensued,  when  she  lived  in  high 
reputation*  and  gaiety,  and  amused  herself  in  writing  poems 
and  letters,  and  conversing  with  wits.  To  her  dramatic 
pieces  she  now  added  "  Lucius,"  the  first  Christian  king 
of  Britain,  a  tragedy,  acted  in  Drury-lane,  in  1717.  She 
dedicated  it  to  sir  Richard  Steele,  whom  she  had  abused 
in  her  "  New  Atalantis,"  but  was  now  upon  such  friendly 
terms. with. him,  that  he  wrote  the  prologue  to  this  play, 
as  Mr.  Prior  did  the  epilogue.  This  was  followed  by  her 
comedy  called  the  "  Lost  Lover,  or  the  Jealous  Husband," 
acted. in  1696.  She  wasfelso  employed  in  writing  for  queen 
Anne's  ministry,  certainly  with  the  consent  and  privity,  if 
not  under  the  direction,  of  Dr.  Swift,- and  was  the  author 
of  "  The  Vindication  of  the  Duke  of  Marlborough/'  and 
other  pamphfets,  some  of  which  would  not  disgrace  the  best 
pen  then  engaged  in. the  defence  of  government.  After 
dean  Swift  relinqqished  "  The  Examiner,"  she  continued 
it  with  great  spirit  for  a  considerable  time,  and  frequently 
finished  pieces  begun  by  that  excellent  writer,  who  also 
oftetj  used  to  furnish  her  with  bints  for  those  of  her  own 
composition*  At  this  season  she  formed  a  connection  with 
Mr.  John  Barber,  alderman  of  London,  with  whom  she 
lived  in  a  state  of  concubinage,  as  is  supposed,  aifd  at  whose 
hoqse  she  died  July  1 1,  1724. 

.  The  superior  accomplishments  of  her  sex  in  our  days 
must  now  place  her  yery  low  in  the  scale  of  female  authors; 
and  she  seems  to  have  owed  her  fame  in  a  great  measure 
ta-hfer  turn  .for  intrigue  and  for  recording  intrigues.  This 
will  probably  be  the  opinion  of  those  whp  will  take  the 


244  MA  II  LEY. 

trouble  to  peruse  any.  of  the  works  Already  mentioned,  6f 
the  following :  1.  "Letters,  one  from  a  supposed  n  mi  in 
Portugal/'  Lond.  1696,  8vo.  2.  "  Memoirs  of  Europe 
towards  the  close  of  the  eighth  century/'  1710,  2  vols. 
8vo.  3.  "  Court  Intrigues/'  17  U,  fcvo,  4.  "Adven- 
tures of  Rivelle,"  1714,  8vo.  5.  "The  Power  of  Love, 
in  seven  novels,"  1120,  8vo.  6.  "  A  Stage-coach  Journey 
to  Exeter,"  1725,  8v*  7.  "  Bath  Intrigues,"  1725,  8 vo. 
7.  "  Secret  History  of  Queen  Zarah,"  1745,  8vo.  The 
two  last,  from  the  dates,  must  be  postburitous,  or  second 

MANNERS  (John),-  marquis  of  Gmnby,  was  son  of 
John  duke  of  Rutland,  and  grandson  of  John  the  first  duke, 
and  was  born  in  January  1721.  He  wad  bred  to  the  army, 
and  in  the  rebellion  of  1745  raised  a  regiment  of  foot  at 
his  own  expence,  for  the  defence  of  the  country  agfeinsf 
the  rebels.  In  1755  he  was  advanced  Co  the  ifenk  of  rtiajor-' 
general,  and  in  1758  was  appointed  lieutenant-general  and 
colonel  of  the  bines;  With  this  fank  he  went  into  Ger- 
many with  the  British  forces,  which  were  sent  to  serve 
under  prince  Ferdinand  of  Brunswick;  and  in  1759  was 
promoted  to  the  general  command  of  the  British  troop*, 
an  appointment  which  gave  much  satisfaction,  arid  for 
which  he  appears  to  have  been  well  qualified.  If  he  had 
not  the  great  abilities  requisite  to  a  commander  in  chief, 
he  had  all  the  qualifications  for  an  admirable  second  irt  com- 
mand. With  a  competent  share  of  military  skill,  he  pbfr*' 
sessed  that  pereonal  valour  and  ardour  in  the  service,  Which 
inspired  his  soldiers  with  confidence;  and  that  htiitoane* 
and  generous  attention  to  their  comfort  and  welfare*  joined 
with  affability  and  open-hearted  cheerfulness,  which 
strongly  attached  them  to  his  person.  In  1760  be  justified 
the  high  opinion  which  prince  Ferdinand  had  etrpresaed  of 
him  after  the  battle  of  Minden,  by  his  gbdd  conduct  at' 
Warburg,  where  the  British  cavalry  Were  particularly  sig- 
nalized. In  the  beginning  of  the  ensttthy  caifepfcigri}  be 
commanded  under  the  hereditary  prince,  in  his  attack  on 
the  frontier  towns  of  Hesse ;  and  at  the  battle  of  Kirk- 
Denkern,  bore  the  first  and  most  violent  onset  of  the  ene- 
my, and  by  the  firmness  of  his  troops  contributed  much  to 
that  vietory .«  He  maintained  the  same  character  at  Graebc- 

»  Cibbei^s  Lires  of  tfae  Poeti— NoU*  to  Taller  sad  Sasidias,  edit  lSOeW 
NfchoU'i  Poems,  vol.  VII. 

M  A  N  N  E  ft  3.  245 


iteein  and  Homburgb,  in  1763.  tie  died  at  Scarborough, 
Qftu  19,  1770.  He  had  been  made  a  member  of  the  privy- 
council  in  17*0,  qpd  resigning  the  office  of  lieutenant- 
general  of  the  ordnance,  was  in  May  1763"  constituted 
ma»t*r«genarel  of  that  department.  In  Feb.  1764,  be  was 
•  declared  lord-lieutenant  and  custos  totulorura  of  Derby- 
shire. In  1766  he  was  constituted  commander  iji  chief  of 
bis  majesty's  land  forces  in  Great  Britain  ;  which  he  re* 
signed  a  little  before  bis  death.  He  married  Sept.  3, 
1750,  lady  Frances  Seymour,  eldest  daughter  of  Charles 
4ukeof  Somerset,  by  whom,  among  other  issue,  he  had 
Cbarlet,  the  late  duke  of  Rutland,  who  died  lord«-lieute- 
aant  of  Ireland*  in  17*7;  and  lord  Robert  Manners,  a  gal- 
lant officer  of  the  navy,  who  died  Jan.  £3,  17&2,  of  the 
wounds  be  received  in  an  engagement,  Sept.  1,  1781, 
in  the  West  Indies,  -  on  board  tys  majesty's  ship  the 
Resolution,  of  which  he  was  captain,  A  monument  in  ho- 
jfconr  of  his  memory  was  ordered  at  the  national  expence 
for  him,  capt  Blair,  and  capt  Bayne,  which  ia  now  in  St. 
Paul's  cathedral.1 

M ANNI  (Dominic  Mama),  an  eminent  Italian  writer, 
was  born  at  Florence,  April  8,  1690.  He  was  early  dis- 
tinguished by  great  powers  of  retention,    and  a  strong 

%  passion  for  research  into  facts,  two  attributes  for  which  he 
was  celebrated  during  the  whole  of  his  life.  He  was  regu- 
larly instituted  in  every  class  of  literature,  but  his  par- 
ticular bias  was  to  history,  in  which  be  began  his  career 
by  inquiries  into  the  modern  history  of  his  native  city. 
Tins  produced  in  1722  his  "  Series  of  Florentine  Sena- 
tors,'9 2  vols.  fol.  a  work  which,  under  the  modest  garb  of 
-a  collection  of  notices  on  private  individuals,  exhibited  the 
naost  original,  authentic,  and  curious  information  respect- 

'  ing  the  public  law  and  government  of  Tuscany,  from  the 
extinction  of  the  line  of  the  marquises,  to  the  creation  of 
the  gftand  dukes  in  1332.  In  1731  he  published  a  work  of 
yet  greater  interest,  "  De  Florentinis  inventis  Commen- 
tarium,"  in  which  he  gave  the  most  satisfactory  account 
of  the  manufactures  which  either  originated  or  were  im- 
proved in  Florence ;  he  showed  how  the  art  of  banking 
was  there,  first  invented  ;  how,  in  the  subsequent  times, 
.the  art  of  engraving  also  originated  there,  fcc.  Among 
the  discoveries  made  at  Florence  in  the  middle  ages,  there. 

*  CwJi^ffi  ?•«*&,  by  Sir  B.  Brydgrs.— Sjnollett'*  IJist.  of  England. 

24«  K  A  N  N  I. 

.  was  one  so  highly  beneficial  as  to  demand  a  methodical 
disquisition  for  itself  alone ;  this  was  the  invention  of  spec- 
tacles, which  in  1738  Manni  illustrated  by  his  "  Historical 
Treatise  on  Spectacles."  In  this,  after  a  careful  exami* 
nation  of  evidence,  be  is  inclined  to  attribute  the  invention 
to  ftalvino  Armati. 

In  1742  he  published  "  Historical  Illustrations  of  the 
Decamerone  of  Boccaccio,1'  4to,  in  which  he  proves  that 
the  greatest  part  of  Boccaccio's  tales  were  real  facts,  which 
occurred  in  his  life.  A  work  of  this  kind  could  nor  fail  to 
-be  amusing,  nor  in  that  country,  instructing ;  and  indeed 
this  has  been  thought  one  of  the  best  of  Manni's  publica- 
tions. His  more  elaborate  work,  connected  with  the  hist* 
tory  of  Florence  and  Tuscany,  is  his  "  Historical  Obser- 
vations on  the  Seals  of  the  lower  age."  "  Osservazioni 
istoriche  sopra  isigilli  antichi  de'  secoli  bassi,"  published  * 
in  1749,  and  originally  consisting  of  18  vols.  4to,  but  after- 
.  wards  extended  to  thirty.  It  exhibits  the  most  valuable 
records  of  all  the  illustrious  persons  who  acted  a  conspicu- 
ous part  in  the  vicissitudes  of  Florence  and  other  great 
cities  of  Tuscany.  It  also  elucidates  the  origin  and  pro- 
gress of  all  the  mints  of  those  cities.  In  1755  he  published 
his  "  Method  of  studying  the  History  of  Florence,"  which 
is  an  account  of  all  the  authorities  and  sources  of  Floren J  # 
tine  history,  both  printed  and  manuscript,  in  whioh  he 
affirms  that  the  best  limited  .history  of  Florence  is  that  yet 
unpublished  of  the  .chevalier  Francis  Settimanni,  who  wrote 
on  jthe  period  which  intervened  between  the  accession  of 
th& house  of  Medici,  in  1532,  and  its  extinction,. in  E737. 
The  only  other  works  he  published  respecting  Florence 
and  its  antiquities,  were,  his  "  Historical  notices  con- 
cerning the  amphitheatre  at  Florence,"  published  in  1746; 
and  his  "  Inquiries  into  the  ancient  Thermae  of  Florence," 
published  hi  1751. 

Of  the  historical  works  of  Manni  relative  to  other  places, 
and  more  general  subjects,  we  shall  only  mention  his 
"  History  of  the  Jubilees,"  published  in  I75<\in  which 
be  did  justice  to  his  subject  in  a  philosophical  and  political 
light,  by  shewing  who  were  the  most  distinguished  persons 
who  had  ever  visited  Rome  on  those  occasions,  and  how 
far,  on  thei(  return  to  their  native  countries,  they  grafted 
on  those  countries  the  manner*  and  practices  of  Italy.  He 
also  illustrated  every  particular  by  curious  anecdotes, . 
medals,  fa  c- similes,  Ice.     In  biography,  Manni  wrote  a 

M  A  N  N  I.  247 

¥  •  *  * 

singular  work,  but  perhaps  of  local  interest,  entitled  "  Le 
Veglie  Piacevoli,"  &c.  or  "  Agreeable  Evenings,"  being 
the  lives  of  the  roost  jocose  and  eccentric  Tuscans.  This 
was  published  in  1757,  in  4  vols.  4 to.,  He  wrote  also  tbe 
"  Life  of  the  well-deserving  prelate,  Nicholas  Steno,  of 
Denmark,"  published  in  1775.  Manni's  publications,  not 
of  the  historical  or  biographical  kind,  were  few,  and  none 
of  them  added  much  toxhis  fame,  except  his  "  Lectures  on 
Italian  Eloquence,"  1758,  2  vols.  4to. 
-  He  died  at  Florence,  Nov.  30,  1788,  in  his  ninety-ninth 
year.  He  left  behind  him  the  fame  not  only  of  one  of  the- 
most  laborious  and  deserving  writers  of  his  time,  but  of  a 
most  exemplary  moral  character.  He  was  particularly  dis- 
tinguished for  his  zeal  and  kindness  in  assisting  with  his 
superior  knowledge,  younger  writers  who  wished,  to  treat 
on  any  subject  connected  with  his  inquiries.  A  catalogue 
of  all  his  works,  amounting  to  104,  was  published  in  1789, 
by  his  friend  count  Tomitaho,  a  patrician  of  Feltri.1 

MANNING  (Owen),  an  excellent  antiquary  and  topo- 
grapher, the  son  of  Mr.  Owen  Manning,  of  Orlingbury, 
co.  Northampton,  was  born  there  Aug.  11,  1721.  He  was 
*  admitted  of  Queen's-college,  Cambridge,  where  he  pro- 
ceeded B.  A.  in  1740;  and  about  this  time  met  with  two 
extraordinary  instances  of  preservation  from  untimely  death. 
Having  been  seized  with  the  small  pox,  be  was  attended 
by  Dr.  Heberden,  who  thinking  he  could  not  survive,  de- 
sired that  his  father  might  be  sent  for.  On  his  arrival  he 
found  the  young  man  to  all  appearance  dying,  and  next 
day  he  was  supposed  to  have  expired,  and  was  laid  out, 
as  a  corpse,  in  the  usual  manner.  An  undertaker  was  sent 
for,  and  every  preparation  made  for  his  funeral.  His 
father,  however,  who  had  not  left  the  house,  could  not 
help  frequently  viewing  the  seemingly  lifeless  body ;  and' 
in  one  of  his  visits,  without  seeing  any  cause  for  hope, 
said,  "  1  will  give  my  poor  boy  another  chance,"  and  at 
the  same  time  raised  him  up,  which  almost  immediately 
produced  signs  of  life.  Dr.  Heberden  was  then  sent  for, 
and  by  the  use  of  proper  means,  the  young  man  recovered. 
As  it  was  customary  for  the  scholars  of  every  college  to 
make  verses  on  the  death  of  any  one  of  their  own  college, 
which  are  pinned  to  the  pall  at  the  funeral,  like  so  many 
escutcheons,  this  tribute  or  respect  was  prepared  for  Mr. 

1  Atbeiitttiinj  ▼•!.  IV.— Diet.  Hi»t 


24*  MANNING. 

Maiming,  who  was  muchbelovedbybis  fellow  students;  anclit 
is  said  that  the  verses  were  presented  to  hifn,aftejpiprds»aqd 
that  he  kept  them  for  many  years  as  memoranda  ,<*f  hi? 
youthful  friendships.  Scarcely  bad  be  met  with  this  nar- 
row escape,  when,  his  disorder  having  made  him  fors0me 
time  subject  to  epileptic  fits,  he  was  seized  with  one  of 
these  while  walking  by  the  rivet,  intojwhich  befell,  AOfI 
remained  so  long  that  be  was  thought  to  .fye  drowned,  an£ 
laid  out  on  the  grass,  until  lie  could  be  conveyed  to  the 
college,  where  Dr.  Heberden  being  again  called  in,  the 
.proper  means  of  recovery  weife  used  with  success. 

In  1741  he  was  elected  to  a  fellowship  of  hit  college,  in 
right  of  which  he  had  the  living  of  St.  Botolph,  in  Cam* 
bridge,  which  he  held  until  his  marriage,  in  1755.  He 
took  the  degree  of  M.  A*  in  1744,  and  that  of  B.  D.  in 
1753.  In  1760,  Dr.  Thomas,  bishop  of  Lincoln,  to. whom 
he  was  chaplain,  gave  him  the  prebend  of  Milton  Ecclesia, 
in  the  church  of  Lincoln,  consisting  of  the  impropriation 
and  advowson  of  the  parish  of  Milton,  co.  Oxford.  In 
1763  he  was  presented  by  Dr.  Greene,  dean  of  Salisbury, 
to  the  vicarage  of  Godalming,  in  Surrey,  and  was  insti- 
tuted Dec.  22,  he  preferring  the  situation  to  that  of  St. 
Nicholas  in  Guildford  (though  a  better  lhftng)  which  w*s 
offered  to  him  by  jthe  same  patron.  Here  he  constantly 
resided  till  the  time  of  his  de^tb,  beloved  and  jre^pected 
by  his  parishioners,  and  discharging  his  professional  duty 
in  the  most  punctual  and  conscientious  manner.  In  1769 
he  was  presented  to  the  rectory  of  Pe,pperharrc^v,  an  ad- 
joining parish,  by  viscount  Middleton.  He  was  elected 
F.  R.  S.  in  1767,  and  F.  S.A.  in  1770.  To  the  sincexe 
regret  of  his  parishioners,  and  of  all  who  knew  him,  Mr. 
Manning  died  Sept.  9,  1801,  after  a  short  attack  of  pleu- 
risy, having  entered  his  eighty-first  year.  By  Catherine, 
his  wife,  daughter  of  Mr.  Reade  Peacock,  a  quaker,  met- 
cer,  of  Huntingdon,  he  had  tl^ree  sons  and  five  daughters, 
all  of  whom  survived  him,  except  his  eldest  son,  -George 
Owen,  and  one  of  the  daughters. 

To  the  literary  world  Mr.  Manning  performed  a  most 
;acceptable  service  in  taking  up,  and  by  unwearied  appli- 
cation completing!  the  Saxon  Dictionary  begun  by  his 
friend  the  rev.  Edward  Lye  (see  Lye),  a  work  which  for 
copiousness  and  authorities  will  stand  the  test  of  the  strictest 
examination.  Mr.  Lye  had  the  patronage  of  a  very  band- 
some  subscription,  and  left  that,  and  the  completion  of  bis 


work,  to  his  friend  $**•  Maaaing,  iwhwe/jfeliti^  he  well 
knew.  After  four  yqgjrs  ,?f  close  application,  be  printed  it 
jo  177$f  .in  2  vc*s.  folio,  in  an  elegant  maimer,  at  tbepovs 
.Of  ,tb*  Jate  Mr.  ,Mlen,  of  Bolt-foui*,  Fle*t-#r*et«  Be- 
mid^s.tbe  4W%ce  jand  the  grammar,  he  wad*  large  Addi- 
tions to  tUe  sbepts  before  composed,  and  io  ao  ajppendi** 
^subjoined  Augments  «f  UpbiWs  version  pf  the  jEpiatlqs 
.to  the  sRppn^s  j  sundry  §axon+Cjbarter# ;  4  Sermon  j*n 
4i*ti- Christ;  *  fragment  of  the  $***n  Chronicle,  and 
father  instruments.  Mr.  Manning  also  published  illustra- 
tions of  tkiog  Alfred'*  Will.  His  only  other  publications 
were  two  occasional  Sermons. 

From  his  fir^t  settlement  in  Purvey,  ,be  had  employed  him- 
self in  collecting  materials  for  a  history  and  antiquities  of 
.that  opopty ;  aadby  the  rapport  of  men  of  the  'first  talents, 
possessed  himself  of  a  mass  of  information  whioh  fells  to 
the  lot  of  few  ^persons  engaged  in  jftch  pursuits.     His  com- 
prehensive mind  and  exquisite  penmanship  had  brought 
jhem  to  a  perfection  which  justly  made  every  lover  of  our 
national  antiquities  deeply  regret  that  his  modesty  ,couid 
paver  be  persuaded  to  think  4bepi  sufficiently  complete  for 
publication,  although  he  had  more  than  once  printed  spe- 
cimens of  his  intended  work,  and  solicited  assistance.    At 
length,  a  total  loss  of  sight  rendered  it  impossible  for  him 
to  execute  his  intention ;  but  Jaia  previous  labours  we*e  not 
doomed  to  perish.    His  papers  being  confided  to  the  care 
of  William  Bray,  esq.  the  present  worthy  treasurer  of  the 
society  of  antiquaries,  he  produced  the  first  .volume  of 
"  The  HUtpry  and  Antiquities  erf  Surrey,"  in  1804,  a  large 
and  aplepdid  folio,  which  he  has  since  completed  in  two 
-.more  volumes.    Of  the  whole,  it  may  be  sufficient  to  say, 
upon  no  slight  examination  of  this  elaborate  and  valuable 
addition  to  the  topographical  history  of  our  country,  that 
Mr.  Bray  has  in  every  jreapect  removed  -the  regret  which 
he  and, other*  ielt  op  Mr.  Manning's  being  disabled  front 
completing  his  nwn  undertaking.1 

MANNOZZI  (JoHN),(cailed  Giovanni  da  san  Giovanni, 
tfrpik  a  village  near  Florence,  where  be  was  born,  was  a 
^lfthflsced  painter  of  the  Florentine  school,  where  he  shone 
Jbya  natural  superiority  of  genius.  He  perfectly  under- 
#lOPd  jthe  poetical  part  of  his  art,  and  excelled,  therefore, 

•  Life  of  Mr.  Manning  prefixed  to  vol.  I.  of  the  History  of  Surrey. —Nichols*! 
$9wyer,  vol.  IX,— Coles  MS  Athens,  ia  Brit.  Mus, 

250  II  AN  NO  Z  Z  I. 


in  the  ingenuity  of  those  designs  by  which  he  at  once  of« 
namented  the' palace,  and  illastrated  the  beneficence  and 
taste  of  Lorenzo  de  Medicis.  He  was  particularly  suc- 
cessful in  painting  in  fiasco,  and  his  colours  remain  unin- 
jured to  the  present  day :  m  the  imitation  fctf  bas-relief  be 
•was  so. skilful,  that  the  touch  only  could  distinguish  his 
paintings  t>f  that  kind  from  sculpture.  He  had  profound 
skill  also  in  ^perspective  end  optics.  With  all  thelfe  excel- 
lencies in  his  art,  he  was  capricious,  envious,  and  male- 
volent, and  consequently  raised  himself  enemies  who  were 
not  a  little  inveterate.  He  died  aft  the  age  of  forty-six,  in 
1636.1  .  *  •    *     " 


MANSARD  (Francis),  a  very  celebrated  French  archi- ' 
,  tect,  was  born  in  1598,  and  died  in  1660.  The  magni- 
wficent  edifices  raised  by  him  at  Paris  and  elsewhere,  are  so 
many  monuments  of  his  genius  arid  skill  *in  his  art.  His 
ideas  of  general  design  were  esteemed  noble,  and  his  taste 
in  ornamenting  the 'inferior  parts  delicate.  The  principal 
buildings  of  which  he  was  the  author,  are  the  gate  of  the 
church  of  the  Feu i Hans,  in  the  street  St.  Honor6 ;  the 
•  church' of  les  filles  St.  Marie,  in  the  street  of  S.  Antoine; 
the  gate  of  the  Minims  in  the  Place  Royale  ;  a  part  of  the 
Hdtel  de  Conti ;  the  H6tels  de  Bouillon,  Toulouse,  and 
Jars;  besides  several  buildings  in  the  provinces,  whteh  were 
formed  on  his  designs.  Much  as  he  was  approved  by  the 
public,  he  was  not '  equally  able  to  satisfy  himself.  CoK 
bert  having  inspected  his  plans  for  th$  facades  of  the 
Louvre,  was  so  pleased  with  them,  that  he  wished  to  en- 
gage him  in  a  promise  not  to  make  any  subsequent  altera- 
tions. Mansard  refused  to  undertake  the  work  on  those 
conditions,,  being  determined,  *s  he  said,  to  preserve  the 
right  of  doing  better  than  he  bad  undertaken  to  do.  .  Hfe 
nephew,  Jules- Hardouin  Mansard,  had  the  office  of  fifst 
architect,  and  conductor  of  the  royal  buildings,  and  was 
the  designer  also  of  many  very  celebrated  structures.* 

MANfH  (John  Dominique),  a  very  learned  Italian  pre* 

late,  and  voluminous  editor,  was  born  at  Lucca,  Feb*  1 6, 

1 692.     At  school  and  college  he  made  rapid  progress  in 

evqpy  branch  of  study,  but  became  particularly  attached 

to  ecclesiastical  history  and  biogsapby.     He  was  for  some 


.  *  Pilkington,  by  Fuiel!»  when  a  somewhat  different  character  if  gifcn.— 
Moreri.— Diet.  Hist. 

?  Arfenville.^-Perrault  Lei  Hommei  IUustres.*— Diet  Hist. 


'  * 

to  A  N  8  I.    >  '  25t 


years  professor  of  theology  at  Naples ;  but  the  greater  part 
of  bis  life  w*s  spent  in  reading,  and  carefully  exploring 
the  contents  of  the  Italian  libraries,  particularly  the  manu- 
scripts, frtat  all  which  lie  amassed  a  fundvef  information 
en  subjects  connected  with  ecclesiastical,  history,  of  vast 
extent  and  importance.  Hie  first  station  in  the  church  was 
that  of  a  clerk- regular  in  the; congregation  of  the  Mother 
of  God;  and  from  tfcis,  in  t765,~  at  the  age. of  seventy-two, 
he  wap  promoted  to  the  archbishopric  of  Lucca,  by  pope 
Clement  X1H.  who  had  a  high  esteem  for  him.  He  died 
Sepfc  j279  1*69.  Hia  life,  in  our  authority,  it  little  more 
than  an  account  of  his  works,  which,  indeed  must  hare  oc- 
cupied the  whole  of  his  time.  His  6rst  publication  was 
» entitled  "Tractatus*  de  casibu%  et.  excommtuitcationibua 
-episcopis  reserved?,  eonfeetus  aa  nofmam  tabeHs»i»ucanst," 
Lucca,  1724,  He  then  published  a  translation  into  Lath* 
ef  Calmetfs  "  Dictionary  of  the  Bible,'*  with  additions ;  an 
edition  of  Thomasini  "  De^veteri  et  nova  ecclet is*  disc* 
plina,"  3  vols,  folio;  a  Latin  translation  <|f  Calrtiet's  "Com- 
mentaries on  the  Bible,"  17*31,  &c.,7  vols,  i  an  edition  of 
Baron  ius's  annals,  with  great  additions,  in  30  vols,  folio ; 
a  new  edition  of  the  Councila,  including  Labbe,  Cossart, 
&c.  1759,  &c.  30  vols,  folio;  a  new  edition  of  uEneas  Syl- 
vius (pope  Pius  II.)  orations,  with  many  hitherta  unpub- 
lished, 1755,  2  Vols.  4to.  He  was  the  editor  of  some  other 
ecclesiastical  collections  and  theological  pieces  of  inferior 
.note;  but  we  must  not  omit  the.  work  by  which  he  is  per- 
haps best  known  in  this  country,  his  excellent  edition  of 
Fabrjcius's  "Bibliotheca  Latina  mediae  et  infinite  aetatis}11 
6  vols.  4to,  generally  bound  in  three,  printed  at  Padua,  in 
1754.  This  alone  is  sufficient  to  place  him  in  the  first 
tank  of  literary  antiquaries^. 

MANSTEIN  (Christqpher  Herman  de),  a  celebrated 
Russian  officer  and  wrtfer,  was  born  et  Petersburgh  in 
1711.  He  was  first  a  lieutenant  in  the  Prussian  service, 
-and  afterwards  a  captain  of  genadiers  in  the  Russian  regi- 
ment of  Petersburgh.  At  die  death  of  the  czarina  Anne, 
he  was  employed  to  arrest  the  fiirons,  who  were  then  the 
regents  and  the  tyrants  of  the  young  prince  I  wan  III.  whft 
Rewarded  his  services  by  the  rank  of  colonel,  and  sone 
estates  im  Ingria.  But  when  the  throne  of  that  prince  was 
Seized  by  the  czarina  Elizabeth,  Manstein  lost  at  once  his 

1  £«broni  Vita  hatorm.  . 


mgwutiit  ftnd  bis  lands.  Sane  tupe  after,  ha  entered  again 
into  the  Prussian  senace,  where  be  acted  as  a  volunteer  in 
1 745  ;  and  baring  sufficiently  signalized  his  abilities  and 
courage,  was  appointed  major-general  *rt  infantry  in  1754. 
In  the  war  of  1766,  he  fell  the  very  eecond  year  by  a  shot ; 
leaving  ,two  .sons  and  four  daughter*.  Hi*  '*  Memoirs  of 
Russia,"  printed  at  Lyons  in  1772,  in  2  vols.  8vo,  ace  at 
once  historical,  political,  and  military.  They  contain  the 
priqcipaL  revolutions  of  that  empire,  and  the  wars,  pi  the 
Russians  against  the  Turks  and.  Tartars ;  besides  a  short 
sketch  of  we  military  and  marine  establishments,  and  also 
of  the  commence  of.  bis  country.  These  memoirs  com- 
iBoence  in  1727,  with  the  reign  of  Peter  II.  and  close  with 
the  first  year  of  the  empress  Elizabeth.  They  are  consi- 
dered as  deserving  of  much  reliance  from  the  truth  of  the 
facts,  and  the  sincerity  of  the  author.1 
.  MANTEGNA  (Ajtdrea),  an  eminent  Italian  painter, 
-was  bom  in  143 1,  at  Padua  or  in  its  district.  His  parents 
•were  poor,  but  Squarcione,  whose  pupil  he  became,  was 
•so  deeply  stnjck  with  his  talents,  that  be  adopted  him  for 
;his  son,  and  repented  of  it  when  Andrea  married  a  daugh~ 
ter  of  Jacopo  Bellini,  his  eompetitor.  But  the  censure 
which  now  took  place  of  the  praise  he  bad  before  lavished 
on  jbis  pupil,  only  added  to  bis  improvement.  Certain 
basso-relievos  of  the  ancient  Greek  style,  possessed  by  the 
academy  in  which  Andrea  studied,  captivated  his  taste  by 
-the  correctness  of  their  outline,  the  simplicity  of  the  forms, 
the  parallelism  of  <the  attitudes,  and  strictness  of  the  dra- 
'flery .:  .the  dry  servility  with  which  he  .copied  these*  suf- 
fered him  not  to  pqrtetve-that  he  had  lost  the  great  preixn 
•garive  of  die  originals,  the  soul  that  animates  them.  The 
sarcasms  of  Squarcione  on  his  picture  of  S.  Jacopo,  made 
ihim  seusible  of  the  necessity  of  expression  and  character ; 
the  gave  more  life- to  the  figures  in  the  story  of  S.  Cristo- 
phoro ;  and  in  the  face  of  St.  Marc,  in  the  church  of  S. 
Giusttna,  united  the  attention  of  a  philosopher  .with  the 
enthusiasm  of  a  prophet.  While  the  criticisms  of  Square 
cione  improved  Mantegna  in  expression,  the  friendly  ad- 
Vice  of  the  Bellini  directed  his  method,  and -fixed  bis  prin- 
ciples of  oqIout.  During  his  short  stay  at  Venice,  he  made 
himself  master  of  every  advantage  of  that  school;  and  ki 
some  of  his  pictures  there  are  tones  and  tints  in  flesh  and 

i  Diet  Hist. 

MANTE6  N  A.  25? 

laridscape,  of  a  richiie**  and  zest  equal  to'thd  best  Vene- 
tians of  his  day.    Wbetber  he  taught  Bellini  perspective  is 
uncertain  ;  Lomazzo  affirms  *  that  Mantegna  was  the  first  - 
who  opened  the  eyes  of  artists  in  that  branch." 

The  chief  abode  and  the  school  of  Mantegna  were  at 
Mantua,  where  under  the  auspices  of  Marchess  Lodovico 
Gonzaga,  he  established  himself  with  his  family,  but  be 
continued  to  work  in  other  places,  and  particularly  at  Ropae, 
where  the  chapel  which  he  had  painted  for  Innocenzio 
VIII.  in  the.  Vatican  existed,  though  injured  by  age,  at 
the  accession  of  Pius  VI.  The  style  of  those  frescoes 
proved  that  he  continued  steady  in  his  attachment  to  the 
antique,  but  that  from  a  copyist  he  was  become  an  imitator. 
Of  his  wor^s  in  oil  Mantua  possesses  several;  but  the  prin- 
cipal one,  the  master-piece  of  the  artist,  and  the  assem- 
blage of  his  powers,  the  picture  4ella  Vittoria,  afterwards 
in  the  Oratorio  de  Padri  di  S.  Filippo,  is  now  at  Paris.  It 
is  a  votive  picture  dedicated,  for  a  victory  obtained,  to  die 
Madonna  seated  on  her  throne  with  the  infant  standing  on 
her  lap,  and  giving  benediction  to  the  kneeling  marquis  in 
arms  before  her.  At  one  side  of  the  throne  stands  the 
archangel  Michael,  holding  the  mantle  of  the  Madonna;  at 
the  other  are  S.  George,  S.  Maurice,  John  the  Baptist, 
and  S.  Elizabeth  on  her  knees.  The  socle  of  the  throne  is 
ornamented  with  figures  relitive  to  the  fall  of  Adam-:  the 
scene  is  a  leafy  bower  peopled  by  birds,  and  here  and 
there  open  to  a  lucid  sky.  No  known  work  of  Mantegna 
equals  in  design  the  style  of  this  picture  :  they  generally 
shew  him  dry  and  emaciated,  here  he  appears  in  all  the 
beaaty  of  select  forms  :  the  two  infants  and  St.  Elizabeth 
are  figures  of  dignity,  so  the  archangel  who  seems  to  have 
been,  by  the  conceit  of  his  attitude  and  the  care  bestowed 
on  him,  the  painter's  favourite  object.  The  head  has  thjt 
beauty  and  the  blootn  of  youth,  the  round  fleshy  neck  and 
tbte  breast,  to  where  it  confines  with  the  armour,  are  treated 
with  great  art,  the  expression  is  to  a  high  degree  spirited, 
and  as  characteristic.  The  countenance  of  the  Madonna  is 
mild  and  benign,  that  of  Christ  humane.  The  future  pro- 
phet is  announced  in  the  uplifted  area  of  St.  John.  The 
guardian  angel  kindly  contemplates  the  suppliant,  who 
prays  with  devout  simplicity:  The  whole  has  art  air  of  life. 
-All  the  draperies,  especially  that  of  St.  Elizabeth,  are 
elegant,  and  correctly  folded;  with  more  mass  and  less 
intersection   of  surfaces,   they  would  be   perfect*      Tba 



extreme  finish  of  execution,  as  it  has  net  here  tfcat  dryness ' 
which  disfigures  most  other  works  of  this  master,  does  not 
impair  the  brilliancy  of  colour.  The  head  of  the  Ma-  " 
donna,  of  the  infant,  of  St  Michael,  have  a  genial  bloom 
of  tints*  The  lights  are  everywhere  true,  the  shades  alone 
are  sometimes  too  grey  or  too  impure.  The  general  scale 
of  light  has  more  serenity  than  splendour,  more  the  air<>f 
nature  than  of  art,  but  the  reflexes  are  often  cut  off  too 
glaringly  from  the  opaque  parts.  The  whole  of  the  picture 
has  preserved  its  tone  to  this  day,  is  little  damaged,  and 
in  no  place  retouched. 

Of  the  remainder  of  Mautegna's  works,  besides  some 
frescoes  of  considerable  merit,  but  much  injured,  in  a  sa-  > 
loon  of  the  castle  of  Mantua,  and  the  well  known  triumph 
of  Caesar  in  various  compartments  at  Hampton  court,  little 
now  remains.     His  name  is  more  frequent  in  galleries  and 
collections,  than  his  hand ;  lanknesp  of  form,  rectilinear 
folds,  yellow  landscape,  and  qpinute  polished  pebbles,  are 
less  genuine  signs  of  originals  than  correctness  of  design  . 
and  delicacy  of  pencil*     It  is  not  probable  that  a  man  so 
occupied  by  large  works,  and  so  much  engraving,  should 
have  had  time  to  finish  many  cabinet-pictures  :  the  series  . 
of  his  plates  consist  of  upwards  of  fifty  pieces,  executed 
by  his  own  hand ;  tod  though  he  was  not  the  inventdr  of 
the  art,  he  was  certainly  the  first  engraver  of  bis  time. 

Andrea  had  great  influence  on  the  style  of  his  age,  nor 
was  the  imitation  of  bis  style  confined  to  his  own  school ; 
Frantesco,  and  another  of  bis  sons,  finished  some,  of  the 
frescoes  which  he  had  begun  in  the  castle,  and  added  the 
beautiful  ceiling  which  shews  that. the  science  of  fore* 
shortening,  and  what  the  Italians  call  "  del  sotto  in  su," 
though  Melozio  be  its  reputed  author,,  was  carried  much 
farther  by  MantegM  and  his  followers.  Mantegna  died  in 
1505.  Besides  his  talents  for  painting,  Mantegna  was  one 
of  the  earliest  engravers  on  metal,  some,  indeed,  say  the 
very  first,  but  this  does  not  appear  to  have  been  the  case. 
Strutt,  who  gives  a  list  of  his  principal  engravings,  has  . 
also  exhibited  a  specimen  in  his  Dictionary.1 

^M  ANTON  (Thomas),  one  of  the  .most  learned  and  emi- 
nent nonconformists  of  the  seventeenth  century,  was  bora 
at  Lawrence  Lydiard,   ift  Somersetshire,  in  1620.     Hia 


i  By  Puseli  in  tbe  last  edition  of  Pilkington.    Mr*  P.  has  bestowed  more  thaa 
usual  pains  on  this  article.— See  also  ^ullait's  Acadeaieties  Sciences.— Roscoe'fc  ' 
Lsjcaso  and  Leo.— Strutt.  * 

MANTQN.  355 

father  and  grandfather  were  both  clergymen,  byt  of  them 
we  have  no  account,  except  that  his  father  was  settled  at 
Whimpole  in  Devonshire,  and  sent  has  sou.  to  th£  free* 
school  at  Tiverton:  .  Here  his  progress  was  such  that;  he 
wa?  thought  qualified  to  begin  his  academical  studies  a( 
the  age  of  fourteen,  and  about  a  year  after,  in  1635,  he 
was  entered  of  Wadham  college,  Oxford.    From  thence, 
in  1639,   he  removed  to  Hart-hall,    where  he  took  his 
bachelor's  degree  in  arts.     Wood  says,  he  was  accounted 
in  his  college,  "  a  hot-beaded  person,"— a  character  very  • 
remote  fronj  .that  which  he  sustained  throughout  .life,-  apd 
when  all  eyes,  were  upon  bioi.     After  studying  divinity,  be 
was  admitted  to  deacon's  orders  by  the  celebrated  Dr.  Hall, 
bishop  of  Exeter,  and  although  this. wa%  sooner  than  Mr. 
Man  ton  approved  upon  maturer  thought,  bishop  Hall  ap- 
pears to.  have  thought  him  duly  qualified,  and  predicted 
that  "  he  would  prove  an  extraordinary  person.91     As  he 
Came  into  public  life  when  principles  of  disaffection  to  the 
church  were  generally  prevalent,  it  appears  that  he  en- 
tered so  far  into  the  spirit  of  the  times,  as  to  be  content 
with  deacon's  orders,  and  to  deny  the  necessity  of  those 
of  the  priest     - 

His  ministerial  functions  were  exercised  in  various 
places*  first  at  Sowton  near  Exeter,  and  then  at  Colyton 
ill  Devonshire,  where  he.  was  much  respected.  Removing, 
to  London,  he  became  more  admired  for  his  talents  in  the 
pulpit,  and  about  1643  was  presented  to  the  living  of  Stoke 
Newington,  by  colonel  Popham,  and  here  preached  those 
lectures  on  the.  epistles  of  St.  James  and  St.  Jude,  which  be 
afterwards  published  in  1651  and  1662,  4to.  During  his 
residence  at  Newington,  he  often  pieachad  in  London, 
a,nd  is  said  to  have  preached  the  second  sermon  before  .the 
sons  of  the  clergy,  an  institution  then  set  on  foot,  chiefly 
through  the  influence  o£  Dr.  Hall,  son  to  the  bishop,  who 
pleached  the  first.  He  was  also,  one  of,  those  who  were, 
called  occasionally  to  preach  before  the  parliament,  but 
being  a  decided  enemy  to  the  m$rd£r  of  the  king,  he  gave 
great  ofienot  by  a  sermon  in  which  he  touched  on  that 
subject.  In  1651  he  shewed  equal  contempt  for  the  ty- 
*ai\ny  of  the.  usurpers,  by  preaching  a  funeral  sermon  for 
Mr.  Love  (see  Christopher  Lose),  and  in  neither  case 
allowed  the  fears  of  his  friends  to  prevent  what  be  thought 
bis  duty.      .  , 

.«*  M  ANT  ON. 

In  1656  Ke  removed  frdm  Stoke-Newington>  oif  beings 
presented  to  the  living  of  Covent  garden  by  the  earl,  after- 
wards duke  of  Bedford,  wbo  bad  a  high  respect  for  bin*. 
At  this  church  he  bed  a  numerous  auditory.  Arafcbtsbop 
Usher,  who  was  one  of  his  hearers,  used  to  say  that  he 
was  one  of  the  best  preachers  in  England,  and  had  the  grt 
of  reducing  the  substance  of  whole  volumes  into  a  narrbtr 
oonipass,  and  representing  it  to  great' advantage.  Although 
He  bad  already,  by  the  two  sermons  above  noticed,  shewn 
that  he  was  far  from  courting  the  favours  of  government, 
Cromwell,  wbo  well  knew  how  to  avail  himself  of  religions 
influence  ahd  popular  talents,  sent  for  him  in  1953,  when 
he  assumed  the  protectorate  j  and  desired-  him  tb  pray  at 
Whitehall  on  the  morning  of  bis  installation ;  and  aboot 
the  same  time  made  hkti  one  of  bis  chaplains*  He  was 
dominated  also  by  parliament  one  of  a  committee  of  divines 
to  draw  tip  a  scheme  of  fundamental  doctrines.  In  the 
same  year  he  was1  appointed  one' of  tbe  committee  for  the*' 
trial  and  approbation  of  ministers,  and  appears  to  have 
acted  in  this  troublesome  office  with  considerable'  modera- 
tion. What  influence  he  had  with  Cromwell,  he  employed 
for  the  benefit  of  others,  and  particularly  solicited  him  to 
spare  the  life  of  Dr.  Hewit,  a  loyalist,  whom  Cromwtell 
executed  for  being  concerned  in  a  plot  to  restore^Cbariefc  II. 
In  1 660,  when  the  days  of  usurpation  were  over,  Mr.  Maim 

,  fon  co-operated  openly  in  the  restoration  of  Charles,  was 
one  of  tbe  ministers  appointed  to  wait  upon  bis  majesty  af 

'  Breda,  and  was  afterwards  sworn  dad  of  his  majesty's  chap* 
lains.  In  tbev  same  year  he  wasj  by  mandamus^ '  created* 
doctor  of  divinity  at  Oxford. 

He  was  then  one  of  the  ministers  who  waited  upoti  the? 
king  after  his  arrival,  to  beg  his  majesty's  interposition  for" 
reconciling  the  differences  in  the  church ;  and  afterwards 
joined  several  of  bis  brethren,  in~a  conference  with  the' 
episcopal  clergy,  at  the  lord  chancellor's  bouse ;  prepara- 
tory to  the  declaration  of  his  majesty,  vrbo  waft  likewise 
present.  Being  satisfied  with  this  declaration,  Dr.  Matiton 
continued  in  his  living  of  Covent-gardeny  and  received 
episcopal  institution  from  Dn  Sheldon,  bishop  of  London, 
Jan.  16, 1 66 1,  after  having  first  subscribed  tbe  doctrinal 
articles  aniyt>f  the  church  of  England,  arid  taken  the  oaths 
of  allegiance  and  supremacy,  and  of  canonical  obedience 
in  all  Slings  lawful  and  honest.  He  also  allowed  that  tbe 
common-prayer  should  be  read  in  his  church.     Soon  after. 

M  A  N  T  0  N.  **7 

be  w*$  &tf#ted  the  deanery  pf  Rochester,  which  be  "might 
have  held  until   1662,  and  enriched  himself  by  letting 
leases  *  but,  either  dissatisfied  with  the  advances  he  bad 
Already  made  towards  conformity,  or  foreseeing  that  greater 
would  soon  be  expected,  be  honourably  refused  to  enrioh 
hi&aelf  by  accepting  a  dignity,  the  very  existence  of  which 
be  and  bis  brethren  were  prepared  to  oppose.    In  1 66  i  he 
was  one  of  the  commissioners  at  the*  Savoy  conference, 
and  continued  preaching  until  St.  Bartholomew's  day  in 
J6GJ2,  when   he  was  obliged  to  resign  bis  livings     After 
this  he  preached  occasionally,  either  in  private  or  public* 
a*  be  found  it  convenient,  particularly  during  the  indul- 
gence granted  to  the  nonconformists  from  1668  to  .1670; 
but  was  imprisoned  for  continuing  the  practice  when  it  be- 
came illegal.     From  this  time  bis  history  is  too  generally 
involved  with  that  of  his  brethren  to  admit  of  being  sepa- 
rated.    He  preserved,  amidst  all.  vicissitudes*  the  friends- 
ship  of  the  duke  of  Bedford,  the  duke  of  Richmond,  lord 
.Wharton,  and  many  other  persons  of  rank.  *  To  this  they 
were  probably  induced  by  a  congeniality  of  principle;  but 
independent  of  this*  Dr.  Manton  was  a  man  of  great  learn- 
ing and  extensive  reading,  and  his  conversation  aa  much 
recommended  him  to  men  of  the  world,  as  to  those  who 
admired  his  pious  services.    Waller,  the  poet,  said  "  that 
he  never  discoursed  with  such  a  man  as  Dr.  Manton  in  alt 
bis  life."     He  was  also  a  person  of  extraordinary  charity, 
and  supplicated  the  assistance  of  his  great  friends  more  for 
the  poor  than  for  himself,  being  perfectly  disinterested. 
Wood  has  misrepresented  his  character  in  all  these  respects. 
His   constitution,  although  a  man   of  great  temperance, 
early  gave   way  \   and    his  complaints  terminating  in   a 
lethargy,  he  died  Oct.  18,  1677,  in  the  fifty-seventh  year 
of  his  age.     He  was  buried  in  the  chancel  of  the  church  at 
Stoke  Newington,    where   his   intimate   friend   Dr.  Bates 
prea'ehed  his  funeral  sermon,  which  includes  a.  very  copious 
character  of  him. 

He  published  in  his  lifetime  only  some  occasional  ser- 
mons, and  the  Commentaries  on  St  Jude  and  St.  James, 
already  mentioned,  except  a  controversial  work,  entitled 
"  Smectymnuus  Redivivus,  being  an  answer  to  a  book  enr 
titled  An  humble  remonstrance."  After  his  death,  va- 
rious treatises  and  collections  of  sermons  were  printed  se- 
parately,  all  of  which,  if  we  are  not  mistaken,  were  aft^r- 

Vou  XXI.  S 

25*  M  A  N  T  O  N. 

wards  incorporated  in  an  edition  of  his  "  Works"  in  five 
large  volumes,  1681—1691,  Folio.1 

MANTUAN  (Baptist),  an  Italian  poet  of  great  tem- 
porary fame,  was  born  at  Mantua,  whence  he  took  his 
name,  in  1448,  and  not  in  1444,  as  Cardan  and  others 
have  said ;  for  Mantuan  himself  relates,  in  a  short  account 
#f  bis  own  life,  that  he  was  born  under  the  pontificate  of 
Nicholas  V.  and  Nicholas  was  only  made  pope  in  March 
1447.  He  was  of  the  illustrious  family  of  the  Spagnoli, 
being  a  natural  son  of  Peter  Spagnolo,  as  we  learn  from 
Paul  Jovius,  who  was  his  countryman,  and  thirty-three 
years  old  when  Mantuan  died,  and  therefore  must  have 
known  the  fact.  Mantuan  too  speaks  frequently  and  highly, 
in  his  works,  of  his  father  Peter  Spagnolo,  to  whom  he 
ascribes  the  care  of  his  education.  In  his  youth,  he  ap- 
plied himself  ardently  to  books,  and  began  early  with  Latin 
poetry,  which  he  cultivated  all  his  life ;  for  it  does  not  ap- 
pear.that  he  wrote  any  thing  in  Italian.  He  entered  him- 
self, we  do  hot  know  exactly  when,  among  the  Carmelites, 
and  came  at  length  to  be  general  of  his  order ;  which  dig- 
nity, upon  some  disgust  or  other,  he  quitted  in  1515,  and 
devoted  himself  entirely  to  the  pursuit  of  the  belles-lettres. 
He  did  not  enjoy  his  retirement  long,  for  he  died  in  March 
1516;  upwards  of  eighty  years  of  age.  The  duke  of  Man- 
tua, some  years  after,  erected  to  his  memory  a  marble 
statue  crowned  with  laurel,  and  placed  it  next  to  that  of 
Virgil ;.  and  even  Erasmus  went  so  far  as  to  say  that  a 
time  would  come,  when  Baptist  Mantuan  would  not  be 
placed  much  below  his  illustrious  countryman.  In  this 
opinion  few  critics  will  now  join.  If  he  had  possessed  the 
talents  of  Virgil,  he  had  not  his  taste,  and  knew  not  how 
to  regulate  them.  Yet  allowance -is  to  be  made,  when  we 
consider  that,  in  the  age  in  which  he  lived,  good  taste  had 
not.  yet  emerged.  Lilius  Gyraldns,  in  his  "  Dialogues 
upon  the  poets  of  his  own  times,"  says,  "that the  verses 
which  Mantuan  wrote  in  his  youth  are  very  well ;  but  that* 
his  imagination  afterwards  growing  colder,  his  latter  pro- 
.  ductions  have  uot  the  force  or  vigour  of  his  earlier.'*  *Vt5 
may  add,  that  Mantuan  was  more  solicitous  about  the 
number  than  the  goodness  of  his  poems ;  yet,  considering 
that  be  lived  when  letters  were  but  just  reviving,  it  must 
be  owned,  that  he  was  a  very  extraordinary  person. 

1  Memoirs  of  Dr.  Manton  by  Win.  Harris,  1725,  8vo. — Calamy. — NeaVsPu- 
ritaflft.-— Ath.  Ox.  vol.  U. — Wilson's  Hist,  of  Dissenting  churches  and  mettiags* 

M  A  N  T  U  A  N.  /•  2S9 


His  poetical  works  were  first  printed,  in  a  folio  volume 
without  a  date,  consisting  of  his  eclogues,  written  chiefly  in: 
bis  youth ;  seven  pieces  in  honour  of  the  virgins  inscribed  on 
the  kalendar,  beginning  with  the  virgin  Mary;  .these  he  calls 
"Parthenissal."  "ParthenissaII."&c;  four  books  of  Silv® 
or  poems  on  different  subjects ;  elegies,  epistles,  and,  in 
shorty  poems  of  every  description.  This  was  followed  by 
an  edition  at  Bologna,  1502,  folio,  and  by  another  at  Paris 
in  1513,  with  the  commentaries  of  Murrho,  Brant,  and 
Ascensius,  3  vols.  fol.  but  usually  bound  in  one.  A  more 
complete,  but  now  more  rare,  edition  of  them  was  pub- 
lished at.  Antwerp,  1576,  in  four  vols.  8vo,  under  this 
title,  "  J.. Baptists  Mantuani,  Carmelits,  theologi,  philo- 
sophi,  po£t8B,  &  oratoris  clarissimi,  opera  omnia,  pluribus 
libris  aucta  &  restituta."  The  Commentaries  of  the  Paris 
edition  are  omitted  in  this;  but  the  editors  have  added,  it 
does  not  appear  on  what  account,  the  name  of  John,  to 
Baptist  Man tuan.' 

MANUTIUS  (Aldus),  the  elder  of  three  justly  cele- 
braj^d  printers,  was  born  about  1447,  at  Bassiano,  a  small 
town  in  the  ,duchy  of  Sermonetta.  He  was  educated  at 
Rome,  under  Gaspar  of  Verona  and  Domitius  Calderinus, 
hpthof  whom  he  has  mentioned  in  several  of  his  prefaces, 
aaip?n  of  talents  and  erudition.  Having  acquired  a  know- 
1^4g?  ofthe  Latin  language  from  them,  he  went  to  Ferrara 
to  study  Greek  under  Baptist  Guarini,  and,  probably 
after  his  own  studies  were  completed,  became  the  pre- 
ceptor of  the  prince  of  Carpi,  a  nephew  of  the  .celebrated 
Picus  of  Mirandula.  In  1482,  Ferrara  being  closely  be- 
sieged by  a  Venetian  army,  he  retired  to  Mirandula,  and 
spent  some  time  in  the  society  of  Picus,  who,  though  not 
quite  twenty  years  of  age,  was  already  a  consummate 
master  of  almost  $11  learning.  From  Mirandula,  Aldus 
went,  some  time  after,  to  reside  with  his  pupil,  who* 
though,  only  twelve  years  of  age,  had  made  such  advances 
in  learning,  that  he  was  already  qualified  to  take  a  part  in 
the  serious  conversations,  and  the  designs  of  his  uncle  and 
hjs  preceptor;  and  it  is  believed  to  have  been, at  this  time, 
that^  4'dos  conceived  the  project  of  bis  subsequent  printing 
establishment  at  Venice,  to  the  expences  of  which,  Piod$ 
and  his  pupil  probably  contributed.  He  began,  however, 
to  print, '^t  Venice,  in  1488,  with  an  edition  of  the  small 

l  Niceron,  xoh  XXVII— (Slinguene  Hirt.  J, it,  D'ltalie.— Rwcoe'i  Lco.# 

S  2 

MO  MAN  U  T  I  V  & 

Greek  poem  of  Mtistfus,  in  quarto,  with  a  Latin  transla- 
tion, but  without  date.  In  1 494  be  published  the  Greek 
grammar  of  Lascaris,  and  in  14*95,  in  one  collection,  the 
gracftmatical  treatises  of  Theodore  Gaza,  Apollonius,  and 

He  had  already  begun  to  prepare  for  the  press  the  ma- 
nuscripts of  the  then  unprinted  originals  of  the  works  of 
Ari6tofle,  which,  in  number  and  extent,  were  sufficient  to 
fill  five  volumes  in  folio.  Although  the  state  of  these  MSB. 
required  almost  incredible  efforts  of  diligence  and  erudition, 
Aldus  brought  out  a  first  volume  in  1495,  and  the  edition 
was  completed  in  1498.  Aldus  was  from  that  time  con- 
fessed, without  dispute,  to  stand  as  an  editor  in  the  very 
first  rank  among  his  contemporaries.  He  was  not,  how* 
ever,  the  very  first  that  printed  an  entire  Greek  book. 
The  Greek  grammar  of  Lascaris  had  been  printed  in  folio, 
at  Milan,  in  1476.  The  works  of  Homer  were  printed  at 
Florence  in  i  488  ;  and  several  other  Greek  works  hkd  also 
appeared  in  print,  when  Aldus  began  his  establishment  j 
yet  he  must  be  allowed  the  praise  of  having  first  used  ele- 
gant Greek  types,  and  printed  from  thfc  most  corrfect'  and 
authentic  manuscripts* 

In  imitation,  it  is  said,  of  the  hand-writing  of  the  cele* 
brated  Petrarch,  Aldus  procured  the  first  examples  of  thtft 
which  is  called,  in  printing,  the  Italic  character,  to  be  cut 
and  cast  for  him  by  Francesco  of  Bologna,  about  150O. 
An  edition  of  the  works  of  Virgil,  in  octavo,  was  the  first 
book  he  printed  in  this  type,  which  was  long  known  among 
printers  by  the  name  of  Aldine.  The  inventor  obtained 
a  patent  from  the  Senate  of  Venice,  for  its  exclusive  use 
for  ten  years,  from  the  13th  of  November,  1502;  and 
another  similar  patent  from  pope  Alexander  the  Sixth, 
from  the  17th  of  November,  1502.  The  last  of  these  was 
renewed  for  fifteen  years  more,  by  Julius  the  Second,  on 
the  27th  of  January,  1513;  and  again  by  Leo  the  Tenth, 
on  the  28th  of  the  following  November. 

From  1 502,  the  different  works  printed  by  Aldus,  were 
reprinted  at  Lyons,  with  a  close  imitation  of  the  Aldine 
type  and  edition.  The  very  prefaces  of  Aldus  and  his  as- 
sistants, were  copied  in  the  editions  of  Lyons.  But  the 
imitation  was  disgraced  by  many  typographical  errors. 
'Aldus,  observing  and  noting  these,  publishe^Mfethe  16th 
of  March,  1503,  a  list  in  which  they  were  particularly 
enumerated,  arid  which  he  appears  to  have  distributed  to 

M&R.U-JT.IHA  281 

the  purchasers  of  copies  of  bis  own  genuine  editions,  Thte 
canning  tnd  industrious  Lyonne§e  took  this  list  of  their 
erroirs,  corrected  them  in  new  editions  of  the  same  books  ; 
and  thus  still  divided  the  market  with  Aldus,  and  uow 
Wore  successfully  than  at  the  first.       . 

In  151)1,  1502,  1503,  1504,  and  1505,  Aldus  printed  ia 
folio,  of  in  octavo,  a  considerable  number  of  the  best  au* 
thors^  Greek,  Roman,  and  Italian*  such  ,as  Demosthenes* 
Lucian,  Dante,  Horace,  Petrarch,  Cicero's  epistles  to  bis 
familiar  friends,  Juvenal,  Lucan,  Homer*  Sophqples,  £u« 
ripjdps,  &c.  &c.  He  published,  at  the  least,  a,  Volume 
every  Theae  publications  were  in  all  respects  m* 
celleitf.  .Tbjey.wer^af  wo*k$  the  most  valuable  in  aJLl  lite- 
ratyre*  anpienjt  or.  modem.  The  composition  of.  the  types 
WPtijnely  regular  and  .uniform;  .the  pres£»werk  was  admire 
abljf;  executed ;  and  the  ink  sQ  truly  good,  that  it  retains 
to  this  day  all  its  beauty. and  lustre  of  cqIquc  .  , 

Iq  the  necessary  pains  upon  these  work^  Aldus  bad  the 
assistance  of  some  of  the  best  and  most  learned  among  his 
contemporaries.  His  house  became  a  sort  of  new  academy. 
The  learned  in  Venice  began,  about  J 500,  to. assemble 
there  pn  6xed  days  of  frequent  recurrence,  for  conyersa* 
lion  on  interesting  literary,  topics :  and  their  meetings  were 
continued  for  several  years  subsequent.  The  topics  on 
which  they  conversed  were,  usually,  what  books  were 
fittest  to  be  printed,  what  manuscripts  might  be  consulted 
with  the  greatest  advantage,  what  readings,  out  of  a  diver- 
sity, for  any  one  passage,  ought  to  be  preferred.  Among 
those  who  attended  these  -conversations,  were,  besides 
Aldus  himself,  the  famous  A.  Navagerus,  P.  Bembo  the 
celebrated  cardinal,  Erasmus,  when  he  was  at  Venice, 
P.  Alcionius,  M.  Musurus,  Marc-Ant.  Cocch.  Sabellicus, 
Albertus  Pius,  prince  of  Carpi,  and  others,  whose  names, 
though  they  were  then  eminent,  are  not  now  equally  in 
remembrance,/  Among  those  who  assisted  Aldus  in  the 
correction  of  the  press,  were  men  not  less  eminent  than 
Demetrius  Cbalcondylas,  Aleander,  afterwards  famous  as 
a  cardinal,  and  even  Erasmus. 

There  are  some  curious  circumstances  in  the  history  of 
the  acquaintance  and  connexion  between  Erasmus  and 
Aldus, :  The  "  Adagia"  of  Polydore  Vergil  bad  been 
printed  at* Venice,  and  well  received  in  the  world.  Eras- 
jftus,  aware  of ■,  this  fact,  wrote  from  Bologna,  to  request 
that  Aldus  would  undertake  the  printing  of  his  "  Adagia." 


362  M  A  N  U  T  I  U  S. 


Aldus  readily  agreed  to  tbe  proposal,  and  invited  Erasmus 
upon  it  to  Venice.  When  Erasmus  came,  it  was  not  till 
after  some  delay  that  be  obtained  admittance  to  tbe  print- 
er's closet,  whose  servants  were  not  aware  of  the  stranger's 
literary  consequence.  But  Aldus  no  sooner  knew  that  it 
was  Erasmus  who  waited  for  him,  than  be  hastened  to  re- 
ceive his  visitor  with  open  arms.  He  did  more:  he  stop- 
ped the  progress  of  several  important  Greek  and  Latin 
works,  which  he  had  then  in  the  press,  to  make  room  for 
the  printing  of  the  great  collection  of  Erasmus  with  the 
desired  expedition.  Erasmus  was,  in  the  meaft  time,  en- 
tertained in  the  house  of  Andrew  d' A  sola,  father-in-law  to 
Aldus,  with  whom  Aldus  and  his  wife  appear,  by  Erasmus** 
account,  to  have  lived.  D1  Asola  was  rich ;  yet  his  table 
was,  even  for  that  of  an  Italian  family,  parsimoniously 
served :  and  Erasmus  loved  good  cheer.  The  Dutchman 
made  frequent  remonstrances  to  bis  friend  Aldus,  against 
tbe  thinness  of  the  soups,  the  absence  of  solid  animal  food, 
the  weakness  and  sourness  of  the  wine,  the  general  scanti- 
ness of  the  whole  provisions.  ♦  The  Italians*  whose,  climate 
and  natural  habits  had  taught  them  to  KveJ  much  nffiore 
sparingly  than  was  usual  for  the  Dut£h  and  (iertnadk;  'wete 
astonished  and  offended  by  bis  complaints.  Stone  sittall 
additions,  such  as  a  fowl  or  two,  and.  perhaps  half  a  dozen 
eggs  a  week,  were  made  on  his  account  to  the  commons  of 
the  family.  But  these  dainties  were  sometimes  intercepted 
by  the  women  in  the  kitchen,  on  their  way  to  tbe  table. 
On  the  table,  they  were  devoured  by  tbe  rest  who  sat  at  it 
still  more  eagerly  than  by  Erasmus.  And  if  he  was  not 
absolutely  starved,  he  was  assuredly  a  good  deal  mortified 
in  his  appetite  for  a  glass  of  good  wine  and  a  mess  of  deli- 
cate and  savoury  meat,  before  he  could  see  the  printing 
of  his  "  Adagia"  entirely  at  an  end.  His  humours  and 
complaints  made  him  at  length  a  very  unpleasant  inmate 
to  the  family ;  while  he  was,  on  the  other  hand,  dissatis- 
fied still  more,  that  his  murmurs  were  not  more  complai- 
santly,  attended  to.  They  parted  with  mutual  dislike. 
Erasmus  wrote  afterwards  his  dialogue,  which  has  the  title 
of  "  Opulentia  Sordida,"  in  ridicule  of  the  parsimonious 
spirit,  and  the  scantily-served  table  of  Andrea  D'Asola. 
Aldus  and  bis  successors,  whenever  they,  after  this  time, 
reprinted  any  work  by  Erasmus,  avoided  to  mention  his 
name,  and  gave  him  tiimply  tbe  appellation  of  "  Transal- 
pine quidam  homo.'' 

M  AN  U  T  I  U  S.  263 

Aldus,  not  thinking  that  he  did  enough  for  the  interests 
of  literature,  in  printing,  for  the  first  time,  so  many  ex- 
cellent books  in.  the  Latin,  Greek,  and  Italian  languages, 
gave,  in  his.  Latin  grammar,  in  1501,  a  short  introduction 
to  the  knowledge  of  the  Hebrew  tongue ;  and  even  propo** 
sed  to  give  a  beautiful  edition  of  the  original  Hebrew  of 
the  sacred  Scriptures,  with  the  Septuagint  and  the  Vulgate 
Latin  versions.  Of  this,  however,  be  was  diverted  from 
printing  more  than  a  specimen  sheet.  That  sheet,  now  in 
the  royal  library  at  Paris,  exhibits  the  text  in  the  three 
different  languages,  each  occupying  one  of  three  parallel 
.  columns  on  the  same  page.  It  is  to  be  regretted  that 
Aldus  should  have  been  hindered  from  completing  a  design 
so  noble. 

In  1500,  Aldus,  married  the  daughter  of  the  above-men- 
tioned Andrew  of  Asola,  who  had  been  a  printer  of  some 
reputation  at  Venice,  and  who  soon  after  became  his  son- 
in-law's  partner.  The  "Letters  of  Pliny,"  1508,  is  the 
first  book  which  marks  this  partnership,  "  in  eedibus  Aldi 
et  Andre©  Asulani  soceri."  In  1 506  Aldus  was  a  great 
sufferer  by  the  war  which  then  raged  in  Italy,  and  his 
printing  was  so  much  interrupted,  that  he  was  not  able  to 
resume  it  until  1512.  From  that  to  1515,  he  executed 
several  works,  and  was  proceeding  with  others  when  he 
died,  nearly  seventy  years  of  age,  in  the  last-mentioned 

The  character  of  Aldus  as  a  printer  is  so  well  known  to 
every  scholar,  and  to  such  only  it  can  be  interesting,  that 
it  is  unnecessary  to  enlarge  upon  it  here.  But  he  may  be 
considered  also  as  an  original  benefactor  to  the  literature 
of  the  age.  He  published  a  Latin  grammar  of  his  own 
composition;  and  in  1515,  after  his  death,  was  published 
by  bis  friend  Marcus  Musurus,  a  Greek  grammar,  which 
Aldus  had  compiled  with  great  research  and  industry.  He 
wrote  likewise  a  treatise  "  de  metris  Horatianis,"  which  is 
reprinted  in  Dr.  Combe's  edition  of  that  poet.  He  pro* 
duced  a  Greek  dictionary,  printed  by  himself,  in  folio, 
1497,  and  reprinted  by  Francis  D' Asola  in  1524.  He  was 
likewise  the  author  of  many  of  the  Latin  translations  of  the 
classics,  wrote  many  letters,  some  of  which  have  been 
published,  and  for  some  years  after  be  settled  at  Venice, 
gave  a  course  of  lectures  on  the  best  Greek  and  Roman 
authors,  which  was  attended  by  a  great  number  of  students. 
Aldus,  however,  has  not  escaped  the  censures  of  criticism. 

•M  M  A  K  U  T  I  U  fc 

Urceus  Godru4>  the  learned  professor  of  Bologna,  Mm- 
plained,  that  be  suffered  many  errofs  to  escape  imtof- 
reoted,  in  bis  editions  of  the  Greek  authors ;  that  be  s©14 
bis  copies  too  dear ;  and  printed  them  with  an  useless  and 
unsuitable  width  of  margin.     Later  critics  have  ndt  beetl 
sparing  of  remarks  somewhat  similar.     Ernesti,  in  bis  notM 
on  the  Letters  of  pliny,  blames  Aldus  for  excessive  bold- 
cess  of  conjectural  criticism.     In  the  preface  to  his  Taoittte* 
the  same  critic  remarks,  that  Aldus  rarely  made  on  the 
second  and  subsequent  editions  of  the  works  he  printed, 
any  alterations  but  such  as  consisted   in  negleeted  errors 
of  the  press.     It  is  indeed  true,  that  the  editions  of  Greek 
works  printed  by  Aldus,  are  not  always  so  correct  *s  his 
Latin  and  Italian  editions.     But  their  defects  are  owing 
to  the  disadvantages  of  Aldus's  situation,,  much  rather  than 
to  negligence,  or  inability  in  himself,  as  a  printer  and  a 
man  of  letters.     He  had  not  always  a  sufficient  dumber  of 
manuscripts  to  collate :  and  sonietjmea  he  could  not  bate 
the  benefit  of  the  judgment  of  a  sufficient  number  of  the 
learned  upon  the  difficulties  which  occurred  to  him.    After 
beginning  to  print  any  particular  work*  he  often  had  not 
leisure  to  pause  for  a  sufficient  length  of  time*  over  the 
difficulties  occurring  in  the  progress  of  the  edition.     He 
might,  in  some  instances,  also,  print  a  manuscript  which 
he  did  not  approve,  lest  it  should  otherwise  have  btiee  lost 
to  posterity. l 

MANtJTIUS  (Paul),  the  son  of  the  preceding,  was 
born  at  Venice  in  1 512.  After  his  father's  death,  he  lived 
with  bis  mother  and  her  other  children  at  Asqla,  at  some 
distance  from  Venice,  while  the  business  of  the  printing 
esabjishment  at  Venice  was  carried  on,  for  the  general 
benefit  of  the  family*  by  his  grandfather,  Andrea  D* Asolrf, 
and  the  Torresaiii,  his  maternal  uncles.  At  A  so  la  Paul 
fftad$  but  small  progress  in  letters ;  he  was,  however,  re- 
moved when  very  young  to  Vehioe,  where  be  bad  every 
advantage  of  instruction  and  encouragement  to  study; 
Bembo,  Sadolet,  BonarrUcus,  Reginald  Pole,  and  espe- 
cially Rambertus  and  Gasp.  Contarinus,  who  had  been 
bis  father's  friends,  todk  a  pleasure  to  excite  and  direct 
him  in  his  literary  pursuits*  Under  their  tuition  he  ap- 
plied to  his  studies  wich  such  zeal  and  assiduity  as  even  to 

i  Renouard's  "  Annates  de  I'lmprimem  des  Aides  ou  Hittoire  des  trois  Ma- 

nuce,"  1803,  2  vols.  8vo,  translated  and  abridged  in  the  Month.  Mag. 

M  AN  U  T  I  U  S,  26* 

injure  his  health,  bat  he  suffered  more  from  the  depute* 
that  took  place  respecting  tbe  partition  of  the  estates  of 
bis  father  and  hie  maternal  grandfather,  between  himself 
And  the  other  heirs.  His  uncles  *ad  himself  could  net 
agree  in  the  management  of  the  printing«bou8e,  and  in 
l§29  it  was  shot  up;  but  in  1533,  hating  arrived  at  the 
age  of  twenty-one,  he  again  opened  it,  and  renewed  tbe 
business  in  tbd  names,  mod  for  the  common  benefit,  of  the 
heirs  of  Aldus,  and  Andrea  D'Asola.  In  1540,  however, 
fthie  partnership  was  dissolved ;  and  from  tbis  period,  the 
business  was  continued  in  tbe  name!  of  the  sons  of  Aldus 

Paul  became  now  indefatigable  in  tbe  management  of 
the  printing  establishment;  and  as  tbe  most  valuable  re-* 
Bains  of  Grecian  literature  were  already  in  print,  deter- 
mined to  give  new  editions  of  the  best  Latin  authors.    As 
bis  admiration  had  been  principally  directed  to  the  style 
.and  eloquence  of  Cicero,,  the  first  work  be  printed  was  that 
author's  Weitises  on  Oratory,  which  appeared  from  bis  press 
in  1533,  and  the  same  year  he  published  Cicero's  Familiar 
Letters.    He  printed  also  at  this  time  the  fifth  Decade  of 
Livy,  11  Cortegiano,  by  Castiglione,  II  Petrarca,  and  Pon* 
tani  Carmioa,  torn*  I.    la  the  following  year  the  number 
of  Italiaii  and  Latin  books  which  he  published  was  very 
considerable,     His  first  Greek  publication  Was  Themistius* 
wbicb  was  speedily  followed  by  Isocrates  and  Aetius  Ami* 
denug.     In  these  publications  he  availed  himself  of  the 
literary  assistance  of  various  learned  friends,  whose  atten- 
tion and  corrections  gave  that  decided  superiority  to  the 
Akrtne  editions  which  his  father  bad  endeavoured  to  esta- 

In  1535  he  accepted  at*  invitation  to  Rome,  upon  the 
promise  of  an  opolent  and  eligible  situation;  but,  not  being 
received  with  vespett  or  attention,  he  returned  to  Venice, 
.and  resumed  his  studies  and  employment.  Having,  howv 
ever,  attained  no  degree  of  opulence,  ho  engaged  in  the 
business  of  education,  took  twelve  young  men  of  family 
into  his  hoose,  *nd  superintended  their  education  for  three 
years.  Of  these,  two  were  Mattb.  Senarega,  who  trans** 
lated  Cicero's  Letters  to  Atticus  into  Italian,  and  Paul 
Coutarinu*.  'trr  l£fe8  he  went  on  an  excursion  to  erfajmne 
the  Hfiann#crif)ts  m  certain  old 'libraries,  particularly  tbe 
library  of  the  Franoiscaos  in  Cfesena,"  which  contained 
some  M8S.  left  to  their  convent  by  Malbtesta  Novellas ; 

866  M  A  N  U  T  I  U  S. 

and  such  was  bis  reputation  at  this  time,  that  he  was  in- 
cited to  fill  the  chair  of  the  professor  of  eloquence  at 
Venice,  and  had  the  offer  of  a  similar  situation  at  Padua, 
vacant  by  the  death  of  fionamicus.  But  his  ill  health,  and 
bis  predilection  for  his  business,  induced  him  to  devote  his 
whole  time  to  the  printing-house,;  from  wtrick  &  great  num- 
ber of  the  classics  issued. 

After;  a  second  journey  to  Rome,  in  1546,  he  married 
Margarita,  the  daughter  of  Jerome  Odonys.  His*  eldest 
son,  Aldus,  the  subject  of  our  next  article,  was  the  first- 
fruit  of  this  marriage :  he  had  also  twb  other  sons,  who  died 
young,  and  a  daughter,  who  is  often  mentioned  in  his  let* 
ten*  and  was  married  in*  1573..  In  1556  an  acadtnsy  was 
established  at  Veuice, ,  in  the  house  of  Frederick  Badoarns, 
one  of  the  principal  senators:  of  the  republic, .  which  was 
composed  of  about  an  hundred  members,  who  endeavoured 
to  unite  every  species  of  literary  and,  scientific  excellence. 
Belonging  to  this  afcademy  was  a  printing-.bouse,  in  which 
it  w*s .  proposed  to  print  good  editions ,  of  all  books  and 
nttkieacfipts  already  known  to  exist,  as  well  as  the  original 
Stings  of  the  academicians.  Over,  this  establishment, 
Paul  was  appointed  to  preside,  and, it  was  completely  fur- 
nished with, new  founts  of  his  own  *yp£s,  and  he  had  under 
him  several  other  skilful  printers,  particularly  Dominick 
Jftevilacqua.  In  1558  and  1559,  fifteen  different  books 
were  printed  in  this  hopse,  none  very  large,  but  intended 
as  a  prelude  to  greater  undertakings,  of  which  a  catalogue 
was  published  both  in  Italian  and  Latin,  and  may  be  seen 
ip  tttnouard's  "  Annates  de  rimprimerie  des  Aides," 
vol.  I.  ,  The  books  printed  in  this  academy  were  all  exe- 
cuted with  admirable  correctness  and  beauty,  and  are  be* 
rcome  exceeding  scarce,  and  valuable*  Paul  was  farther 
honoured  with:  the  professorship  of  eloquence  in  this  aca- 
demy, which,  however,  did  not  exist  long.  It  was  pro* 
hably  thought  to  have  been  an  engine  in  Badoarus's  hands, 
bji  which  he  might  have  become  dangerous  to  the  state  j 
or  perhaps  its  expences  might  exceed  his  resources,  and 
drive  him  to  pecuniary  shifts  of  the  discreditable  kind.  In 
: August  1562,  however,  the  academy  was  dissolved  by  a 
public  decree. 

In  1561  Paul  had  been  invited  by  Pius  IV.  upon  terms 
of  great  honour  and  ath^ntage,  to  repair  to  Rome,  and 
engage  in  printing  the  Hply  Scriptures  and  the  works  of 
the  father*  of  the  churchy    He  accordingly  undertook  this 


journey,  of  which  his  holiness  bore  the  expences,  as  weH 
as  of  the  removal  of  bis  printing-materials  and  of  his  family ; 
and  conditioned  to  allow  him,  from  the  time  of  his  arrival, 
a  yearly  salary  of  at  least  500  crowns.-  From  this  time, 
till  the  death  of  Pius,  be  continued  to  exercise  bis. profes- 
sion as  a  printer -with  griat  .reputation  at  Rome,  while  he 
also  kept  open  his  printmg*house  at  Venice.  But  at 
length  dissatisfied  with  his  situation,  and  in  ill  health,,  he 
•left  ifloihe  in  September  1570,  and  after  visiting  several 
distinguished  places  in  Italy^  returned  to  Venice  in  May 
1572.  From  Venice,  after  a  very  short  stay,  he  went 
back  again  to  Rome,  where  he  was  cheered  <by  the  season- 
able liberality  of  the  pope,  Which  was  made  more  agree- 
able by  being  bestowed  without  any  exaction  *>f  personal 
labour  or  attendance.    '•  ■.;-.;.•::. 

■r  Much  of  his  life  appears  to  have  been  embittered  by 
sickness,  and  in  September  1573  his  health  began  to.  de- 
cline very  rapidly.  Three  months  after,  he  thought. him- 
self better,  but  he  had  still  an  extreme  weakness!  in  his 
•loins,  <  with  frequent  and;  severe  head-ach£s,  'tad -he.  re- 
'deifeedftb'  benefit  frorti  medicines.  On  the  6th.  ofrApril, 
1574,  he  expired  in  the  arms  of  his  son,  who,  had  just  ar- 
rived from  Venice  to  (attend  him:  in .  his  sickness,  \  He.* had 
lived  in  general  4steem;>  and  his  death  was  universally,  re- 
gretted. He  left  a  variety  of  writings, .  which  distinguish 
him  as  one  of  the  most  judicious  critics,  and'  one  of  the 
most  elegaut  Latin  writers  that/  modern  >  times  i  have  pro- 
duced. Of  these,  the  principal  are  his.  letters  in  Latin 
and  Italian,  his  Commentaries  on  the  works  of  his  favourite 
•Cicero,  and  his  treatise  "  De  Curia  Romana." .  The  pro* 
ductiens  of  *his  presses  are  all  of  the  highest  value,  for  both 
acquracy  and  beauty.1  .    m.:.  ...  ».  , 

.  MANUTIUS  (Aldus),  the  younger,  son  of  the  pre- 
ceding,^ was  born  m  1547.  His  father  paid  the  utmost 
attention  to  bis  ^education ;  and  so  extraordinary  was  the 
progress  of  the  youth  in  learning,  that  he  Was  enabled  to 
give  the  world  "  A  collection  of  elegant  *  phrases  in  the 
Tuscan  and  Latin  language*;"  when  .he  was  only  eleven 
years  of  age.  Other  juvenile  works  at,  different  periods 
marked  his  advances  in  classical  literature,  and  he  soon 
became  his  father's  assistant  in.  bis  labours.  When  very 
young,  he  conducted  the  printing-business  at  Venice  while 


1  Renouard,  fcc. 


father  was  engaged  at  Rome.  In »  1 572  he  married  * 
,ledy  of  the  Giunti  family,  so  well  known  ia  (he  annuls  of 
.typography;  and  oa  the  death  of  his  father  in  1574,  all  the 
eMCeree  of  the  Aldine  prats  devolved  upon  hifia.  He  waa, 
however,  less  calculated  for  the  business. of  a  (printer  than 
for  the  profession  of  an  author.  In  1$7T  he  was  appointed 
professor  of  the  belies  lettres  in  the  school  of  the  Venetian 
chancery,  in  which  young  men  designed  for  public  em- 
ploy ments.  were  educated.  This  Office  be  held  till  1 585, 
when  he  was  made  professor  of  rhetoric  at  Bologna..  In 
the.  same  year  lie  published  the.  "  .Life  rf  Cpam*  dc  Ma- 
-dici/'  whkb  wtas.sowell  received*  that  he!  was  [almost  int*- 
mediately  invited  to  undertake  the  professorship  <rf  .polite 
Ikeratujre.  at  Piaey  which  he  accepted,  aitbeftgh  he  received 
an  invitation  at  the  same  time  to  a  professorship  at  Rome* 
Which  bad  been  lately  held;  by  Muratus*  During  his  stay 
-el  Pisa  he  jr*oeived  the  degree  of  doctor  of  laws,  and  was 
admitted  a.  member  of  the  Florentine  academy,  on  which 
eeoasion  he  delivered  an  eloquent  oration  "  On  the  nature 
of  Petetiy."  He  now  paid  a  visit  to  Lucca  in  order  to  ob- 
tain materials  for  *  "  History  of  Castruccio  Castraoani," 
-which  he  afterwards  published*  and  which  is  much  ap- 
plauded by  Thuanus.  The  Roman;  professorship: being 
reserved  for  him,  he  removed  thither  in  1*588,  and  <iatead«» 
ing  to  spend  bis  life  there,  he  caused  hia  whojt  library  to 
be  brought  to  Rome  from  Venice,  at  a  very  greet  expenoe. 
He  was  in  high  favour  with  Sixtus  V.  who  gave  him  an 
apartment  in  the  Vatican,  and  a  table,  at  the  public- est* 
pence.  He  was  also  patronized  in  various. ways  by  Cle* 
snent  VIII.  He  difed'  in  the  fifty-firstyear  of  his  age,  in 
October,  1667/.  He  left  no  posterity,  and  with  him  ended 
the  glory  of  the  A 1  dine  press.  His1  library »  consisting  of 
80,000  volumes,  collected  by  himself  and  bis  predecessors, 
was  sold  to  pay  his  debts,.  He .  was  author  of  many  per- 
formances besides  those  already  mentioned,  but  the  moat 
celebrated  of  his  works  were  his  "  Commentaries  on  all 
the  Works  of  Cicero/'  in  ten  volumes/  His  "Familiar 
Letters/'  published  in  1592,  were  highly  esteemed ;  but 
M«  Itenouard  confesses,  that  were  it  not  from  fats  inheriting 
the  Aldine  offices,  it  might  not  have  been  remembered  be 
bad  ever  been  a  printer ;  yet,  though  difference  of  taste 
gave  hia  studies  a  different  bent,  his  numerous  writings, 
notwithstanding  they  were  inferior  to  bis  father's  and  grand- 
father's, sufficiently  prove  his  industry  and  learning,  and 

MA  PES.  *e» 

jtistify,  to  a  certain  point,  the  eommefidatkms  besttfwed  eh 
htm  by  ma»y  to  wham  bistfcerit*  were  known.  *  '  ' ) 

MAPES  (Walter),  mt  pfcet  of  some  celebrity  fbrkltf 
time*  which  was  that  -  of  •  Heeiry   II.  of  England,  whose 
chaplain  he  was  about  1190.     After  the  death  of  that 
mouarch  he  held  the  same  odice  under  prince  John,  and 
kred  familiarly  with  him.     He  was  then  made  a  canon  of 
Salisbury,  afterwards  precentor  of  Lincoln,   and  in  the 
eighth  year  of  Richard  I.  archdeacon  of  Oxford.    He  wrote 
in  Latin;  and  some  of  hi*  verses,  which  are  in  a  light  and 
satirical  style;  are  still  extant.     There  is  in  the  Bodleian  a 
work  of  his  under  the  assumed  name  of  Valerius,  entitled 
"  Valerias  ad  Jlufinum  de  oott  ducenda  uxore,"  with  a 
large  glpssj     He  perhaps  adopted  this  name  because  one 
Vjderias  had  written  *  treatise  on  the  same  subject  in  St. 
Jerom't  works.    Wartofi  thinks  it  probfeble  that  he  trans- 
lated from  Latin  into  French  the  popular  romance  of  Saint 
Gnaal,  at  the  instance  of  Henry  II.     He  was*  also  cele- 
brated fpr  his  wit  and  facetiousness  in  conversation.   When 
M  heard  a  natural  son  of  Hetiry  II.  swear  by  his  father9* 
royalty,  be  told  him  to  remember  also  hid  mother's  honesty. 
Be  wrote  a  *'  Compendium  Topograph!^   and  "  Epi- 
tome Cambria*  ;*'  and  is*  thought  to  hare  written  a  "  De- 
scriptio  Norfolciffi,"  which,  says  Mr.  Gough,  if  we  could 
find  it,  would  be  a  rateable  curiosity.     Mapes  was  often 
confounded  with  a  contemporary  poet,  Golias,  of  a  similar 
genius ;  and  some  have  supposed  that  Golias  was  a  name 
-   assumed  by  Mapes.     But  according  to  Warton's  informa- 
tion^ they  were  different  persons.  * 
.    MAPLET  (John),  a  physician  and  scholar,  was  the  son 
of  *  father  of  both  his  names,  whom  Wood  calls  M  a  suf- 
Aciertf:  shoemaker,"  and  was  born  in  1616  in  St.  Martin's* 
ie-graad-,  London,  and  educated' at  Westminster-school. 
He  wjis  thence  elected  a  student  of  Christ  Church,  Ox- 
ford, in  1630,  wbete  he  took  his  degrees  in  arts.     Wood 
ogives  it  as  a  report  that  he  \yas  first  admitted  to  holy  orders, 
hothrsjnore  certain  that  be  was  made  M.  D.  in  1647,  and 
principal  of  Gloucester  Hall.     He  then  travelled   on  the 
continent  with  his  pupil,   Lucius,  lord  Falkland,  for  two 

. l  Ifcnouartl. — Dibdiu's  Classics.— and  Bibl.  Spenceriana  passion,  for  notipes 
•fallthe  Aldi. 

*  Leland.— Tanner.— Warton's  Hist,   of  Poetry.— Cave,  vol.   IX.-*Fabricii 
Bibl.  Lat.  Med. 

tW  MA.P.LE  T. 

yean9  and  wtotys  an  account  of  his  travels  in  Latin,  which 
Guidot  promised  to  publish.  He  then  travelled  with  Hen- 
ry, brother  to  Lucius  lord  Falkland,  and  on  his  return 
settled  .^s  a  physician  at  Bath  in  summer,  and  at  Bristol 
in  wiqtprf .  and  had  great  practice.  During  the  usurpation 
he  had  been  ejected  from  his  office  of  principal  of  Glou- 
cester Hall,  but  was  restored  in  1660,  and  soon  after  re- 
signed it.  He  died  at  Bath,  Aug.  4,  1670,  and  was  buried 
in  the  cathedral,  with  a  monument  and  inscription  cele- 
brating his  learning  and  skill  as  a  physician.  Wood  speaks 
of  his  Consultations  with  certain  physicians,  his  cosmetics, 
and  his,  poems,  and  epitaphs,  but  does  not  say  where  these 
are  to  be  found,  or  whether  printed.  He  has  not  escaped 
the  diligence  of  Eloy,  who,  however,  merely  copies  from 
the  Ath.  Ox.  The  only  publication  printed  appears  to  have 
been  a  collection  of  letters  on  the  efficacy  of  the  Bath 
waters, ,  published  by  Guidot  under  the  title  "  Epistolangfri 
Medicariyn  specimen  de  Thermarum  Batboniensiunnef- 
fectis,  ad  clariss.  medicos  D.  Bate  Eraser,  Wedderbourne, 
&c."  Lond.  1694,  4to.  He  appears  to  have  been  a  dif- 
ferent person  from  the  J.  Maplet  who  wrote  "  A  Discourse 
of  metals,  stones,  herbs,  &c."  printed  in  8vcr.  This  is 
mentioned  by  Dr.  Pulteney,  who  says  the  author  was  of 
Cambridge.1  **'.•<;' 

MAPLETOFT  (John),  a  very  learned.  Englishman,  was 
descended ,  from  a  good  family  in  Huntingdonshire,  and 
born  at  Margaret-Inge,  in  June  1631.  He  was  educated 
under  the  famous  Busby  at  Westminster-school,  .and  being 
king's  scholar,  was  elected  thence  to  Trinity  college,;  Cam* 
bridge,  in  1648.  He  took  his  .degrees  in  arts' at  the  re- 
gular time,  and  was  njade  fellow  of  his  .college  Jn  1653. 
In  1658  he  left  the  college  in  order  to  be  tutor  to  Joseelin, 
son  of  Algernon,  the  last  earl  of  Northumberland,  with 
whom  he  continued  till  1660,  and  then  travelled  at  his  own 
expence,  to  qualify  himself  for,  the  -profession  of  physic, 
into  which  he  had  resolved  to  enter  some  years  before. 
He  passed  through  France  to  Home,  where  he  lived  near 
a  year  iu  the  bouse  of  the  hoti.  Algernon  Sidney,  to  whom 
he  was  recommended  by  his  uncle  the  earl  of  Northumber- 
land.  In  1663  he  returned  to  England,  and  to  that  earl's 
family  ;  and,  taking  his  doctor  of  physic's  degree  at  Cam- 
bridge in  1667,  he  practised  in  London.     Here  he  cqbl- 

1  Ath.  Ox.  vo!.  If,—  Pultncy's  Sketches.— E!oy  Diet.  Hist,  de  MWipjne.    ; 


tracted  an  acquaintance-  with  many  eminent  persons  in  bis* 
own  faculty,  as<  Willis,  Sydenham,  Locke;  and  with  se- 
veral of  the  most  distinguished  divines,  as  Whichcote, 
Tilloteon,  Patrick,  Sherlock,  Stillingfleet,  Sharp,  and  Clag- 
get.  hi  I670he  attended  lord  Essex  in  his  embassy  to 
Denmark;  and,  in  1672,  waited  on  the  lady  dowager 
Northumberland  into  France.  In  March  1675,  he  was 
chosen  professor  of  physic  in  Gresham  college,  London; 
and,  in  1676,  attended  the  lord  ambassador  Montague, 
and  lady  Northumberland,  to  France.  The  same  year 
Dr.  Sydenham  published  ihis  "  Observations  medicae  circa 
inorborum  acutorum  historiahi  et  curatjonem,"  which  he 
dedicated  to  Dr.Mapletoft;  who,  at  the  desire  of  the 
author,  had  translated  theta  into.  Latin.  •  He  held  has  pro- 
fessorship at  Gresham  till  October  1679,  and  married  the 
month  following.  ■'    > 

Soon  after  his  marriage  he  relinquished  the  practice  of 
physic,  and  retired,  in  order  to  turn  bis*  studies  to  divinity. 
In  March  1689,  be  took  both  deacon's  and  priest's  orders, 
andi  was.  soon  *  after  presented  to  the  rectory  of  Braybrooke 
in  Northamptonshire,  by  lord  Griffin.  In  16S4  he  was 
chosen  lecturer  of  Ipswich,  and  a  year  after,  vicar  of  St. 
Lawrence  Jewry,  and  lecturer  of  St.  Christopher's  in  Lon- 
don. In  1689  he  accumulated  bis  doctor's  degree  in  di- 
vinity, while  king  William  was  at  Cambridge.  In  1707 
be  was  chosen  president  of  Sion  college,  having  been  a 
benefactor  to  their  building  and  library.  He  continued  to 
preach  in  his  church  of  St;  Lawrence  Jewry  till  he  was 
turned  of  eighty  ;  and,  when  he  vyks  thinking  of  retiring, 
he  printed  a  book  entitled  "  The  prineiples  and  duties  of 
the  Christian  religion,"  &c.  1710,  8vo,  a  copy  of  which 
he  sent  to  every  house  in  his  parish.  He  lived  the  last  ten 
years  of  his  life  with  his  only/daughter  Elizabeth,  the  wife 
of  Dr.  Gastrell,  bishop  of  Chester,  sometimes  at  Oxford; 
and  in  the  winter  at  Westminster,  where  he  died  in  1721, 
in  his  ninety-first  year.  He  was  a  very  polite  scholar, 
wrote  Latin  elegantly,  was  a  great  master  of  the  Greek, 
and  understood  well  the  French,  Spanish,  and  Italian 

Besides  his  Latin  translation  of  Sydenham's  "  Observa- 
tiones  medicae,"  and  "  The  principles  and  duties  of  the 
Christian  religion,"  he  published  other  tracts  upon  moral 
and  theological  subjects;  and,  in  the  appendix  to  "  Ward's 
Lives  of  the  professors  of  Gresham  college/'  from  which 


this  account  is  extracted,  there  are  insetted  three  Latitf 
lectures  of  his,  read  at  Gresfaam  in  167S,  upon  the  origin 
of  the  art  of  medicine,  and  the  history  of  its  invention. ' 

MAPLfiTOFT  (Robert),  an  English  divine,  was  born 
at  North  Tboresby  in  the  county  of  Lincoln,  in  the  be* 
ginning  of  1610,  of  which  place  his  father,  Henry  Maple-* 
toft,  was  many  years  rector.     He  was  educated  at  the  free 
grammar  school  of  Louth,  and  admitted  of  Queen's  college 
in  -Cambridge*    When  he  had  taken  the  degree  of  B.  A. 
he  removed  to  Pembroke  hall,  and  was  there  made  fel- 
low January  6,  1630;  and  in  or  about  163$  was  appointed 
tbaplain  to  bishop  Wren.     He  was  one  of  the  university 
preachers  in  1641,  and  was  some  time  after  one  of  the 
proctors  of  the  university.     In  1644  (being  then  bachelor 
io  divinity)  he  was  ejected  from  his  fellowship  for  not  taking 
the  covenant.     After  this  he  retired,  and  lived  privately 
among  bis  friends,  and  particularly  with  sir  Robert  Shirley 
in  Leicestershire,  where  he  became  acquainted  with  Dr« 
Sheldon,  who  became  archbishop  of  Canterbury.     He  had 
afterwards  a  private  congregation  in  Lincoln,  where  he  used 
to  officiate  according  to  the   Liturgy  of  the  church  of 
England :  this  had  like  to  have  produced  him  much  trouble; 
but  it  being  found  that  he  had  refused  a  considerable  sum 
of  money  offered  him  by  his  congregation,  he  escaped  pro* 
sectuion.    Oil  the  restoration  he  returned  to  Cambridge, 
and  was  re-instated  in  his  fellowship,  and  was  presented  by 
the  Crown,  August  1,  1660,  on  the  death  of  Dr.  Newell,  t* 
the  prebend  of  Clifton  in  Lincoln  cathedral,  to  which  he 
was  installed  August  23,  1660:  and  then  resigning  it,  he 
was  ,alsQ  on  the  same  day  installed  to  the  sab-deanery  of 
the  same  church,  which  he  resigned  in  1671 ;  and  about 
the  same  time  he  became  rector  of  Clay  worth  in  Notting- 
hamshire, which  living  he  afterwards  exchanged  for  the 
vicarage  of  Sobam,  in  Cambridgeshire.    In  1661  he  re- 
signed his  fellowship,  and  about  that  time  was  invited  by 
archbishop  Sheldon  to  be  chaplain  to  the  duchess  of  York, 
then  supposed  to  be  inclining  to  popery,  and  in  want  of  a 
person  of  Dr.  Mapletoft's   primitive  stamp  to  keep  her 
steady  to  her  religion  ;  but  he  could  not  be  prevailed  upon 
to  accept  the  appointment.     In  1664  he  was  elected  mas- 
ter of  Pembroke  hall,  and  became  doctor  in  divinity,  and 
was  by  the  king,  August  7,  1667,  promoted  to  the  deanery 

*  Ward's  prcibaia  Profewrs.— Biof.  Brit.  Supplement,  vol.  VII. 


of  Ely.  He  served  the  office  of  vice-chancellor  of  the 
university  of  Cambridge  in  1671,  and  died  at  Pembroke 
hall,  August  20,  1677.  His  remains,  according  to  his  own 
desire,  were  deposited  in  a  vault  in  the  chapel  of  that 
college,  near  the  body  of  bishop  Wren,  the  founder  of  it, 
his  honoured  friend  and  patron,  without  any  memorial. 

Dr.  Mapletoft  lived  very  hospitably  at  Ely,  and  wherever 
be  resided,  and  was  esteemed  for  the  many  pious  and 
charitable  acts  in  his  life-time;  and,  at  bis  death,  after 
many  gifts,  legacies,  and  charitable  donations,  he  be- 
queathed to  the  university  100/.  towards  purchasing  Go- 
lius's  library  of  Oriental  books  for  the  university  library  ; 
and  in  case  that  design  was  not  executed,  then  to  some 
permanent  university  use,  at  the  discretion  of  the  vice- 
chancellor  and  the  two  professors  of  divinity  ;  100/.  to  poor 
widows,  chiefly  clergymen's.  His  benefactions  to  the 
church  of  Ely  were,  to  the  dean  and  chapter  for  ever,  all 
his  close  called  hundred  acres  in  the  Wash  in  the  town  of 
Coveney,  for  the  increase  of  the  singing  men's  stipends, 
and  on  condition  that  they  should  frequent  early  prayers 
in  the  cathedral.  He  also  bequeathed  to  the  same  church 
his  library  of  books,  and  100/.  toward  fitting  up  a  place  to 
receive  them,  and  furnishing  it  with  more  books;  to  each 
of  the  prebendaries  a  ring  of  20s.  to  each*  minor  canon  and 
schoolmaster  205.  to  each  singing-man  and  verger  10s.  and 
to  the  choristers  5s.  each. 

In  a  codicil  to  his  last  will,  signed  17th  day  of  August, 
1677,  he  gives  to  the  use  of  the  town  of  North  Thoresby, 
in  the  county  of  Lincoln,  bis  two  cottages  and  one  mes- 
suage, vfrith  all  his  lands  in  the  same  town  and  fields  of  the 
same  for  ever,  to  be  settled  upon  trustees,  for  and  towards 
the  maintenance  of  one  fit  person  to  teach  the  scholars 
there  to  read,  to  learn  them  their  catechism,  and  instruct 
them  in  it,  to  write,  to  cast  accounts,  and  to  teach  them 
their  accidence,  and  to  make  them  fit  for  the  grammar 
school,  according,  to  the  rules  and  orders  which  he  or  his  ex- 
ecutors should  prescribe ;  and  also  gives  all  those  his  lands, 
meadow,  and  pasture  in  Saltfleetby  to  the  use  of  the  town 
of  Louth  for  ever,  for  and  towards  the  maintenance  of  one 
fit  person  to  teach  the  children  there  in  like  manner  as  in 
his  gift  to  North  Thoresby,  per  omnia.  He  gives  likewise 
to  the  master,  fellows,  and  scholars  of  Pembroke  Hal}, 
lands  in  Coveney  for  ever,  on  condition  that  they  pay 
yearly  for  ever  to  two  poor  scholars  to  be  called  his  exhi- 

Vou  XXI.  T 


bitioners,  4l.  each,  and  that  they  lay  out  yearly  40*.  in 
good  books  for  the  library  6f  the  said  college. ' 

MARACCI  (Louis),  t  learned  author,  born  at  Lucca 
in  1612,  became  a  member  of  the  congregation  of  regular 
derks,  "  de  la  Mere  <fe  Dieu."  He  obtained  a  name  in 
,  tlfe  literary  world  by  an  edition  of  the  Koran,  published  at 
Padua  in  1698,  in  2  vols,  folio,  and  entitled  "  Alcorani 
Textus  universes,  Arabice  et  Latine,"  to  which  he  sub* 

.,,     joined  notes,  with  a  refutation,  and  a  life  of  Mahomet* 

The  argumentative  part,  however,  is  not  always  solid;  the 

w  cjrftjfcs  in  Arabic  have  found  several  faults  in  the  printing 

of  that  language ;  and  the  editor  appears  to  be. more  versed 

_.'.     in  the  Mussulman  authors  thai),  in  philosppby  or  theology, 

Maracci  had  a  large   shar^in. the  edition  of  th§  Arabic 

Bible  printed  at  Rome  iu  1671,  in  3  vols,  folio;  and. was 

certainly  very  successful  as  a  professor  of  Arabic,  in  the 

s     college  delja  Sapienza.     Innocent  Xl.  respected  his  vir-r 

tues   and  knpwledge,  chose   him   for  bis  confessor,  and 

would  have  raised  him  to  the  purple,  had  not  his  great 

•  modesty  declined  that  honour.    He  died  in  1700.    Niceron 

->    recounts  a  long  list  of  his  works.  * 

MARALD1  (James  Philip),  a  learned  astronomer  and 
mathematician,  was  born  in  1665  at  Perinaldo  in  the  county 
of  Nice,  a  place  already  honoured  by  the  birth  of  his  ma<* 
terual  uncle,  the  celebrated  Cassini.  Having  made  a  cob- 
siderable  progress  in  mathematics,  at  the  age  of  twenty- 
two  his  uncle,  who  had  been  a  long  time  settled  in  France, 
invited  him  there,  that  he  might  himself  cultivate  the 
promising  genius  of  his  nephew.  Maraldi  np  sooner  ap- 
plied himself  to  the  contemplation  of  the  heavens,  than 
be  conceived  the  design  of  forming  a  catalogue  of  the 
fixed  stars,  the  foundation  of  the  whole  astronomical  edi- 
fice. In  consequence  of  this  design, .  he  applied  himself  to 
observe  them  with  the  most  constant  attention ;  and  he 
became  by  this  means  so  intimate  with  them,  that  on  being 
shown  any  one  of  them,  however  small,  he  could  imme- 
diately tell  what  constellation  it  belonged  to,  and  its  place 
in  that  constellation*  He  has  been  known  to  discover 
those  small  comets,  which  astronomers  pften  takg  for  the 
stars  of  the  constellation  in  which  they  are  seen,  for  want 
of  knowing  precisely  what  stars  the  constellation  consists 


)  Ward's  Gresham  Professors; — but  chiefly  his  life  in  the  Gent.  Mag.  vol. 
LXXVII.  •  Niceron,  vol.  XLI.— DicL  Hist. 

MAR  4  I;  D:l.  275 

of,  when  others,  on  the  $pot,  and  with  $yes  directed 
equally  to  the. sate e  part  of  the  heavens,  cbuld.  not  for  it 
long  time  see  any  thing  of  them. 

.  In  l  TOO  he  was  employed  under  Cassini  in  prolonging 
the,  French  meridian  to  the  northern  extremity  pf  France* 
and  had  no  small  share  in  completing  it,  He  next  set  ,ont 
for  Italy,  where  Clement  the  Xlth  invited  him  to  assist  a£ 
the  assemblies  of  the  congregation  then  pitting  in  Rome,  to 
reform  the  calendar.  Bianchini  also  availed  himself. pfhis 
assistance  to  construct  the  great  meridian  pf  tbe  Cartbu>- 
sian  church  in  that  city.  In  1718  Maraldi,  with  three 
other  academicians,  prolonged  the  French  meridian  to  the 
southern  extremity  of  that  country..  He  was  admitted  a 
mepiber  of  the  academy  of  sciences  of  Paris  in  1699,  in 
the  department  of  astronomy,  and  communicated  a  great 
multitude  of  papers,  which  are  printed  in  their  memoirs,  in 
almost  every  year  from  1699  to  1729,  and  usually  several 
paper*  in  each  of  the  years ;  for  he  was  indefatigable  in  his 
observation  of  every  thing  that  was  curious  and  useful  in 
the  motions  and  phenomena  of  the  heavenly  bodies..^  As 
to  the  catalogue  of  the  fixed  stars,  it  was  not  quite  com* 
pleted:  just  as  be  had  placed  a  mural  quadrant  on  the 
terras  of  the  observatory,  to  observe  some  stars  towards 
the  north  and  the  zenith,  he  fell  sick,  and  died  the  1st  of 
December  1729. 1 

.  MARANA  (John  Paol),  the  author  of  the  Turkish  Spy* 
a  book  cried  up  far  beyond  its  merits,  for  a  long  time, 
both  in  France  and  England,  was  born  about  1642,  at  or 
near  Genoa.  When  he  was  only  twenty-seven  or  twenty- 
eight,  be  was  involved  in  the  conspiracy  of  Raphael  de  la 
Torre,  who  was  desirous  to  give  up  Genoa  to  the  duke  of 
Savoy.  After  being  imprisoned  four  years,  he  retired  to 
Monaco,  where  he  wrote  the  history  of  that  plot,  printed 
at  Lyons,  jn  1632,  in  Italian.  It  contains  some  curious 
particulars.  , 

Marana,  who  had  always  wished  to  visit  Paris,  in  1682 
went  to  settle  there;  and  his  merit  being  distinguished, 
be  found  patronage  from  several  people  of  consequence* 
He  there  wrote  his  "  Turkish  Spy,"  in  6  vols,  duodecimo, 
to  which  a  seventh  was  added  in  1742,  when  the  last  edi- 
tion appeared.     Though  the  style  of  this  work  was  neither 

*  Hottoa'8  Diet.— Martin's  Biog.  Phitoi.— Fabroni  Vita  Italorum,  vol.  VIII. 
— Moreri. 

T  2 

276  M  A  K  A  N  A. 

precise,  correct,  nor  elegant,  it  was  greatly  relished  by  the 
public.  The  author  had  the  art  to  interest  curiosity  by  an 
amusing  mixture  of  adventures,  half  true  and  half  ficti- 
tious, but  all  received  at  the  time  as  authentic,  by  persons 
of  confined  information.  Few  supposed  the  author  to  be 
a  real  Turk,  but  credit  was  given  to  the  unknown  Euro- 
pean, who,  under  a  slight  fiction,  thus  delivered  opinions 
and  anecdotes,  which  it  might  not  have  been  safe  to  pub- 
lish in  a  more  open  manner.  The  first  three  volumes  were 
most  approved  ;  the  next  three,  which  are  in  reality  much 
inferior,  were  received  with  a  proportionable  degree  of 
attention.  The  whole  are  now  the  amusement  of  few  ex- 
cept very  idle  readers.  Many  other  spies  of  a  similar  kind 
have  been  formed  upon  this  plan.  Marana  lived  at  Paris, 
rather  in  a  retired  manner,  which  suited  his  taste,  to  1689, 
when  the  desire  of  solitude  led  him  to  retire  into  Italy, 
where  he  died  in  1693.1 

MARAT  (John-Paul),  a  prominent  actor  in  the  French 
revolution,  was  born  of  protestant  parents,  in  Neufehatel, 
in  1744.  In  early  life  he  went  to  Paris  to  study  physic, 
and  appears  to  have  made  very  great  proficiency  in  it; 
but  probably  from  not  having  patience  to  pursue  the  pro- 
fession in  a  regular  course,  he  became  an  empyric,  selling 
his  medicines  at  an  extravagant  price.  On  the  breaking 
out  of  the  revolution,  he  took  the  lead  among  the  most 
violent  and  savage  of  all  the  factions  that  disgraced  the  ca- 
pital ;  and  had  endeavoured  to  preach  murder  and  rob- 
bery long  before  it  appeared  probable  that  such  crimes 
could  have  been  practised  with  impunity.  His  first  publi- 
cation was  a  periodical  paper,  entitled  the  "Publiciste 
Parisien,"  in  wliich  he,  without  scruple,  and  without  any 
regard  to  decency  and  truth,  attacked  Neckar,  and  other 
men  eminent  for  their  integrity  and  public  talents.  His 
next  paper  was  entitled  "  The  Friend  of  the  People,"  in 
which  he  more  openly  excited  the  troops  to  use  their  arms 
against  their  generals,  the  poor  to  plunder  the  rich,  and 
the  people  at  large  to  rise  against  the  king.  Afte/  the  de- 
position of  Louis  XVI.  he  was  named  a  deputy  of  the  de- 
partment of  Paris  to  the  convention,  in  which  assembly  be 
appeared  armed  with  pistols.  In  April  1793,  he  publicly 
denounced  the  leaders  of  the  Brissotine  party,  accusing 
them  of  treason  against  the  state :  he  was  supported  by 


1  Moreri, — Diet.  Hist. 

MARAT.  277 

Robespierre ;  a.violent  tumult  ensued,  but  Marat  and  his 
friends  were  subdued,  and  himself  impeached  and  prose* 
.cuted;  in  a  few  days,  being  brought  to  trial,  he  was  acquit- 
ted. The  triumph  of  his  party  was  now  unbounded,  and 
they  soon  gained  such  an  ascendancy  over  their  enemies, 
that  they  murdered  or  banished  all  that  attempted  to  obstruct 
the  progress  of  their  nefarious  projects ;  till  at  length  their 
ieader  Marat  fell  a  victim  to  the  enthusiastic  rage  of  a  fe- 
male, Charlotte  Cord6,  who  had  travelled  from  Caen,  in 
Normandy,  with  a  determination  of  rescuing,  as  she  hoped, 
her  country  from  the  hands  of  barbarians,  by  the  assassi- 
nation of  one  of  the  chief  among  them.  He  died  unpitied 
by  every  human  being,  who  was  not  of  the  atrocious  fac- 
tion which  he  led,  having,  for  some  weeks,  acted  the  most 
savage  parts,  and  been  the  means  of  involving  many  of  the 
most  virtuous  characters  in  France  in  almost  indiscriminate 
slaughter.  Previously  to  joining  in  revolutionary  politics, 
he  was  Ifiiown  as  an  author,  and  published  a  work  *'  On 
Man,  or  Principles  of  the  reciprocal  Influence  of  the  Soul 
and  Body,"  in  two  volumes,  12mo:  also  some  tracts  on 
Electriqity  and'Light,  in  which  he  attacked  the  Newtoniaci 
System.  These  works  had  been  forgot  long  before  he 
began  to  make  a  figure  in  the  political  world  ;  but  it  \i 
remarkable  that  bis  death  occasioned  a  fresh  demand  for 
them.  They  are  now,  however,  again  sunk  into  oblivion, 
and  his  name  is  never  mentioned  but  with  contempt  and 

MARATTI  (Carlo),  one  of  the  most  admired  painters 
of  the  Italian  school,  was  born  in  1625,  at  Camerino  in  the 
march  of,  A  neon  a.  When  quite  a  child  he  is  said  to  have* 
pressed  out  the  juices  of  flowers,  which  he  used  for  colours 
in  drawing  on  the  walls  of  his  father's  house.  This  pro- 
pensity most  probably  induced  his  parents  to  send  him  to 
Rome  a^  eleven  years  old;  where,  by  his  manner  of  copy- 
ing the  designs  of  Raphael  in  the  Vatican,  he  obtained 
the  favour  of  Andrea  Sacchi,  and  became  his  pupil.  From 
the  grace  and  beauty  of  his  ideas  he  was  generally  em- 
ployed in  painting  Madonnas  and  female  saints;  on  which 
account  he  was,  by  Salvator  Rosa,  satirically  called 
Carluccio  delta  Madonna.  He  was  far  from  being  ashamed 
of  this  name,  and  in  the  inscription  placed  by  himself  on 
his  monument  (nine  years  before  his  death),  he  calls  it 

1  JBiog.  Modefne  —Dick  Hist.— Rees's  Cyclopaedia. 



278  M  A  R  A  T  t  I. 


gloriosum  cognomen?  and  professes  his  particular  devotion 
to  the  Virgin  Mary.  The  pope,  Clement  XI.  gave  him  a 
pension,  and  the  title  of  Caoatiero  ii  Cristo ;  and  he  wats 
appointed  painter  in  ordinary  to  Lours  XIV.  He  died  at 
Rome,  loaded  with  honours,  in  IT  IS,  at  the  advanced!  age 
of  eighty-eight  Extreme  modesty  and  gentleness  were 
the  characteristics  of  bis  disposition  ;  and  his  admiration 
of  the  great  models  he  had  studied  was  such,  that  not 
content  with  having  contributed  to  preserve  the  works  of 
Raphael  and  the  Car*ccis  in  die  Farnese  gallery,  he  erected 
monuments  to  them  in  the  Pantheon,  at  his  own  expehce. 
Sfveral  plates  are  extant,  etched  by  him  in  aquafortis,  in 
which  he  has  displayed  abundant  taste  and  genius. 

Of  this  artist  Mr.  Fuseli  says,  that  although  "  he  enjoyed 
in  his  life  the  reputation  of  one  of  the  first  painters  of 
Europe,  his  talent  seldom  rose  above  mediocrity ;  he  de- 
lighted in  easel-pictures  or  altar-pieces,  though  not  unac- 
9uaihted  with  fresco.  He  is  celebrated  for  the  lovely,  mo- 
est,  and  yet  dignified  air  of  bis*  Madonnas,  the  grace  of  his 
angels,  the  devout  character  of  his  saints,  and  their  festive 
dresses.  His  best  pictures  are  in  the  style  of  Sacchi:  those 
ior  bis  second  manner  are  more  elaborate,  more  ankibusly 
Studied,  but,  with  less  freedom,  have  less  grandeur;  The 
masses  of  his  draperies  are  too  much  intersected,  shew  the 
naked  too  little,  and  sometimes  make  his  figures  appear  too 
heavy  or  too  short,  He  certainly  aimed  at  fixing  Ips  prin- 
cipal light  to  the  most  important  spot  of  his  picture;  bur, 
being  unacquainted  with  the  nature  and  the  gradations 
of  shade,  involved  its  general  tone  in  a  certain  mistiness, 
which  was  carried  to  excess  by  his  pupils,  and  became  a 
characteristic  mark  of  his  school;  He  studied  in  his  youtfk 
the  style  and  works  of  Raphael  with  the,  most  sedulous 
attention,  and  strove  to  imitate  him  at  every  peridd  of  ftis 
practice ;  but  it  does  not  appear  that  he  ever  discriminated 
his  principles  of  design  or  composition,  notwithstanding 
the  subsequent  minute  and  laborious  employment  of  re- 
storing his  frescoes.  ,  *  '  ♦ 

"The  churches  and  palaces  of  Rome,  filled  with  th* 
pictures  of  Maratti,  bear  witness  of  his  popularity  *'  bti$ 
perhaps,,  no  work  of  his  can  impress  us  with  a  more  *Jj|* 
Vfmtageous  opinion  of  bis  powers,  than  the  fifathsftebti 
viewed  by  David ;  a  work,  of  which  it  is  easier  to  feel ; than 
to  describe  the  charmsfr  which  has  no  rival,  and  seems  to 
preclude  all  hope  of  equal  success  in  any  future  repetition 

M  A  ft  A  T  T  I.  X?9 

of  the  subject*'  Maratti  had  a,  daughter,  Marijjtfaratti, 
whom  he  instructed  himself  in  the  art ;  hexportrait,  exe- 
cuted by  herself,  in  a  painting  att^iide,  is  in  the  gallery 
Corsini  at  Rome. ' 

MARC  A  (Peter  de),  one  of  the  greatest  ornaments  of 
the  Gallican  church,  but  a  man  of  great  inconsistency  of 
character,  was  born  in  1594,  at  Gam,  in  Beam,  of  a  very 
ancient  family  in  that  principality.  He  went  through  his 
course  of  philosophy  among  Jthe  Jesuits,  and  theti  studied ' 
the  law  for  three  years;  after  which  he  was  received  a 
counsellor  in  1615,  in  the  supreme  council  at  Pail.  In 
1621  hie  was  made  president  of  the  parliament  of  Beam  f 
and  going  to  Paris  in  1639,  about  the  affairs  of  his  pro- 
vides, was  made  a  counsellor  of  state.  In  1640  he  pub- 
lished "  "the  History  of  Beaih,"  which  confirmed  the  good 
opinion  that  was  conceived  of  his  knowledge  and  parts. 
fee  was  thought,  therefore,  a  very  proper  person  to  under- 
take a  delicate  and  important  subject,  which  offered  itself 
about  that  time.  The  bourt  of  France  was  then  it  variance 
witb  tile  court  of  Ronie,  and  the  book  which  Peter  de  Puy 
published,  concerning  the  liberties  of  the  Gallican  church, 
greatly  alarmed  the  pahffians  of  the  court  of  Rome  ;  sotoe 
3f  whom  endeavoured  to  pefsuade^he  world  that  they  were  > 
the  preliminaries  of  a  schism  (GonMvAl  by  cardinal*  Riche* 
lieu ;  as  if  his  emihency  had  it  in  his  head  to  erect  a  patri- 
archate in  that  kingdom,  in  order  "to  render  the  Gallican 
cdtarch  independent  bf  the  pope.  A  French  divide,  M. 
hersent  (see  Hersen*),  who  took  the  name  of  Optatus 
Gallus,  addtessed  -A  book"  to  the  clergy  upon  the  subject; 
and  insinuated  that  the  cardinal  had  brought  over  to  bis 
party  a  great  persotlage,  who  was 'ready  to  defend  this 
conduct  of  the  cardinal;  and  this  grfeat  personage  was 
Pete'r  deMa^rca.  But  an  insinuation  of  this  nature  tending 
Mb  ihfeke  the  cardinal  odious,  as  it  occasioned  a  rumour 
that 'bfe  aspired  to  the  patriarchate,  the  king  laid  his  com- 
tfjjftftb  dn'tfe  Marca  to  refute  Hersent's  work,  and  at  the 
same  time  to  preserve  the  liberties  of  the  Gallican  church 
6n  the  one  hand,  and  to  make  it  appear  on  the  other  that  , 
flfttee  liberties  did  not  in  the  least  diminish  the  reverence 
dtt&td^he  holy  see.  .  He  accepted  of  this  commission,  ami 
executed  it  by  his  book  "De  Concordia  sacerdotii  &  iifiperii, 

-  Jr A^uvm^,  to!.  I.-iPMttgtoa  by  Fuieli.r4ir  J.  Rejrnold^  WotU;itl 

280  MARC  A. 

sive,  de  libertatibus  ecclesiae  Gallicae,"  which  be  published 
in  1641.  He  declared  in  his  preface,  that  he  did  not  enter 
upon  the  discussion  of  right,  but  confined  himself  to  the 
settling  of  facts  :  that  is,  he  only  attempted  to  shew  what 
deference  the  Western  churches  had  always  paid  to  the 
bishop  of  Rome  on  the  one  side;  and  on  the  other,  what 
rights  and  privileges  the  Gallican  church  had  always  pos- 
sessed. But  though  he.  had  collected  an  infinite  number 
of  testimonies  in  favour  of  the  pope's  power,  the  work  was 
of  too  liberal  a  cast  not  to  give  offence  :  perhaps  even  the 
very  attempt  to  throw  the  subject  open  to  discussion  was  not 
very  agreeable ;  and  accordingly,  the  court  of  Rome  made 
a  great  many  difficulties  in  dispatching  the  bulls  which 
were  demanded  in  favour  of  de  Marca,  who  bad,  in  the 
end  of  1641,  been  presented  to  the  bishopric  of  Conserans. 
That  court  gave  him  to  understand  that  it  was  necessary 
he  should  soften  some  things  he  had  advanced ;  and  caused 
his  book  to  pass  a  very  strict  examination.  After  the 
death  of  Urban  VlII.  cardinal  Bichi  warmly  solicited  Juno- 
cent  X.  to  grant  the  bulls  in  favour  of  the  bishop  of  Con- 
serans ;  but  the  assessor  of  the  holy  office  recalled  the 
remembrance  of  the  complaints  which  had  been  made 
against  his  book  "  De  Concordia,"  which  occasioned  this 
pope  to  order  the  examination  of  it  anew.  De  Marca, 
despairing  of  success  unless  he  gave  satisfaction  to  the 
court  of  Rome,  published  a  book  in  1646,  in  which  he 
Explained  the  design  of  his  "  De  Concordia,"  &c.  sub- 
mitted himself  to  the  censure  of  the  apostolic  see,  and 
shewed  that  kings  were  not  the  authors,  but  the  guardians 
of  the  canon  laws.  ".I  own,"  says  he,  "  that  I  favoured  the 
side  of  my  prince  too  much,  and  acted  the  part  of  a  president 
rather  than  that  of  a  bishop.  I  renounce  my  errors,  and  pro- 
mise  for  the  future  to  be  a  strenuous  advocate  for  the  au- 
thority of  the  holy  see."  Accordingly,  in  1647,  he  wrote 
a  book  entitled  "  De  singqlari  primatu  Petri,"  in  which  he 
proved  that  St,  Peter  was  the  only  head  of  the  church; 
and  this  he  sent  to  the  pope,  who  was  so  pleased  with  it, 
that  he  immediately  granted  his  bulls,  and  be  was. made 
bishop  of  Conserans  in  1648.  This  conduct  of  de  Marca 
has  been  noticed  by  lord  Bolingbroke,  in  his  posthumous 
work's*  wit^ .becoming  indignation.  Recalls  him  "a time-* 
serving  priest,  interested,  and  a  great  flatterer,  if  ever 
there  was  one;"  an 4  adds,  that,  "  when  he  could  not  get 
his  bulls  dispatched,  he  made  no  scruple  to  explain  awfcjr 

M  A  R  C  A.  281 

all  that  "he  had  said  in  favour  of  the  state,  and  to  limit  the 
papal  power." 

In  1644,  de  Marca  was  sent  into  Catalonia,  to  perform 
the  office  of  visitor -general,  and  counsellor  of  the  viceroy, 
which  he  executed  to  the  year  1651,  and  so  gained  the; 
affections  of  the  Catalonians,  that  in  1647,  when  he  was 
dangerously  ill,  they  put  up  public  prayers,  and  vows  for 
his  recovery.     Th/e  city  of  Barcelona,  in  particular,  made  a 
vow  to  our  lady  of  Montserrat,  and  sent  thither  in  their  name 
twelve  capuchins  and  twelve  nuns,  who  performed  their 
journey  with  their  hair  hanging  loose,  and  bare-footed. 
De  Marca  was  persuaded,  or  rather  seemed  to  be  per- 
suaded, that  his  recovery  was  entirely  owing  to  so  many 
vows  and  prayers ;  and  would  not  leave  Catalonia  without 
going  to  pay  bis  devotions  at  Montserrat,  in  the  beginning 
of  1651,  and  there  wrote  a  small  treatise,  "  De  origine  & 
progressu  cult&s  beatse  Marise  Virginis  in  Mftnteserato," 
which  he  left  in  the  archives  of  the  monastery  ;  so  little 
did  he  really  possess  of  that  liberality  and  firmness  of  mind 
which  is  abovje  vulgar  prejudice  and  superstition.     In  Au- 
gust of.  the  same  year,  he  went  to  take  possession  of  his 
bishopric ;  and  &e  year  after  was  nominated  to  the  arch* 
bishopric  of  Toulouse,    but  did  not  take  possession   till. 
1655.     In  1656  he  assisted  at  the  general  assembly  of  the 
French  clergy,  and  appeared  in  opposition  to  the  Jan- 
senists,  that  be  might  wip&off  all  suspicion  of  his  not  being 
an,  adherent  of  the  court  of  Rome,  for  he  knew  that  his 
being  suspected  of  Jansenism  had  for  a  long  time  retarded 
the  bull  which  was  necessary  to  establish  him  in  the  arch- 
bishopric of  Toulouse.     He  was  made  a  minister  of  state 
in  1658,  and  went  to  Toulouse  in  1659.     In  the  following* 
year  he  went  to  Roussillon,  thereto  determine  die  marches 
with  the  commissaries  of  the  king  of  Spain.     In  these  con- 
ferences be  had  occasion  to  display  his  learning,  as  they 
involved  points  of  criticism  respecting  the  language  of  Pom-} 
ponius  Mela  and  Strabo.     It  was  said   in  the  Pyren&u 
treaty,  that  the  limits  of  France  and  Spain  were  the  same, 
with  those  which  anciently  separated  the  Gauls  from  Spain* 
This  obliged  th$m  to  examine  whereabouts,  according  to 
the  ancient  geographers,  the  Gauls  terminated  here ;  and' 
d$  Marca' s  knowledge  was  of  great  use  at  this  juncture. 
He  took  a  journey  to  Paris  the  same  .year,  and  obtained 
the  appointment  of  archbishop  of  Paris  ;  but  died  there 
J»ne  29,  1662,  the  very  day  that  the  bulls  for  his  promo* 

1282  to  A  H  C  A. 

tian  arrived.     Hi^su&ten  death,  at  thi*  time,  occasioned 
the  following  jocular  epitaph  : 

■  "  Ci  git  monseigneur  de  Marca* 

Que  le  Roi  sagement  marqua, 
•     Four  le  prelat  de  son  e£li*e  3 
.Majs  la  mort  qui  le  remarqua/ 

Et  qui  se  plait  a  lq.  surprise, 

Tout  aussitdt  le demarqua." 

He  left  the  cafe  of  his  manuscripts  to  Mr.  Baluze,  *wbb 
had  lived  with  him  ever  since  June,  1656,  and  who  htfe 
written   bis  life,  whence  this  account  is  taken.     Baluze* 
also  published  an  edition  of  his  work  "  De  Concordia,"  in 
1704,  as  originally  written:     The  only  other  works  he 
wrote  of  any  note  are  his  "  Hrstoire  de  Beam,"  Paris, 
J640,4bL  and  his  H  Marca  Hispanica*  sive  Limfcs  His*- 
paoicus,"  Paris,   16S8,  fol.  edited  by  Baluze.      Le  Clerc 
Very  justly  thinks  Baluze's  account  of  De  Marca,  a  pane*- 
gyric'or  an  apology  rather  than  a  life*     The  most  favour- 
able trait  in  De  Marca' s  character  Was  bit  ambition  to  rise  by 
learning,  which  certainly  first  brought  him  Into  notice.     H6 
is  said  to  have  renounced  all  the  pleasures  of  yduth,  while  he 
was  at  school,  for  the  Ibve  of  books ;  and  tti  have  foretold  t6 
his  school-fellows,  who  spent  their  tune  in  vain  amusements, 
the  difference  which  would  one  day  app'ear  between  *heir 
glory  and  his.     It  was  at  Toulouse  that  he  laid  the  ground* 
work  of  his  great  learning;  auti  he  did  not  neglect  td 
make  himself  a  complete  master  of  the  Greek  tongue, 
which  greatly  distinguished  him  from  other  learned  men. 
He  was  early  mdrried  to  a  young  lady  of  the  ancient 
fatmMy  of  the  viscounts  of  Lavedan,  who  bore  him  several 
children  ;-.  but  she  dying  in  1632,  he  went  into  orders.1 
.  M ARC-ANTONIO.     See  RAIMONbl. 


MARCELLO  (Benedetto),  fet  nobleman  celebrated  for 
musical  knowledge,  was  born  July  24,  16^80,  at  Venice,1 
and  was  the  descendant  of  one  of  the  most  illustrious  faU 
milies  of  that  republic.  He  had  cultivated  music  so  seitf- 
ously.aud  successfully  under  the  guidance  of  the  celebrated 
Gasparini,  that  no  contemporary  professor  was  more  re^ 
iterenced  for  musical  science,  or  half  ^o*  much  praisgd  fb^ 
his  abilities  as  a  compose^  Us  MftrCello ;  arid  BeslSfefe  Hrf 
musical  productions,  consisting  of  psfela&,  oneHM^madri- 

.    ,      ♦""! 

J  Dupin.— pen.  pfet«— Nieeri*,  Tol,^U,-rP«raaltS|  ^i^S^fee^Wtai 

MARC  t  1  1  &  2M 

gats,  songs,  and  cantata*,  he  was  frequently  his  own  poet, 
and  sometimes  assumed  the  character  of  lyric  bard  for 
other  musicians.     It  is  probable  that  Marc  el  I  o  had  received 
some  disgust  in  his  early  attempts  at  dramatic  music ;  for, 
in  1720,  he  published  a  furious  satire  upon  composers, 
/Singing-masters,  and  singers  in  general,  under  the  title 
of  "  Teatro  alia  Moda,"  or  "  An  easy  and  certain  Method 
of  composing  and  performing  Italian  Operas  in  the  modern 
'manner.19     But  his  great  musical  work,  to  which  the  late 
Mr.  Avison's  encomiums  and  Mr.  Garth's   publication  to 
'English  words,  have  given  celebrity  in  our  own  country, 
was  first  printed  at  Venice,  in  8  vols,  folio,  under  the  fof- 
lowing  title:    "  Estro  poetico-armonico,  Parafrasi  sopra 
1  primi  50  S&lmi,  Poesia  di  Girolamo  Ascanio  Giustiuiani, 
Musica  di  Benedetto  Marcello,  Patrizj  Veneti,  1724  and 
1725."     Dr.  Burney,  after  a  careful  examination  of  thia 
'elaborate  work,  is  of  opinion,  that  though  it  has  Consider- 
able merit,  the  author  has  been  over-praised ;  as  the  sub- 
jects of  many  of  his  fugues  end  airs  are  not  only  common 
&nd  old-fashioned  at  present,  but  were  far  from  new.  at 
the  time  these  psalms  were  composed.     But,  adds  Dr.  Bur- 
ney, Marcello  was  a  Venetian  nobtoman,  as  Vftnosa  was  a 
Neapolitan  prince ;  both  did  honour  to  music. by  cultivating 
it;  and  both  expected  and  received  a  greater  return  in 
fame  than,  the  legal  interest  of  the  art  would  allow. ,  Mar- 
cello died  at  Brescia,  June  25,  1739,  ot,  according  to  our 
principal  authority,  in  1741.     He  was  author  of  a  drama 
called  a  Arato  in  Bparta,"  which  was'  set  by  fiuggieri,  and 
performed  at  Venice  in  1704  ;  and  in1  mo  he  produced 
both  the  words  and  the  music  of  an  oratorio  called  rt  Giu- 
dittd."     He  set. the  "  Psyche1'  dT!ta,ssini  about  the  same 
time;  ind  in  1718  he  published  "  Sonnets**  Of  his  own 
writing,  Without  music.1  '      >  -     » 

MARCHAND  (Prosper),  art  author  to  whom  the  cu- 
rious in  literary Aistory  are  greatly  indebtefl,  was  probably 
a  native  of  Paris,  and  born  towards  the  conclusion  of  the 
seventeenth  century.  He  Was  bred  op  as  a  bookseller  itl 
that  city,  a  business  which  always  requires  some  knowledge 
of  books,  but  which  he  carried  to  an  extent  very  unusual, 
and  for  forty  years  employed  ^lrttost  the  whole  of  his  time 
$ti  inspecting  the  works  oi  eminent  authors,  inquiring  iritii 
{heir  history,  their  editions,  differences,  and  every  species 

i  r  * 

-  *  By  Dr.  Burtxy  iikHfrt.,  tf.Mt*ic-*4udJtqj*fl  C^clop^Ui.— IJpC  HJiW  *  j 


of  information  which  fonps  the  accurate  bibliographer* 
During  the  time  that  Mr.  Bernard  published  the  "  Nou- 
velles  de  la  Republiques  des  Lettres,"  Marchand  was  his 
constant  correspondent,  and  contributed  all  the  literary 
anecdotes  from  Paris,  which  appeared  in  that  journal. 
Being,  however,  a  conscientious  protestant,  and  suspect- 
ing that  in  consequence  of  the  repeal  of  the  edict  of  Nantz, 
he  might  be  interrupted  in  tbe  exercise  of  his  religion,  he 
went  to  reside  in  Holland,  and  carried  on  the  bookselling 
trade,  there  for  some  time,  until  meeting  with  some  lack  ot" 
honesty  among  his  brethren  (peu  dc  bonne-foil  qu'.il  avoit 
trouvetj,  be  relinquished  business,  and  devoted  bis  jtime  en- 
tirely to  literary  history  and  biography.  In  both  his  know- 
ledge was  so  conspicuous,  that  the  booksellers  were  always 
happy  to  avail  themselves  of  his  opinion  respecting  intend- 
ed publications,  and  more  happy  when  they  could  engage 
his  assistance  as  an  editor.  In  the  latter  character,  we 
find  that  he  superintended  an  edition*  1.  of  Ba}'le's  "  Dic- 
tionary /'and  "  Letters,"  both  which  he  illustrated  with  notes. 
2.  "  Satyre  Menippge,"  RatisUonne,  (Brussels),  1714,  3 
vols.  8vo.  3.  "  Cymbalum  mundi,"  by  Bonaventure  de 
Perrieres,  Amst.  1732, 12mo.  4.  Fenelon's  "  Direction  pour 
Ja  conscience  d'un  roi,"  Hague,  1747^  8vo  and  12mo.  5. 
The  abbe  .Brenner's  "  Histoire  des  Revolutions  de  Hon- 
grie,"  ibid.,  1739,  2  vols.  4to,  and  6  vols.  l2mo.  6.  "  Let- 
tres, .  Memgires,  et  Negociations  du  comte  d'Estrades," 
London  (Hague),  1743,  9  vols.  12mo.  7.  "  Histpire  de 
Fenelon,"  Hague,  1747,  12mq.  8,  "  Qeuvres  de  Bran- 
tome,"  ibid.  1740,  15  vols.  l2mo.  9.  "  Oeuvres  de  Villon,'* 
ibid.  1742,  8vo,  &c.  &c.  \\    - 

Marcband  was  also  one  of  the  principal,  writers  in  the 
"  Journal  Litteraire,"  which  was  reckoned  one  of  the  best 
of  the  kind,  and  he  contributed  occasionally  to  other  pe- 
riodical ?vorks.  He  maintained  at  the  same  time  a  regular 
and  extensive  correspondence  with  the  most  learned  men 
in  different  parts  of  Europe ;  to  whom  he  Communicated, 
and  from  whom  he'  received  communications,:  and  often: 
had  it  in  his  power  to  assist  them  from  the  stores  of  his  own 
curious  and  well-chosen  library. 

Besides  the  "  Anti-Cotton,  ou  Refutation  de  Ja  lettre  de- 
claratoire  du  P.  Cotton*  avec  un  dissertation,"  printed  a( 
the  Hague  in  1738,  at  the  end  of  the  history  of  Don  lnigo 
de  Guipuscoa,  and  the  "  Chef-d'oeuvre  d'un  inconnu,'* 
$ften  reprinted,  he  published  in  1740  "  Histoire  de  Pirn- 


primerie,"  Hague,  4to,  a  work  of  great  research,  and  often 
consulted  by*  typographical  antiquaries,  but  deficient  in 
perspicuity  of  arrangement.     A  valuable  supplement  t)  it 
iMs  published  by  Mercier,  the  abb6  of  St.  Leger,  1775, 
2  vols.  4to, '  which  French  bibliographers  say  is  better  exe- 
cuted than  Marchand' s  work,  and  certainly  is  more  correct. 
But  the  work  which  best  preserves  the  name  of  Marchand, 
was  one  to  which  we  have  taken  many  opportunities  to  own 
our  obligations,  his  "  Dictionnaire  Historique,  ou  Memoires 
Critiques  et  Litteraires,  concernant  la  vie  et  les  ouvrages 
de  divers  person n ages  distingue^,  particulierement  dans  la 
republique  des  lettresy"  1758 — 9,  2  vols,  folio.     This  has 
1>een  by  his  editor  and  others  called  a  Supplement  to  Bayle; 
but,  although  Marchand  has  touched  upon  a  few  of  the 
authors  in  Bayle's  series,  and  has  made  useful  corrections  - 
and  valuable  additions  to  them,  yet  in  general  the  mate- 
rials are  entirely  his  own,  and  the  information  of  bis  own 
discovering:     The  articles  are   partly   biographical,   and 
partly  historical ;  but  his  main  object  being  the  history  of 
-books,  he  sometimes  enlarges  to  a  degree  of  minuteness, 
which  bibliographers  only  can  pardon,  and  it  must  be  owned 
sometimes   brings    forward   inquiries  into   the   history  of 
authors  and  works  which  his  utmost  care  can  scarcely  rescue 
from  the  oblivion  in  which  he  found  them.     With  this  ob- 
jection, which  by  no  means  affects  the  totality  of  the  work, 
we.  know  few  volumes  that  afford  more  satisfaction  or  in- 
formation on  the  subjects  introduced.     His  accuracy  is  in 
general  precise,  but  there  are  many  errors  of  the  press, 
and    the   work  laboured   under  the   disadvantage  of  not 
being  handed  to  the  press  by  the  author.     He  often  in- 
tended this,  and  as  often  deferred  it,  because  his  mate- 
rials increased  so  that  he  never  could  say  when  his  design 
was  accomplished ;  and  at  length,  when  he  had  nearly  over- 
come all  his  scruples,  and  was  about  to  print,  a  stroke  of 
palsy  deprived  him  of  the  use  of  his  right  hand,  and  un- 
fitted him  for  every  business  but  that  of  prepariug  to  die, 
and  the  settlement  of  his  affairs.     This  last  took  up  little 
time.     He  was  a  man  of  frugal  habits,  content  with   the 
decent  necessaries  of  life,  and  laid  out  what  remained  of 
his  money  in  books.     The  items  of  his  will,  therefore,  were 
few,  but  liberal.    He  left  his  personal  property  to  a  society 
established  at  the  Hague  for  the  education  of  the  poor; 
and  his  library  and  MSS.  to  the  university  of  Leyden.     He 
died,  at  an  advanced  age,  June  14,  1756. 

*«  M  A  ft  C  H  A  W  D 

His  ?' Dictionnaire"  he  consigned  to  the  care  bf  a  friend, 
jWho  has  given  us  only  the  initials  of  his  name  (J*  N.  S.  A->) 
tjo  whpm  be  likewise  intrusted  a  new  edition  of  bis  C4  Hi**- 
tory  of  Printing/*  which  has  never  appeared.  This  friend 
undertook  to  publish  the  J)ictiopary  with  the  greater  aU* 
crity,  as  Marchand  assured  him  that  the  many  script  was 
ready.  Ready  it  certainly  watf,  but  in  such  a  state  as 
frightened  the  editor,  being  all  written  upon  little  pieces 
of  paper  of  different  sizes,  some  not  bigger  than  one's 
thumb-nail,  and  written  in  a  character  so  exceeding  small, 
that  it  was  not  legible  to  the  naked  eye.  The  editor,  therer 
fore,  said  perhaps  truly,  that  this  was  the  first  book  ever 
printed  by  the  help  of  a  microscope.  These  circum- 
stances, however,  may  afford  a  sufficient  apology  for  the 
errors  of  the  press,  already  noticed ;  and  the  editor  cerr 
tainly  deserves  praise  for  having  so  well  accomplished  hit 
.undertaking  amidst  so  many  difficulties.1 

MARC  HE  (Oliver  de  la),  a  French  courtier  and  au- 
thor, of  the  fifteenth  century,  was  the  son  of  a  Burgqn* 
dian  gentleman.  He  was  first  page,  and  afterwards  gentle- 
man to  Philip  the  Good,  duke  of  Burgundy,  who  so  highly 
esteemed  his  fidelity,  that  be  refused  to  give  him  up  at 
the  demand  of  Louis  XI.  La  Marche  served  afterwards 
with  zeal  under  Charles  the  Rash,  who  was  slain  ait  the 
battle  of  Nancy,  in  1477.  After  this,  he  bad  the  office  of 
grand  maitre  d'hotel  to  Maximilian  of  Austria,  who  bad 
married  the  heiress  >of  Burgundy;  and,  maintaining  the 
same  post  under  the  archduke  Philip,  was  sent  oh  an  em* 
bassy  to  France  after  the  death  of  Louis  XL  He  died  at 
JB^ussels  Feb.  1,  1501.  His  works  are,  1.  "Memoirs,  of 
JChronicles,"  printed  at  Lyons  in  1 562,  and  at  Brussels  i» 
1616,  4to.  They  are  reckoned  inferior  to  the  Memoirs  of 
Comines,  as  to  their  style,  but  perhaps  superior  as  to  their 
sincerity.  The  author  relates  several  curious  anecdotes  in 
a  manner  which,  though  flat,  is  rendered  pleasing  by  its 
frankness.  2.  "  A  Treatise  on  Duels,"  &c.  8vo.  3.  "Trif 
oraphe  des  Dames.  d'Honoeur,"  1520,  8vo;  the  Triumph 
of  virtuous  Women.  This  is  a  work  of  dull  and  trivial 
jnorality,  full  of  quaint  allusions  and  metaphors.  Several 
other  performances  are  said  to  be  extant  in  print,  and  in 
manuscript,  but  from  the  account  given  of  them  there  is 

1  Preface  to  the  Dictionnaire. — Diet  Hist. 

*    .        -4  •       w 

M  A  R  C  H  R.  '         287 

little  motive  for  making  tbyem  the  object  of  any  further 
•  inquiry.1 

MARCHETTI  (Alexander),  a  physician,  mathemati-  ( 
cian,  and  poet  of.  Pisa,  was  born  at  Pontormo,  between 
JPisa  and  Tlorence,  March  17,  1633.  His  talents  were 
early  developed,  and  he  became  the  pupil  and  intimate 
friend  of  the  learned  Berelli,  whom  be  succeeded  in  1679, 
as  professor  of  mathematics  at  Pisa.  He  was  a  man  above 
prejudices,  free  to  declare  his  sentiments,  preferring  expe- 
riment to  authority,  and  rqason  to  Aristotle.  He  produced 
several  excellent  disciples,  and  died  at  Pontormo,  Sept* 
,6,  1714,  aged  eighty-one.  There  are  extant  by  him.  1. 
"Poems,"  1704,  in  4tp.  2.  Several  treatises  on; philoso- 
phical subjects,  among  which  that  on  the  resistance  of 
fluids,  is  particularly  valued,  1-669^  4to.  After  his  death 
appeared,  3.  A  translation  of  Lucretius,  in  Italian  verse, 
much  esteemed  for  its  fidelity,  ease,  and  harmony ;  yet, 
says  Baretti,  "  the  versification,  in  my  opinion,  is  but  in- 
different1'  It  was  not  allowed  to  be  published  in  Italy, 
but  was  published  in  .London,  1717,  in  4to,  by  Paulo  Rollt, 
the  translator  of  Milton  into  blank  verse*  4.  His  free  trans- 
lation of  Anacreon  is  less  esteemed ;  it  was  published  at 
Venice  in  1736.  There  is  an  edition  of  his  poems,  printed 
at  Venice  in  1755,  4to,  to  which  his  life  is  prefixed.1 

MARCHETTI,  or  MARCHETTIS  (Peter  de),  a  phy- 
sician, was  professor  of  anatomy  at  Padua,  where  he  was 
born,  and  where  be  continued  to  teach  that  art  from  1652 
until  1669,  when  he  was  allowed  to  resign  his  fchair  to  his 
son  Anthony.  In  1661,  he  also  obtained  the  appointment 
to  the  first  professorship  of  surgery,  which  he  held  along 
with  that  of  anatonpy.  His  merit, in  both  procured  him  the 
honour  of  knighthood  of  the  order  of  Sl  Mark.  At  the 
age  of  eighty  years,  he  retired  altogether  from  the  univer- 
sity  ;  and,  after  having  enjoy ed  a  short  period  of  repose,  he 
died  in  April  1673.  He  left  the  following  works  :  "  Ana- 
tomia,"  Venice,  1654, 4to.  "  Sylloge  Observationum  Me- 
dico-chirurgk^rum  rarjoruoV'  Padua*  1664,  several  times 
reprinted,  and  translated  into  German.  It  contained  fifty- 
three  Cjtses  of  some  interest,  and  three  tracts  on  ulcers,  on 
fittulse  of  the  urethra,  and  on  spina  ventosa. 

1  Gen.  Diet.— Moreri. — Bullart't  Academic  des  Sciences.— Du  Verdier, 
vol.  HI. 

*  Fabrooi  Vita  Italorum,  vol.  II.— Niceron,  vol.  VI.— £l*y  D'jct  Hiak.  da  la 

-2»3  M'ARCHETTI, 

His  two  sons,  Dominic  and  Anthony  de  Marchetti, 
were  likewise  both  professors  in  their  native  university  of 
Padua.  The  former  was  author  of  a  good  compendium  of 
anatomy,  according  to  the  judgment  of  Haller,  which 
passed  through  several  editions,  under  the  title  of  "  Ana- 
tomia,  cui  Kesponsiones  ad  Riolanum,  Anatomicum  Pa- 
risiensem,  in  ipsius  animadversionibus  contra  Veslingium, 
additae  sunt,*'  Padua,  J  652,  &C.1 

MARCHMONT  (Hugh  Hume,  Campbell,  third  earl 
of),  a  nobleman  of  great  learning  and  accomplishments, 
was  born  in  170S.  He  was  the  third  in  succession  to,  and 
the  last  inheritor  of,  that  title ;  there  being  no  male  de- 
scendants of  his  grandfather,  sir  Patrick  Hume,  tDe  ^rst 
earl,  and  his  lordship  having  survived  his  only  son,  Alex- 
ander lord  Polwarth,  who  had  been  created  an  English 
peer,  but  died  without  issue  of  his  marriage  with  the  lady 
Isabella  Grey,  daughter  of  the  earl  of  Hardwicke,  and 
heiress  of  the  last  duke  of  Kent ;  a  peeress  in  her  own 
right,  under  a  limitation  by  Charles  II.  of  the  barony  of 
Lucas  of  Crudwell. 

Sir  Patrick  Hume,  the  first  earl,  was  raised  to  the 
peerage  by  king  William  III,  for  having  taken  a  very 
leading  and  active  part  to  counteract  the  arbitrary  proceed- 
ings of  Charles  II. ;  and  afterwards  the  more  dangerous 
measures  of  James  II.  which  threatened  the  annihilation  oi 
the  liberties  of  the  country,  as  well  as  the  complete  sub-' 
version  of  its  religion ;  for  which  attempts  he  was  long 
imprisoned  in  the  former  reign ;  and  persecuted  with  a 
most  unrelenting  spirit  in  the  latter,  for  having  joined  in 
the  unsuccessful  attempt  of  the  earl  of  Argyle  in  1685. 
King  William's  private  regard  for  sir  Patrick  was  marked 
by  his  majesty's  granting  an  addition  to  his  arms  of  an 
orange,  ensigned  with  an  imperial  crown;  and  by  giving 
him  an  original  portrait  of  himself. 

Concerning  the  danger  to  which  sir  Patrick  was  exposed 
in  the  last  of  the  two  reigns  above-mentioned,  we  have 
the  following  very  interesting  narrative  in  a  work  recently 
published  *,  for  extracting  which  it  is  needless  to  make 
any  apology.  „ 

When  a  near  relatibn,  very  dear  to  sir  Patrick,  was  again 
imprisoned,  he  thought  it  adviseable  to  keep  himself  con- 

*  Mr,  Rose's  Observations  on  Mr.  Fox's  Historical  Work,  Appendix  No.  I.  p.  V 
1  Eloy  Diet.  Hist,  de  la  Medicine.— Haller. — ReiVs  Cyclopaedia. 


cealed.    The  following  account  of  his  concealment  is  taken 
from  the  MS*  preserved  in  the  family  by  his  grand-daughter. 
— *-"  After  persecution  began  afresh,  and  my  grandfather 
Baillie  again  in  prison,  sir  Patrick  thought  it  necessary  to 
keep  concealed ;  and  soon  found  he  had  too  good  reason  for 
so  doing,  parties  being  continually  sent  out  in  search  of 
him,  and  often  to  his  own  house,   to  the  terror  of  all  in  it, 
though  not  from  any  fear  for  his  safety,  whom  they  imagined 
at  a  great  distance  from  home,  for  no  soul  knew  where  he 
was  but  my  grandmother,  and  my  mother,  except  one  man, 
a  carpenter,  called  Jamie  Winter,  who  used  to  work  in  the 
house,  and  lived  a  mile  off,  on  whose  fidelity  they  thought 
they  could  depend ;  and  were  not  deceived.     The  frequent 
examinations  and  oaths  put  to  servants  in  order  to  make  dis- 
coveries wereso  strict,  they  durst  not  run  the  risk  of  trusting 
any  of  them.     By  the  assistance  of  this  man  they  got  a  bed 
and  bed-clothes  carried  in  the  night  to  the  burying-place,  a 
vault  underground  at  Polwarth  church,  a  mile  from  the 
house,  where  he  was  concealed  a  month;  and  had  only  for 
-light  an  open  slit  at  the  one  end,  through  which  nobody 
could  see  what  was  below ;  she  (his  daughter)  went  every 
night  by  herself  at  midnight,  to  carry  him  victuals  and 
drink,  and  staid  with  him  as  long  as  she  could  to  get  home 
.before  day.     In  all  this  time  my  grandfather  shewed  the 
same  constant  composure  and  cheerfulness  of  mind  that  he 
continued  to  possess  to  his  death,  which  was  at  the  age  of 
eighty -four ;  all  which  good  qualities  she  inherited  from 
him  in  a  high  degree ;  often  did  they  laugh  heartily  in 
that  doleful  habitation,   at  different  accidents   that  hap- 

•  pened.  She  at  that  time  had  a  terror  for  a  church-yard, 
especially  in  the  dark,  as  it  is  not  uncommon  at  her  age, 

*  by.  idle  nursery  stories  ;  but  when  engaged  by  concern  for 
her  father,  she  stumbled  over  the  graves  everyj  night  alone, 
without  fear  of  any  kind  entering  her  thoughts,  but  for 

.  soldiers  and  parties  in  search  of  him,  which  the,  least  noise 

or  motion  of  a  leaf  put  her  in  terror  for.     The  minister's 

house  was  near  the  church ;  the  first  night  she  went,  his 

dogs  kept  such  a  barking  as  put  her  in  the  utmost  fear  of  a' 

discovery  ;  my  grandmother  sent  for  the  minister  next  day, 

<  and  upon  pretence. of  a  mad  dog,  got  him  to  hang  all  his 

.  dogs.     There  was  also   difficulty   of  getting   victuals   to 

.carry  .him  without  the  servants  suspecting;  the  only  way  it 

was  done,  was,  by  stealing  it  off  her  plate  at  dinner  into 

her  lap ;  many  a  diverting  story  she  has  told  about  this, 

>ojl.  XXI.  U 


290  MARCHMOtfT. 

and  other  things  of  alike  nature.    Her  father  liked  sheep** 
head,  and  while  the  children  were  eating  their  broth,  she 
had  conveyed  most  of  one  into  her  lap  ;  when  her  brother 
Sandy  (the  second  lord  Marchmont)  had  done,  he  looked 
up  with  astonishment,  and  said,  "  Mother,  will  ye  look  at* 
Grizzel ;  while  we  have  been  eating  our  broth,  she  has  eat 
up  the  whole  sheep's  head.*'     This  occasioned  so  much 
mirth  among  them,  that  her  father  at  night  was  greatly  en- 
tertained by  it ;  and  desired  Sandy  might  have  a  share  in 
the  next.     I  need  not  multiply   stories  of  this  kind,  of 
which  I  know  many.     His  great  comfort  and  constant  en- 
tertainment (for  he  had  no  light  to  read  by)  was  repeating 
Buchanan's  Psalms,  which  he  had  by  heart  from -beginning 
to  end;  and  retained  them  to  his  dying^day ;  two  years 
before  he  died,  which  was  in  1724,  1  was  witness  to  hts 
desiring  my  mother  to  take  up  that  work,  which,  amongst 
others,  always  lay  upon  his  table,  and  bid  her  try  if  he  had 
forgot  his  psalms,  by  naming  any  one  she  would  have  him 
repeat ;  and  by  casting  her  eye  over  it  she  would  know  if 
he  was  right,  though  she  did  not  understand  it ;  and  he 
missed  not  a  word  in  any  place  she  named  to  him,  and  said 
they  had  been  the  great  comfort  of  his  life,  by  night  and 
day,  on  all  occasions.     As  the  gloomy  habitation  my  father 
was  in,  was  not  to  be  long  endured  but  from  necessity,, 
they  were   contriving   other   places   of  safety   for  him;, 
amongst  others,  particularly  one  under  a  bed  which  drew 
out,  on  a  ground  floor,  in  a  room  of  which  my  mother  kept 
the  key ;  she  and  the  same  man  worked  in  the  night,  mak- 
ing a  hole  in  the  earth  after  lifting  the  boards,  which  they 
did  by  scratching  it  up  with  their  hands  not  to  make  any 
noise,  till  she  left  not  a  nail  upon  her  fingers,  she  helping 
the  man  to  carry  the  earth  as  they  dug  it,  in  a  sheet,  on 
his  back,  out  at  the  window  into  the  garden  ;  he  then  made 
a  box  at  his  own  house,  large  enough  for  her  father  to  lie 
in,  with  bed  and  bed-clothes,  and  bored  holes  in  the  boards 
for  air ;  when  all  this  was  finished,  for  it  was  long  about, 
.  she  thought  herself  the  most  secure  happy  creature  alive. 
When  it  had  stood  the  trial  for  a  month  of  no  water  coming 
into  it,  which  was  feared  from  being  so  low,  and  every 
day  examined  by  my  mother,  and  the  holes  for  air  made 
clear,  and  kept  clean-picked,  her  father  ventured  homey 
having  that  to  trust  to.     After  being  at  home  a  week  or 
two,  the  bed  daily  examined  as  usual,  one  day  in  lifting 
the  boards,  the  bed  bounced  to  the  top,  the  box  beiug 


full  of  water :  in  her  life  she  was  never  so  struck,  and  had 
gear  dropped  down,  it  being  at  that  time  their  only  refuge; 
her  father,  with  great  composure,  said  to  his  wife  and  her, 
he  saw  they  must  tempt  Providence  no  longer,  and  that  it 
was  now  fit  and  necessary  for  him  to  go  off,  and  leave 
them;  in  which  he  was  confirmed  by  the  carrier  telling 
for  news  he  had  brought  from  Edinburgh,  that  the  day 
before,  Mr.  Baillie  of  Jerviswoode  bad  his  life  taken  from 
him  at  the  Cross,  and  that  every  body  was  sorry,  though 
they  durst  not  shew  it ;  as  all  intercourse  by  letters  was 
dangerous,  it  was  the  first  notice  they  bad  of  it ;  and  the 
more  shocking,  that  it  was  not  expected.  They  imme- 
diately set  about  preparing  for  my  grandfather's  going 
away.  My  mother  worked  night  and  day  in  making  some 
alterations  in  his  clothes  for  disguise;  they  were  then 
obliged  to  trust  John  Allen,  their  grieve,  who  fainted  away 
wheq  he  was  told  his  master  was  in  the  house,  and  that  he 
was  to  set  out  with  him  on  horseback  before  day,  and  pre- 
tend to  the  rest  of  the  servants  that  he  bad  orders  to  sell 
some  horses  at  Morpeth  fair.  Accordingly,  my  grand- 
father getting  out  at  a  window  in  the  stables,  they  set  out  in 
the  dark ;  though  with  good  reason  it  was  a  sorrowful 
parting,  yet  after  he  was  fairly  gone  they  rejoiced,  and 
thought  themselves  happy  that  he  was  in  a  way  of  being 
safe,  though  they  were  deprived  of  him,  and  little  knew 
what  was  to  be  either  his  fate  or  their  own." 

Sir  Patrick,  having  by  such  means  eluded  all  the  exer- 
tions of  government  to  have  bim  seized,  after  the  failure 
of  the  duke  of  Argyle's  attempt,  escaped  to  France,  and 
travelled  through  that  country,  as  a  physician,  to  Bour- 
deaux,  from  whence  he  embarked  for  Holland,  where  be 
attached  himself  to  the  prince  of  Orange,  looking  up  to 
him,  as  many  others  both  at  home  and  in  Holland  did, 
as  the  best  resource  against  the  threatened  destruction  of 
every  thing  most  dear  to  British  subjects. 

When  his  serene  highness  came  over,  and  happily  ef- 
fected the  bloodless  revolution,  sir  Patrick  Hume  was  one 
of  those  who  accompanied  him,  and  was  by  him  created 
lord  Polwarthof  Pol warth,  and  afterwards  earl  of  Marchcnont. 
He  was  also  made  lord  high  chancellor  of  Scotland  by  king 
William;  an  office  in  that  country,  before  the  Union,  of  the 
highest  rank,  as  it  is  here. 

Alexander,  the  second  earl,  second  son  of  the  pre* 
ceding,  was  ambassador  to  Denmark  and  Prussia  in  1715  j 

u  2 


ft!  A  R  C  H  M  6  N  T. 

in  1716  was  appointed  lord  register  of  Scotland;  and 
in  1721  was  named  first  ambassador  in  the  congress  at 
Cam  bray  *. 

Hugh,  of  whom  we  now  speak,  the  third  earl,  was  the 
third  son  of  the  above-mentioned  Alexander,  and  twin- 
brother  f  of  Mr.  Hume  Campbell,  who  was  in  the  first 
practice  at  the  English  bar,  but  retired  from  it  on  being 
appointed  lord  register  of  Scotland.  The  subject  of  our 
present  article  having  finished  his  studies  in  the  learned 
languages,  in  which  at  an  early  period  of  his  life  he  was 
a  most  distinguished  scholar,  he  was  sent  to  Utrecht  to 
complete  his  education.  Here,  under  the  instruction  of 
one  of  the  most  eminent  civilians  of  modern  times,  he 
succeeded  in  the  attainment  of  a  knowledge  of  the  civil 
law  to  an  extent  seldom  acquired,  even  by  those  who  were 
to  follow  it  as  a  profession  ;  and  at  the  same  time  became 
master  of  several  modern  languages,  which  he  read  and 
wrote  with  great  facility. 

These  qualifications,  with  an  unwearied  industry  to  reach 
the  bottom  of  every  subject  of  discussion,  and  a  habit  of 
speaking,  attracted  great  attention  to  him,  very  soon  after 
his  coming  into  parliament  for  the  town  of  Berwick,  in 
1734.  He  was  one  of  the  most  active  members  of  the 
opposition  of  that  period ;  and  on  the  secession  of  Mr. 
Pulteney,  afterwards  earl  of  Bath,  in  1739,  he  took  the 
decided  lead  in  it;  but  his  career  in  the  House  of  Com- 
mons was  stopped  by  his  succession  to  the  peerage,  on 
the  death  of  his  father,  in  1740.  On  which  occasion  sir 
ftobert  Walpole  said  to  an  intimate  and  confidential  friend, 
that  an  event  had  occurred  which  had  rid  him  of  the  op- 
ponent by  far  the  most  troublesome  to  him  in  the  House. 

When  the  circumstances  here  alluded  to  are  considered, 

•  In  the  Gent  Mag.  for  1741  are 
some  lines  addressed  by  lord  Chester- 
field to  the  late  earl  of  Marcbmont  or 
the  death  of.  his  father  the  preceding 

.  f  The  resemblance  between  these 
brothers  was  so  strong  that  they  were 
frequently  mistaken  for  each  other  by 
intimate  friends :  a  remarkable  in- 
stance of  this  occurred  when  the  che- 
valier.&arjisay  was  soliciting  subscript, 
tions  for  his  Travels  of  Cyrus  ;  he  had 
sent  a  certain  number  of  proposals  to 
both  brothers  to  get  off  for  him.  Lord 
Marchmont  disposed  of  all  his  Tory  soon* 

Mr.  Hume  Campbell,  in  the  midst  of 
business*,  forgot  those  sent  to  him;  and 
walking  one  day  in  the  court  of  re- 
quests with  a  gentleman  who  was  talk- 
ing with  him  on  a  cause  in  which  Mr. 
Hume  Campbell  was  employed,  the 
chevalier  came  to  him  with  expressions 
of  warm  gratitude  for  his  attention, 
in  so  immediately  getting  off  his  sub- 
scriptions ;  on  •  which  the  gentleman 
who  bad  been  talking  with  him  made 
apologies  to  him  for  having  troubled 
him  about  his  cause,  assuring  him  that 
he  took  him  for  bis  brother,  Mr.  Hum* 


it  will  not  be  tbgught  surprising  that  the  society  of  his 
lordship,  fend  his  correspondence,  should  have  been  sought 
by  some  of  the  most  distinguished  characters  of  the  time ; 
he  lived  in  close  intimacy  with  lord  Cob  ham,  who  placed 
his  bust  among  the  worthies  at  Stowe ;  lord  Cornbury,  sir 
William  Wyndham,  lord  Chesterfield,  and  Mr.  Pope*; 
and  notwithstanding  an  essential  difference  of  opinion  from 
lord  Bolingbroke  on  some  very  important  points,  he  was 
so  attracted  by.  his  most  extraordinary  talents,  as  to  form 
an  intimate  friendship  with  him,  which  continued  to  the 
death  of  the  viscount,  although  with  a  short  temporary 
interruption  to  it,  owing  to  the  part  which  lord  Marchmont 
took  in  vindicating,  rather  or  extenuating,  the  conduct  of 
Pope,  respecting  the  printing  of  lord  Bolingbroke' s  «  Pa- 
triot King."  Of  this  affair  we  have  taken  some  notice  ip 
our  account  of  Mallet ;  and  shall  be  able  to  throw  additional 
light  on  it  when  we  come  to  the  article  of  Pope,  from  lord 
Marchmont' s  account,  with  which  we  have  been  favoured. 

The  points  on  which  lord  Marchmont  and  lord  Boling- 
broke differed,  were  occasionally  .the  subject  of  conversa- 
tion between  them ;  respecting  which  there  was  certainly 
some  change  in  the  mind  of  lord  Bolingbroke,  towards  t\\e 
close  of  his  life.  This  is  proved  beyond  the  possibility  of 
contradiction  by  the  author  of  a  recent  publication,  of 
which  we  have  already  availed  ourselves  f.     The  evidence 

*  The  earl  was  one  of  the  executors  Pope  entertained  of  his  lordship's  me- 
of  Pope,  who  left  his  MSS.  to  lord  Bo-  rits  may  be  judged  of  by  the  following 
lingbrok,  and  lord  Marchmont,  and  lines  in  the  inscription  on  his  grotto  at 
the  survivor  of  them.    The  opinion     Twickenham: 

"  Approach  :  But  awful  •  Lo  I  the  iEgerian  grot, 
Where,- nobly -pensive,  St.  John  sate  and  thought: 
Where  British  sighs  from  dying  Wyndham  stole, 
And  the  bright  flame  was  shot  through  Marchment's  soul. 
Let  such,  such  only,  tread  this  sacred  floor, 
Who  dare  to  love  their  country  and  be  poor." 
To    lord  .  Marchmont    also    he    be-     pressing  my  deep  regret,  that  soma 
queathed  the  picture  of  lord  Boling-     essays  written  by  him  in  the  latter  end 
broke  by  Ricbardsoo,    and  his  large     of  his  life  are  not  to  be  fouod  among 
paper  edition  of  Thuanus.     Among  his     his  works  :  because  they  would  have 
lordship's  papers  found  at  his  death,     illustrated  many  interesting  occurren- 
are  a  great  number  of  Mr.  Pope's  let-     ces  in  his  own  time,  and  would  hfve 
ters,  in  many  of  which  he  expresses     shown  his  mind  in  a  different  state  from 
the  highest  esteem  ami  regard  for  him.      that  to  which  it  has  been  sometimes 
These  are  now  in  the  possession  of  l> is     supposed  to  be  subject.     How  it  bap- 
lordship's  sole  executor,  the  right  hon.     pened  that  they  were  not  published  by 
George  Rose.  Mr.  Mallet,  it  is  not  necessary  to  state 

f  «•  Having"  (says  Mr.  Rose,  In-  here;  they  were  certaiuly  written  j  for 
traduction,  p.  xxxi,  note  C.)  ••  been  in  a  letter  to  lord  Marchmont  from 
led  by  Mr.  Fox's  observation  to  men-  Argevitle,  August  8,  1740,  (in  my  pos- 
tioii  this  nobleman,  I  cannot  resist  ex-     session)  on  the  occasion  of  the  dearth 

294  M  A  fe  C  tl  M  O  N  T. 

is  clear  as  to  the  a  Essays"  having  been  written  and  ad- 
dressed to  lord  Marchmont ;  and  it  is  equally  certain,  they 
are  not  among  the  works  of  his  lordship,  as  edited  by  Mr. 
Mallet,  to  whose  care  the  whole  was  intrusted,  in  conse- 
quence of  a  decided  influence  he  acquired  over  his  lord- 
ship, not  long  previous  to  his  death.  How  little  either  of 
fame  or  fortune  accrued  to  Mallet  from  this  advantage,  we 
bave  already  noticed  in  our  account  of  him. 
'  Lord  Marchmont  was  also  distinguished  by  Sarah  duchess 
of  Marlborough,  in  a  very  remarkable  manner*,  with 
whom  he  lived  in  the  most  friendly  habits,  and  was  ap- 
pointed by  her  grace  one  of  her  executors,  with  a  large 
legacy,  and  named  in  the  succession  to  a  part  of  her  great 
estate,  on  failure  of  certain  heirs  of  her  body  (excluding 
the  duke  of  Marlborough)  on  whom  she  entailed  the  whole; 
the  discharge  of  which  trust  fell  principally  on  the  earl. 

After  his  lordship's  accession  to  the  peerage  in  1740,  he 
did  not  mix  in  public  business  till  1747,  when  he  was  ap- 
pointed first  lord  commissioner  of  police  in  Scotland  ;  and 
had  no  opportunity  of  tendering  himself  conspicuous  in  poli- 
tical life  until  1750,  when  he  was  elected  one  of  the  six- 
teen peers,  in  the  room  of  the  earl  of  Crawford.  From  this 
time  he  took  a  very  active  share  in  most  of  the  important  de- 
bates that  occurred,  which  led  to  his  being  appointed  keeper 
of  the  great  seal  of  Scotland  in  1764  (on  the  death  of  the 

of  sir  William  Wyndbam,  lord  Boling-  ship,  and  to  put  together  many  memo- 
broke  fays,  after  mentioning  some  ei-  rials,  anecdotes,  and  other  miscellane* 
says  he  was  writing,  *  This  puts  me  in  oos  pieces  which  1  have  in  my  power, 
mind  of  some  miscellaneous  writings  or  the  materials  of  which  are  so ;  they 
that  1  shall  leave  behind  me,  if  1  live  shall  be  addressed  to  your  lordship 
a  little  longer  and  enjoy  a  little  health ;  most  certainly ;  the  subject  of  a  great 
the  principal  parts  of  them  will  be  his-  part  will  probably  carry  the  whole 
torical  j  and  these  I  intended  to  address  down  to  posterity ;  and  there  is  nothing 
to  Wyndham ;  permit  me  to  address  can  flatter  me  more  agreeably  than  to 
the  whole  to  you.  I  shall  finish  them  have  future  generations  know,  that  I 
up  with  more  spirit,  and  with  greater  lived  and  died  your  lordship's  friend.' 
pleasure,  when  I  think  that  if  they  In  which  letter,  lord  B.  says  be  has 
carry  to  posterity  any  memorial  of  my  tent  one  of  these  productions  to  Pope, 
weakness,  as  an  actor  or  a  writer,  they  *  that  may  not  only  stay,  but  atop 
will  carry  thither  a  character  of  me,  his  longing  for  the  rest'." 
that  I  prefer  to  both,  the  character  of  •  The  duchess  in  her  life-time  gave 
Wyndham's  aud  Marchmont's  friend.'  the  earl  a  remarkably  fine  portrait  of 
His  lordship  certainly  fulfilled  his  in-  herself,  when  in  the  prime  of  her 
teotions,  which  is  proved  net  only  by  beauty,  by  sir  Godfrey  Kneller,  ia- 
what  be  said  to  lord  Marchmont,  but  tended  by  her  grace  for  the  duke,  her 
in  a  subsequent  letter  of  October  1742  grandson,  till  she  quarrelled  with  him 
(also  in  my  possession),  be  alludes  to  decidedly,  for  bis  political  conduct 
closer  retirement  m  France,  and  says  Pope  also  gave  lord  Marchmont  the 
to  the  earl,  '  it  is  there  1  propose  to  original  portrait  of  |  himself  by  Rfcb- 
discharge  my  promise  to  your  lord-  ardson. 

MARCH  MQNT.  295 

duke  of  Athol),  the  office  substituted  for  that, of  lord  chan- 
cellor. The  last  political  act  of  his  life,  was  the  vote  he 
gave  on  Mr.  Fox's  India  bill ;  on  which  occasion  he  was 
the  first  peer  who  went  below  the  bar  as  a  non-content. 

In  the  new  parliament  which  met  in  the  spring  of  1784, 
after  the  dissolution  subsequent  to  the  rejection  of  that  fa* 
raous  measure,  he  was  not  included  in, the  list  of  the  six- 
teen representative  peers  of  Scotland.  He  then  Sold  his 
house  in  London,  and  retired  to  a  small  place  in  Hertfqrd- 
shire,  that  had  belonged  to  the  father  of  the  countess, 
where  he  continued  to  reside  during  the  remainder  of  his 
life,  never  having  quitted  it  for  a  single  day*  He  read  in- 
cessantly in  the  library  which  he  built  for  the  reception  of 
his  books  from  London,  and  for  the  most  valuable  qf  those 
from  Marchmont  house  in  Berwickshire,  except  during  a 
few  hours  that  he  allotted  for  his  daily  exercise  on  horse- 
back,  and  for  making  improvements  that  were  constantly 

?>ing  on  in  his  small  dpmain  near   Hemel  Hempstead, 
he  visits  he  made  were  almost  exclusively  in  a  morning, 
and  to  his  nearest  neighbours  only. 

It  may  be  truly  said,  that  there  have  been  few;  men  in 
any  age,  who  read  more  deeply  than  this .  distinguished 
nobleman.  The  notes  he  left  behind  Him  on  almost  every 
eminent  author  of  antiquity,  and  on  %he  most  useful  pub- 
lications in  modem  times,  afford  ao  unequivocal  proof  of 
this.  He  was  never  himself  an  author;  but  it  Is  to  Him 
the  public  are  indebted  for  the  publication  of  the  re- 
cords of  parliament,  from  very  nearly  the  earliest  period 
of  that  assembly  meeting,  which  have  thrown  most  useful 
light  on  our  constitutional  history.  The  famous  survey  of 
all  the  counties  in  England  made  under  the  authority  of 
William  the  Conqueror,  called  Domesday  Book  *,  was 
printed  at  the  same  time.  The  earl  died  at  his  house  m 
Hertfordshire,  January  10,  1794. ! 

*  This,  hook,  which  is  perhaps  the  oor  courts  of  law,  some  aiearly  at  the 
oldest  authentic  record  in  Europe,  it  reigns-  of  king  John  and  Henry  the  3d, 
as  perfectly  legible  now  as  it  was  in  under  the  authority  and  direction  of 
1086,  when  it  was  written  3  it  was  in  commissioners  appointed  by  his  Ma- 
ine custody  of  the  chamberlain*  of  the  jesty  for  that  purpose ;  for  the  exeou* 
exchequer,  till  early  in  the  last  ceo-  tion  of  which  trust,  in  a  manner  de- 
tury,  when*  with  a  great  variety  of  serving  the  highest  commendation,  the 
other  records,  it  was  (on  the  report  of  present  Speakeil  of  the  House  of  Coro- 
a  Committee  of  the  House  of  Lords)  mons  (the  right  honourable  Charles 
transferred  to  a  separate  custody.  Abbot)  has  a  very  large  share  of  the 

Xhe  publishing  these  valuable  mum*  merit ;  in  truth,  it  has*  been  executed, 

ments  has.  been  followed    by  a  very  in  a  great  degree,  under  his  immediate 

extensive  publication  of  the  records  of  iu&pectioB. 

I  From  private  communication,  the  source  of  which  is  perfectly  authentic^ 

296  M  A  R  C  I  L  I  U  S. 

MARCILIUS  (Theodore),   a  learned.  German  critic, 
was  born  at  Arnheim,  a  town  of  Gueldres,  in  1548.     His 
father,  who  was  a  man  of  rank  and  learning,  observing  in. 
him  a  more  than  ordinary  inclination  for  books,  took  parti- 
cular care  of  his  education.     He  had  him  taught  at  home 
the  elements  of  the  Latin  tongue,  and  then  sent  him  to 
school  at  Deventer,  where  he  learned  the  Greek  under 
Noviomagus.     Marcilius,  having  made  a  great  progress  in 
both  languages,  was  removed  thence  to  the  university  of 
Lou  vain,  where  he  applied  himself  to  philosophy  and  civil 
law;  and,  having  finished  his  studies,  went  to  Paris,  aud 
thence  to  Toulouse,  where  he  taught  polite  literature  many 
years.     Returning  to  Paris,  he  taught  rhetoric  in  1578,  in 
the  college  of  Grassins,  and  afterwards  read  lectures  in  se- 
veral other  colleges  successively.     In  1602,  he  was  made 
royal  professor  of  the  Latin  tongue,  and  the  belles  lettres  ; 
and  died  March  15,  1617.     Though  he  was  not  a  critic  of 
the  first  rank,  yet  he  did  not  deserve  the  contemptuous 
treatment  which  Scaliger  has  given  him.     He  published  an 
edition   in   Greek  and   Latin  of    "  Pythagoras's  Golden 
Verses,"  at  Paris,  1585,  with  commentaries,  which  John 
Albert  Fabricius  has  called  learned  ;  and  notes  upon  many 
of  the  ancient  authors,  Persius,  Horace,  Martial,  Catullus, 
Suetonius,  Aulus  Gellius,  &c.  which  are  to  be  found  in 
several  editions  of  their  works.     He  was  also  the  author  of 
some  Latin  works,  as,  "  Historia  Strenarura,"  1596,  3vo  ; 
"  Lusus  de  Nemine,"  &c.  and  some  poems  and  orations.1 

MARC  ION,  a  heretic,  who  lived  in  the  second  century 
of  the  church,  was  boru  at  Sinope,  a  city  of  Paphlagonia, 
upon  the  Euxine  sea,  and  had  for  his  father  the  bishop  or 
that  city.     Eusebius  calls  him  i  foams,  the  mariner ;  and 
Tertullian,  more  than  once,  Ponticus  Nauclerus.     Whe- 
ther he  acquired  this  name  from  having  learned  the  art  of 
sailing  in  his  youth,  or  from  being  born  in  a  sea-port  town, 
ecclesiastical  antiquity  has  not  told  us.     At  first  he  pro- 
fessed continency,  and  betook  himself  to  an  ascetic  life  ; 
but,  having  so  far  forgotten  himself  as  to  debauch  a  young 
lady,  he  was  excommunicated  by  his  father,  who  was  so 
rigid  an  observer  of  the  discipline  of  the  church,  that  he 
could  never  be  induced,  by  all  his  prayers  and  vows  of 
repentance,  to  re-admit  ;him  into  the  communion  of  the 
faithful.    This  exposed  him  so  much  to  the  scoffs  and 

I  Niceron,  vol  Xjfol.— Mortri.— Diet.  Hist* 


insults  of  His  countrymen,  that  he  privily  withdrew  himself, 
and  went  to  Rome,  hoping  to  gain  admittance  there.     But 
his  case  being  known,  he  was  again  unsuccessful,  which  sa 
irritated  him,  that  he  became  a  disciple  of  Cerdo,  and  es- 
poused the  opinions  of  that  famous  heretic.     The  most 
accurate  cbronologers  have  not  agreed  as  to  the  precise 
time  when  Marcion  went  to  Rome  ;  but  the  learned  Cave, 
after  considering  their  reasons,  determines  it,  and  with  the 
greatest  appearance  of  probability,  to  the  year  127  ;  and 
supposes  further,  that  he  began  to  appear  at  the  head  of 
his  sect,  and  to  propagate  his  doctrines  publicly,  about  the 
year  130.     Indeed  it  could  not  well  be  later,  because  his 
opinions  were  dispersed  far  and  wide  in  the  reign  of  Adrian; 
and  Clemens  Alexandrinus,  speaking  of  the  heretics  who 
lived  under  that  emperor,  mentions  Basilides,  Valentinus, 
and  Marcion,  who,  he  says,  '*'  conversed  along  with  them, 
as  a  junior  among  seniors:"  and  Basilides   died   in   the 
year  134. 

The  doctrines  .of  this  heretic  were,  many  of  them,  the 
same  with  those  which  were  afterwards  adopted  by  Manes 
and  his  followers  ;  that,  for  instance,  of  two  co-eternal, 
and  independent  principles,  one  'the*  author  of  all  good, 
the  other  of  all  evil.     In  other  to  support  and  propagate 
this  principle  more  successfully,  he  is  said  to  have  applied 
himself  to  the  study  of  philosophy,  that  of  the  stoics  espe- 
cially. Marcion  likewise  taught,  as  Manes  did  after  him,  that 
the  God  of  the  Old  Testament  was  the  evil  principle  ;  that 
he  was  an  imperious  tyrannical  being,  who  imposed  the 
hardest  laws  upon    the  Jews,  and   injuriously  restrained 
Adam  from  touching  the  best  tree  in  Paradise ;  and  that 
the  serpent  was  a  nobler  being  than  he,  for  encouraging 
him  to  eat  of  its  fruit :  on  which  account,   as  Theodoret 
tells  us  upon  his  own  knowledge,  the  Marcionites  wor- 
shipped a  brazen  serpent,  which  they  always  kept  shut  up  in 
an  ark.     He  taught,  that  Christ  came  down  from  heaven  to 
free  us  from  the  yoke,  which  this  being  had  put  upon  us; 
that  Christ,  however,  was  not  clothed  with  real  flesh  and 
.    blood,  but  only  appeared  to  the  senses  to  be  so,  and  that 
his  sufferings  were  nothing  more  than  appearance;  that 
when  Christ  descended  into  hell,  and  preached  the  Gos- 
pel there,  he  brought  the  followers  of  Cain,   the  inha- 
bitants of  Sodom,  and  other  wicked  people,  who  were  con- 
verted from  the  error  of  their  ways,  back  with  him  to  hea- 
ven ;   but  that  he  left  Noah,   Abraham,  and  the  other 

«98  M  A  R  C  I  O  N. 

patriarchs,  who  would  not  listen  to  bis  preaching,  bat  trusted 
too  much  to  their  own  righteousness,  fast  bound  in  that 
horrible  dungeon ;  that  there  would  be  no  resurrection  of 
the  body,  but  only  of  the  soul,  &c.  &c.  He  rejected  the 
N  law  and  the  prophets,  as  being  written  under  the  inspira- 
tion of  the  evil  god.  He  rejected  also  four  epistles  of  St. 
Paul,  together  with  all  the  gospels,' except  that  of  St  Luke ; 
out  of  which,  and  the  rest  of  St.  Paul's  epistles,  he  com- 
posed, for  the  use  of  his.  followers,  two  books,  which  he 
persuaded  them  were  of  divine  authority ;  calling  one 
"  Evangelium,"  and  the  other  "  Apostolicon."  Such  is 
•the  account  given  in  Irenseus,  in  Tertullian's  five  books 
against  Marcion,  and  in  Epiphanius. 

While  Marcion   was  at  Rome,  he  happened  to  meet 
Polycarp  of  Smyrna:  and  upon  asking  that  bishop,  "  whe- 
ther he  acknowledged  him  for  a  brother  ?"  "  I  acknow- 
ledge you,"  says  Polycarp,  "  for  the  first-born  of  Satan/* 
Tertullian  relates  that  Marcion  at  length  repented  of  all 
his  errors,  and  would  have  testified  bis  repentance  in  pub- 
lic, provided  they  would  have  admitted  him  again  into  the 
church.     This  was  agreed  to,  upon  condition  that  he  would 
bring  back  all  those  whom  he  had  seduced  from  it ;  which 
before  he  could  effect,  be  died.     The  precise  time  of  his 
death  cannot  be  collected  from  antiquity,  any  more  than 
that  of  his  going  to  Rome.     It  is  certain,  that  he  lived  after 
Antoninus  Pius  began  to  reign ;  for,  although  his  heresy 
bad  spread  a  great  way  under  Adrian,  yet,  by  his  extraor- 
dinary vigilance  and  activity,  it  spread  much  further  under 
Antoninus  Pius.     His  first  apology  for  the  Christians  was 
presented  to  Antoninus  Pius  about  the  year  140;  and  Jus- 
tin Martyr  tells  us  there,  in  express  terms,  that  "  Marcion 
of  Pontus   was  then   living,    and   taught  his  disciples  at 
Rome."  ■ 

MARCK,  or  MARCKIUS  (John  de),  au  eminent  pro- 
testaut  divine,  was  born  at  Sneck  in  Friesland,  in  1655, 
and  became  professor  of  divinity  at  Franeker,  and  professor 
of  divinity  and  ecclesiastical  history  at  Groningen,  whence 
in  16S9  he  was  removed  to  the  same  office  at  Ley  den,  and 
died  there,  Jan.  SO,  173,1.  His  first  publication  was  an 
inaugural  dissertation  in  1676,  "  De  augmento  scientist 
theologies."  He  afterwards  derived  great  reputatiop  from 
his   "  Disputationes  duodecim  de  Sibyllinis  caroiinibus," 

1  Cave,  toI.  I.— Mosbekn  and  Miioer's.Cb,  Hist. — Lardner. 

M  A  R  C  K.  39* 

Franeker,  1682,  8 vo,  written  in  opposition  to  the  senti- 
ments of  Crasset.  2.  xi  Compendium  theologize,"  Amst, 
1712,  4 to.  3.  "  Exercitationes  Biblicss,"  published  at 
different  times,  amounting  to  eight  volumes.  4.  "  Exer- 
citationes miscellanea."  These  turn  on  various  disputed 
passages  in  the  holy  Scriptures,  concerning  which  be  com- 
bats  the  opinions  of  the  Roman  catholics,  Socinians,  &c 
A  selection  from  his  'works  was  published  at  Groningen  in 
1748,  2  vols.  4to.  In  the  Museum  library  are  two  of  hit 
orations,  one  on  the  agreement  between  the  old  and  new 
errors  of  popery,  Groningen,  1683  ;  the  other  on  the  re- 
verence due  to  the  sacred  Scriptures,  Ley  den,  1639*  both 
in  4to.* 

MARE  (Nicolas  be  la),  was  a  principal  magistrate  of 
the  Ch&telet  under  Louis  XIV.  who  reposed  great  confi- 
dence in  him,  and  gave  him  a  considerable  pension.  He 
was  employed  in  several  important  affairs,  particularly 
during  the  scarcity  of  corn  in  1693,  1700,  1709,  and  1710. 
■He  received  a  free  gift  of  300,000  livres,  arising  from  the 
ninth  part  of  the  increased  prices  of  admission  to  the  pub- 
lic amusements,  exhibited  at  the  Hotel  Dieu  in  Paris;  but 
this  sum  did  not  increase  his  fortune,  for  he  liberally  em- 
ployed it  all  in  the  expences  attendant  on  the  gratuitous 
functions  of  his  office,  the  commissions  with  which  he  was 
entrusted,  and  the  completion  of  his  great  work.  He  died 
April  15,  1723,  aged  near  82.  This  worthy  magistrate 
established  his  fame  by  a  most  laborious  treatise  on  the 
police,  in  3  vols,  folio,  to  which  another  author,  M,  le 
Clerc  du  Briilet,  has  since  added  a  fourth.  Tbey  contain  a 
history  of  the  French  police,  the  privileges  of  the  magis- 
trates, the  laws  on  that  subject,  &c.  The  two  first  vo- 
lumes had  supplements,  which,  in  the  edition  of  1722, 
were  thrown  into  the  body  of  the  work.  The  third  yolume 
was  printed  in  1719,  and  the  fourth  in  1738,  and  not  re- 
printed. There  is  a  valuable  plate  of  the  water-conduits 
of  Paris,  which  is  wanting  in  some  copies.* 

MARE  (Philibbrt  de  la),  was  a  counsellor  in  the  par- 
liament of  Dijon,  deeply  versed  in  literature  and  history, 
and  esteemed  almost  as  elegant  a  writer  in  Latin  as  the 
president  de  Thou,  whom  he  had  made  his  model.  He 
died  May  16,  1687,  after  having  published  several  works, 

*>f  which  the  most  known  is,  his  "  Commentarius  de  Bello 


>  Diet.  Hist.— Saxii  OftooMt.  *  Moreri.— Diet  Hist. 

300  MARE. 

Burgundico."  This  makes  a  part  of  bis  "  Historicorum 
Burgundise  conspectus/'  published  in  4to,  in  1689*  He 
wrote  also  "  Huberti  Langueti  vita,"  published  by  J.  P. 
Ludvvig,  at  Halle,  1700,  12H10.1 

MARECHAL  •  (Peter    Sylvanus),     a    miscellaneous 
French  writer,  was  bom  at  Paris,  Aug.  15,  1750,  and  was 
bred  up  to  the  bar,  which  he  quitted  for  the  more  general 
pursuits  of  literature.     He  became  librarian  to  the  Maza- 
rine college,  and  from  time  to  time  published  a  great  many 
works;  on  various  subjects  of  polite  literature,  criticism, 
manners,  poetry,  &c.  most  of  which  shew  considerable  ge- 
nius and  learning,  and  all  were  well  received  by  the  pub- 
lic.    His  very  amiable  private  character  appears  to  have 
procured  him  many  friends  and  much  respect,  although  his 
principles  were  not  always  sound,  his  person  had  little  to 
recommend  it,  and  an  impediment  in  his  speech  rendered 
his  conversation  somewhat  painful.      He  retired  to  the 
country  about  the  close  of  his  life,  as  he  said,  "  that  he 
might  enjoy  the^sun  more  at  his  ease."     He  died  at  Mont- 
rouge,  Jan.  18,  1805.     His  principal  works  are  :   1.  "-De 
Bergeries,"   1770,  12nfo.     2.  "  Le  Temple  de  Hymen," 
1771,  12mo.     3.  "  Bibtiotheque  des  Amans,"  1777,  16mo. 
4.  "Tombeau  de  J.  J.  Rousseau,"  1779,  8vo.     5.  "  Le 
Livre  de  tou&les  ages,"  1779,  12 mo.     6.  u  Fragmens  d'un 
poeme  moral  sur  Dieu,  ou,  Nouvelle  Lucrece,"  1781,  a 
poem  which  the  Diet.  Hist,  says  is  neither  moral  nor  reli- 
gious.    7.  "  L'age  d'or,V    1782,   12mo,  an  agreeable  col- 
lection of  anecdotes.     8.  "  Prophetie  d'Arlainek,"   12 mo. 
9.  "  Livre  echappe*  au  deluge,"  1784,  12mo,  a  collection 
of  psalms  in  the  oriental  style,  of  which  the  moral  is  pure; 
but  we  are  told  it  afforded  his  enemies  a  pretence  to  get 
him  dismissed  from  his  office  of  librarian  to  the  Mazarine 
college.  .  10.  u  Recueil  des  poetes  moralistes  Francais," 
1784,  2  vols.  18mo.     11."  Costumes  civils  actuels  de  tous 
les  peuples,"    1784,  4to.       12.  "Tableau   de  la  fable," 
1787.    13.  "  Paris  et  la  Province,  ou  Choix  des  plus  beaux 
monumens  d'architecture  en  France,"  1787.     14.  "  Cate- 
chisme  de  cure*  Meslier,"'  1789,  8vo.     15.  "  Dictionnaire 
d'amour,"  1789,  16mo.     16.  "  Le  Pantheon,  ou  les  figures 
de  la  fable,  avec  leurs  histoires,"  1791,  8vo.     17.  "  Alma- 
nec  des  honnetes  gens,"  1788,   a  publication  containing 
some  impieties,  for  which  he  suffered  imprisonment.     18. 

*  Moreri.— Diet.  Hi*.  <  -  * 



Decades  du  cultivate™*,"  2  vols.  18mo.  19;  "  Voyage  de 
Pythagore,"  1798,  16  vols.  8vo,  in  imitation  of  the  Anachar- 
sis  of  Barthelemi,  but  greatly  interior.  20.  "  Dictionnaire 
des  ath^es,"  18(K).  He  was  also  the  author  .of  prefaces 
and  introductions  to  various  collections  or  engravings,,  as 
the  history  of  Greece,  1795,  5  vols.  4to,  the  fiorence  Mu- 
seum, 6  vols.  4to,  &c.2 

MARETS  (John  des),  de  Saint  Sorlin,  was  a  man  of 
genius,  and  a  favourite  of  cardinal  Richelieu,  who  used  to 
receive  him  at  his  retired  hours,  an  (J  unbend  his  mind  by 
conversing  with  him  upon  gay  and  delicate  subjects.  On 
this  account,  and  because  he  assisted  the  cardinal  in  th6 
tragedies  he  composed,  Bayle  used  to  say,  that  "  he  pos- 
sessed an  employment  of  genius  under  his  eminence;" 
which  in  French  is  a  pun,  as  genie  means*  g*mW  and  en- 
gineer ship.  He  was  born  at  Paris  in  1595.  He  has  left 
us  himself  a  picture  of  his  morals,  which  is  by  no  means 
advantageous;  for  he  owns  that,  in  order  to  triumph  over 
the  virtue  of  such  women  as  objected  to  him  the  interest 
of  their  salvation,  he  made  no  scruple  to  lead  them  into 
atheistical  principles,  "I  ought,"  says  he,  "  to  weep  tears 
of  blood,  considering  the  bad  use  I  have  made  of  my  ad- 
dress among  the  ladies;  for  I  have  used  nothing  but  spe- 
cious falsehoods,  malicious  subtleties,  and  infamous  trea- 
cheries, endeavouring  to  ruin  the  souls  of  those  I  pre- 
tended to  Jove.  I  studied. artful  speeches  to  shake,  blind, 
and  seduce  them  ;  and  strove  to  persuade  then),  that  vice 
was  virtue,  or  at  least  a  thing  natural  and  indifferent. '• 
Marets  at -length,  became  a  visionary  and  fanatic;  dealt  in 
nothing  but  inward  •  lights  and  revelations;  and  promised 
the  king  of  France,  upon  the  strength  of  some  prophecies, 
whose  meaning  he  tells  us  was  imparted  to  him  from  above, 
that  he  should  have  the  honour  of  overthrowing  the  Maho- 
metan empire*.  "  This  valiant  prince,"  says  he, ."  shall 
destroy  and  expel  from  their  dominions  impiety  and  heresy, 
and  reform  the  ecclesiastics,  the  courts  of  justice,  and  the 
finances.  After  this,  in  common  agreement  with  the  king 
of  Spain,  he  shall  summon  together  all  the  princes  of 
Europe,  with  the  pope,  in  order  to~re-umte  all-the  Chris- 
tians to  the  true  and  only,  catholic  religion.  After  all  the 
Jjeretics  are  re-united,  to  the  holy  see,  the  king,  as  eldest 
«on  of  the  church,  shall  be  declared  generalissimo  of  all 

.VDict,  Hist,  ♦ 

302  M  A  R  E  T  3, 


the  Christians  and,  with  the  joint  forces  of  Christendom, 
shall  destroy  by  sea  and  land  the  Turkish  empire,  and  la* 
of  Mahomet,  and  propagate  the  faith  and  dominion  of  Je- 
sus Christ  oyer  the  whole  earth  :"  that  is  to  say,  over  Persia, 
the  eqapire  of  the  great  mogul,  Tartary,  and  China, 

These  absurdities  do  not  appear  to  have  lessened  bis 
reputation  among  his  countrymen,  as  the  charge  of  inqui* 
sitor  was  bestowed  upon  him  :  and  he  showed  himself  very 
active  in  bringing  about  the  extirpation  of  Jansenism.     He 
bad  been  a  member  of  tbe  French  academy  from  it*  first 
establishment,  and  was  always  esteemed  one  of  its  prin* 
cipal  ornaments.     He  wrote  several  dramatic  pieces,  which 
were  received  with  great  applause,  especially  that  entitled 
"  Les  Visionaires."     He  attempted  an  epic  poem,  entitled 
"  Clovis,"  which  cost  him  several  years9  labour;  and  he 
was  of  opinion,  that  it  would  have  cost  him  a  good  many 
more  to  have  finished  it,  if  Providence  bad  not  destined 
his  pen  for  works  of  devotion,  and  on  that  account  afforded 
him  supernatural  assistance.     This  we  learn  from  the  pre* 
face  of  his  "  Delices  de  F Esprit,"  in  which  he  professes 
that  he  dare  not  say  in  how  short  a  time  he  bad  finished 
the  nine  remaining  books  of  that  poem,  and  retouched  the 
rest     He  also  very  seriously  boasts,  that  "God,  in  his 
infinite  goodness,  had  sent  him  the  key  of  the  treasure, 
contained  in  tbe  Apocalypse,  which  was  known  but  to  few 
before  bim ;"  and  that,  "  by  the  command  of  God,  he  was 
to  levy  an  army  of  144,000  men,  part  of  which  he  had 
already  enlisted,  to  make  war  upon  the  impious  and  the 
Jansenists."     He  died  in  1676,  aged  eighty-one. 

His  works  are  thus  enumerated  :  1.  "  A  Paraphrase  off 
tbe  Psalms  of  David."  2.  "  The  Tomb  of  Card.  Riche- 
lieu," an  ode.  3.  "The  Service  to  the  Virgin,"  turned 
into  verse.  4.  "  The  Christian  Virtues,"  a  poem  in  eight 
cantos.  5.  The  four  books,  "  On  the  Imitation  of  Jesus 
Christ,"  1654,  12 mo,  very  badly  translated  into  Frenck 
verse.  6.  "  Clovis,"  or  France  converted,  an  epic  poem 
in  twenty-six  books,  1657.  This  poem,  though  the  author 
thought  so  highly  of  it,  as  we  have  already  seen,  is  wholly 
destitute  of  genius,  and  its  memory  is  preserved  more  by 
a  severe  epigram  of  Boileau  against  it,  than  by  any  other 
circumstance.  He  wrote  also,  7.  <'  The  Conquest  of 
Franche  Comte,"  and  some  other  poems  not  worth  emir 
merating.  Besides  these  works  in  verse,  he  published  in 
'prose,  8.  "  l^es  Delices  de  V Esprit,"  a  fanatical  and  incom- 

M  A  R  E  f  S,  305 

prehensible  work  above-mentioned,  which  was  best  criti- 
cized by  a  person  who  said,  that  at  the  head  of  the  Errata, 
should  be  put,  "  for  Del  ices,  read  Delires ;"  instead  of 
delights  of  the  mind,  ravings  of  it.  9.  "  Avis  du  St.  Es- 
prit au  Roi,"  still  more  extravagant  if  possible  than  the 
former.  10.  "  Several  Romances,  and  among  them  one 
entitled  "  Ariane,"  or  Ariadne,  at  once  dull  and  indecent. 
11.  "  La  Veritg  des  Fables/'  1648,  2  vols.  8vo.  12.  A 
dissertation  on  Poets,  in  which  the*  author  ventures  to  at- 
tack the  maxims  of  Aristotle  and  Horace.  Some  writing* 
against  the  satires  of  Boileau,  and  several  against  the  Jan- 
senists,  complete  the  list.  His  countrymen  now  consider 
the  verses  of  Des  Marets  as  low,  drawling,  and  incorrect ; 
his  prose,  as  disgraced  by  a  species  of  bombast  which  ren- 
tiers it  more  intolerable  than  his  poetry. 

His  niece,  Mary  Dupre',  was  born  at  Paris,  and  edu- 
cated by  her  uncle.     She  was  endowed  with  a  happy  ge- 
nius and  a  retentive  memory.     After  reading  most  of  the 
principal    French  authors,   she   learnt  Latin,    and  went 
through  Cicero,  Ovid,  Quintus  Curtius,  and  Justin.     With 
'these  books  she  made  herself  so  familiarly  acquainted,  that 
tier  uncle  proceeded  to  teach  her  the  Greek  language,  the 
arts  of  rhetoric  and  versification,  and  philosophy  ;  not  that 
scholastic  philosbphy  which  is  made  up  of  sophistry  and 
-ridiculous  subtleties,  but  a  system  drawn  from  the  purer 
sources  of  sense  and  nature.     She  studied  Descartes  with 
such  application,  that  she  got  the  surname  of  la  Cart6- 
sienue.     She  likewise  made  very  agreeable  verses  in  her 
own  language,  and  acquired  a  thorough  knowledge  of  the 
Italian.     She  held  a  friendly  and  literary  correspondence 
with  several  of  the  learned  her  contemporaries,  as  ako 
with  the  mademoiselles  de  Scuderi  and  de  la  Vigne.    The 
answers  of  Isis  to  Climene,  that  is  to  mademoiselle  de  la 
Vigne,  in  the  select  pieces  of  poetry  published  by  father 
Bouhours,  are  by  this  ingenious  and  learned  lady.1 

MARETS  (Samuel  des),  a  celebrated  divine  of  the  re- 
formed church,  was  born  at  Oisemond  in  Picardy,  in  1599- 
At  thirteen  he  was  sent  to  Paris,  where  he  made  great 
advances  in  the  belles  lettres  and  philosophy ;  and  three 
*  years  after  to  Saumur,  where  he  studied  divinity  under 
Qomarus,  and  Hebrew  under  Ludovicus  Capellus.  He 
returned  to  his  father  in  1618,  and  afterwards'  went  to 

1  Gen.  Diet— Nictron,  vol.  XXX V.— Moreri. 

304  M  A  R  E  T  S. 

Geneva,  to  finish  bis  course  of  divinity.  The  year  follow- 
ing be  went  to  Paris,  and,  by  the  advice  of  M.  Durand, 
applied  immediately  for  admission  to  the  holy  ministry,  to 
the  synod  of  Charenton,  in  March  1620,  who  received 
him,  and  settled  him  in  the  church  of  Laon.  But  bis  minis- 
terial functions  here  were  soon  disturbed;  for,  the  governor 
of  La  Fere's  wife  having  changed  her  religion,  wrote  him 
a  letter  in  vindication  of  her  conduct,  and  sent  him  a 
pamphlet  containing  the  history  of  her  conversion.  His 
answer  to  this  lady's  letter  provoked  his  adversaries  to  such 
a  degree,  that  a  Jesuit  was  supposed  to  have  suborned  an 
assassin,  who  stabbed  him  deeply,  but,  as  it  happened, 
not  mortally,  with  a  knife  into  his  breast.  Thisjnduced 
Des  Marets  to  leave  Laon,  and  go  to  Falaise  in  1624:  He 
afterwards  accepted  a  call  to  the  church  of  Sedan ;  and 
soon  after  took  the  degree  of  doctor  in  divinity  at  Leyden, 
in  July  1625.  Having  made  a  short  visit  to  England,  he 
returned  to  Sedan.  In  1640,  he  had  an  invitation  to  a 
professorship  at  Fraueker ;  and  to  another  at  Groningen, 
•in  1642.  This  last  he  accepted;  and  from  that  time  to 
his  death,  rendered  such  services  to  that  university,  that  it 
was  reckoned  one  of  the  most  flourishing  in  the  Nether- 
lands. The  magistrates  of  Berne,  well  informed  of  his 
abilities  and  learning,  offered  him,  in  1661,  the  professor 
of  divinity's  chair  at  Lausanne;  and,  in  1663,  the  univer- 
sity of  Leyden  invited  htm  to  a  like  professorship  there. 
He  accepted  of  this  last,  but  died  before  he  could  take 
possession  of  it,  at  Groningen,  May  1 8,  the  same  year. 

A  chronological  table  of  the  works  of  this  celebrated 
divine  may  be  found  at  the  end  of  his  "  System  of  Divi- 
nity." They  are  mostly  of  the  controversial  kind,  and 
now  seldom  inquired  after. ,  He  designed  to  collect  all  his 
works  into  a  body,  as  well  those  which  had  been  already 
published,  as  those  which  were  in  manuscript.  He  revised 
and  augmented  them  for  that  purpose,  and  had  materials 
for  four  volumes  in  folio ;  but  his  death  prevented  the  exe- 
cution of  that  project.  The  first  volume  was  to.  have  con- 
tained all  those  works  which  he  had  published  before  bis 
being  settled  at  Groningen.^  The  second,  bis  •'  Opera  the- 
ologica  didactrca."  The  third,  his  "  Opera  theologica  po- 
lemica."  The  title  of  the  fourth  was  to  have,  been  uIm- 
pietas  triumphata."  Its  contents  were  to  have  been  the 
"  Hydra  Socinianismi  expugnata,"  the  "  Biga  fanaticorum 
e versa/*  and  the  "  Fabula  P>«adamitaruoi  refutata ;"  three 

M  A  R  E  T  S.  305 

works  which  had  been  printed  at  different  times.  Marets's 
system  of  divinity  was  found  to  be  so  methodical,  that  they 
made  use  of  it  at  other  academies ;  and  indeed  this  author's 
reputation  procured  him  so  much  authority  in  foreign 
countries  as  well  as  his  own,  that  a  person  in  Germany, 
who  published  some  reflections  on  him,  received  orders  to 
suppress  his  book.1  -     -    . 

MARGARET,  Countess  of  Richmond,  &c.  See  BEAU- 

MARGARET,  Duchess  of  Newcastle.  See  CAVEN- 

MARGARET  of  Valois,  queen  of  Navarre,  and  sister 
to  Francis  I.  of  France,  celebrated  as  an  author  yet  more 
than  for  her  rank,  was  born  at  Angoul6me,  April  1 1, 1492; 
being  the  daughter  of  Charles  of  Orleans,  duke  of  Angou- 
l£me,  and  Louisa  of  Savoy.  In  1 509  she  married  Charles 
the  last  duke  of  Alencon,  who  died  at  Lyons,  after  the 
battle  of  Pavia,  in  1525.  The  widow,  inconsolable  at  once 
for  the  loss  of  her  husband,  and  the  captivity  of  her  be- 
loved brother,  removed  to  Madrid,  to  attend  the  latter 
durjmg  his  illness.  -  She  was  there  of.  the  greatest  service 
to  her  brother,  by  her  firmness  obliging  Charles  and  his 
ministers  to  treat  him  as  his  rank  demanded.  His  love  and 
gratitude  were  equal  to  her  merits,  and  he  warmly  pro- 
moted her  marriage  with  Henry  d'Albret,  king  of  Navarre. 
The  offspring  of  this  marriage  was  Joan  d'Albret,  mother 
of  Henry  IV.  Margaret  filled  the  character  of  a  queen 
with  exemplary  goodness ;  encouraging  arts,  agriculture, 
and  learning,  and  advancing  ,by  every  means  the  prosperity 
of  the.  kingdom.  She  died  at  the  castle  of  Odos,  in  Bi- 
gorre,  Dec.  2,  1549.  She  had  conversed  with  protestant 
ministers,  and  had  the  sagacity  to  perceive  the  justness  of 
their  reasonings ;  and  their  opinions  were  countenanced 
by  he*  in  a  little  work  entitled  "  Le  Miroir  de  l'Ame  pe- 
cheresse,"  published  in  1533,  and  condemned  by  the  Sorr- 
bpqne  as  heretical  *  but  on  her  complaining  to  the  king, 
these  pliant  doctors  withdrew  their  censure..  The  Roman 
catholic  writers  say,  that  she  was. completely  re-cdn verted 
before  she  died.  The  positive  , absolution  of  the  Rotaistb 
priests  is  certainly  a  great  temptation  to  pious  minds  in  the 
hour  of  weakness  and  decline.  Margaret  is  described  as 
an  assemblage  of  virtues  and  perfections,  among .  which, 

i  Geu.  Diet.— Niceron,  vol  XXVIIJ. — Mooeri. — Saxii  Onomast. 

Vol.  XXI.  X 

306  MA  R  G  A  RET. 

that  of  chastity  was  by  no  means  the  least  complete,  not- 
withstanding the  freedom,  and,  to  our  ideas,  licence  of 
some  of  her  tales.  Such  is  the  difference  of  manners.  She 
wrote  well  both  in  verse  and  prose,  and  was  celebrated  in 
both.  She  was  called  the  tenth  muse  ;  ana  the  Margaret, 
or  pearl,  surpassing  all  the  pearls  of  the  east.  Of  her 
works,  we  have  now  extant,  1.  her  "  Heptameron,"  or, 
Novels  of  the  queen  of  Navarre,  1559,  and  1560,  in  4to, 
and  several  times  re-published.  They  are  tales  in  the 
style  of  Bqccace,  and  are  told  with  a  spirit,  genius,  and 
simplicity,  which  have  been  often  serviceable  to  Fontaine 
in  his  tales.  Several  editions  have  been  printed' with  cuts, 
of  which  the  most  valued  are  that  of  Amsterdam,  in  1698, 
in  2  vols.  Svo,  with  cuts  by  Romain  de  Hooge ;.  the  re- 
prints of  this  edition  in  1700  and  1 70S,  are  not  quite  so 
much  valued,  yet  are  expensive,  as  are  the  editions  with 
Chodoviechi's  cuts,  Berne,  1780 — 1,  3  vols.  8vo  ;  Paris, 
1784,  and  1790.  2.  "  Les  Marguerites  de  la  Marguerite 
des  Princesses ;"  a  collection  of  her  productions,  formed 
by  John  de  la  Haye,  her  valet  de  chambre,  and  published 
at  Lyons,  in  1547,  Svo;  a  very  rare  edition,  as  is  that  of 
1 554.  In  this  collection  there  are  four  mysteries,  or  sacred 
comedies,  and  two  farces,  according  to  the  taste  of  the 
times.  A  long  poem  entitled  "  The  Triumph  of  the 
Lamb,"  and  "The  Complaints  of  a  Prisoner,"  apparently 
intended  for  Francis  I. l 

M ARGON  (William  Plantavit  de  la  Pause,  de),  a 
French  author  and  journalist,  was  born  in  Languedoc,  in 
the  diocese  of  Bezieres.  He  appeared  at  Paris  about 
171 5j  and  espoused  the  cause  of  the  Jesuits  against  the 
Jansenists  ;  in  which  business  he  wrote  with  so  much  acri- 
mony, that  the  court  thought  themselves  obliged  to  banish 
him*  He  was  sent  to  the  isles  of  Larins,  in  the  Mediter- 
ranean, and  when  these  were  taken  by  the  Austrians  in 
1746,  his.  liberty  was  granted  on  condition  that  he  would 
retire  into  some  religious  house.  He  chose  a  monastery 
of  Bernardines,  where  he  died  in  1760.  His  caustic  and 
satirical  disposition  rendered  him  un pleasing  in  society  at 
well  as  in  his  writings ;  and  it  is  thought  that  his  banish- 
ment and  solitude  much  increased  the  acrimony  of  his  cha- 
racter. He  was  concerned  in  several  works,  as,  l."  Memoirs 
of  Marshal  Vi liars/'  3  vols.  12 mo,  the  two  first  of  which 

*  Gen.  Diet.— Diet.  Hist. 

MARGON,  307 

arc  written  by  Villars  himself.  2.  €i  The  Memoirs  of  the 
Duke  of  Berwick,"  2  vols.  12mo.  $.  "  Memoirs  of  Tour- 
ville,"  3  vols.  12mo,  not  much  esteemed.  4.  "Letters 
of  Fitz-Moritz."  *  $.  Several  <small  tracts,  and  some  pieces 
of  poetry  of  no  great  value.1 

MARGRAF  (Andrew  Sigismond),  a  celebrated  che- 
mist, was  born  at  Berlin,  March  3,  1709.  His  father  was 
apothecary  to  the  court,  and  assessor  of  the  college  of 
medicine,  and  under  his  care  his  attention  was  naturally 
turned  to  the  pursuits  of  chemistry  and  pharmacy.  To 
pursue  these,  his  father  sent  him  to  study  under  the  cele- 
brated professor  Neumann,  for  five  years,  and  subsequently 
under  professor  Spielmann,  at  Strasburg.  In  1733  he 
went  to  the  university  of  Halle,  where  he  became  a  pupil 
of  Hoffmann  in  the  study  of  medicine,  and  continued  his 
chemical  pursuits  under  the  direction  of  Juncker,  to  which 
last  science  be  ultimately  devoted  his  sole  attention.  He 
also  studied  mineralogy,  under  Henckel,  and  the  art  of 
assaying  under  Susmilch.  In  the  following  year  he  visited 
the' Hurtz  mines,  and  then  returned  to  Berlin,  where  his 
incessant  application  to  chemical  labours  so  materially  in- 
jured his  health,  that  it  was  never  afterward*  vigorous. 
In  1738  he  was  received  into  the  society  of  sciences,  and 
furnished  some  memoirs  for  the  "  Miscellanea  Berolinen- 
sia  ;**  and  when  this  society  was  renovated  in  1744,  as  the 
royal  academy  of  sciences  and  belles  lettres,  he  was  placed 
in  the  class  of  experimental  philosophy,  of  which  he  was 
chosen  director  in  1760.  He  had  also  the  high  gratifica- 
tion of  being  entrusted  with  the  laboratory  of  the  academy 
in  1754,  in  which  he  almost  lived,  absorbed  in  the  study 
or  practice  of  bis  favourite  art.  He  was,  nevertheless,  "k 
man  of  great  amenity  of  temper,  and  fconsiderable;  con- 
viviality, when  mixing  in  the  society  of  his  friends.  He 
had  been  for  some  years  liable  to  spasmodic  affections,  and 
in  1774,  was  attacked  with  apoplexy,  which  left  a  paralysis 
behind  it.  He  continued,  however,  to  attend  the  meet- 
ings of  the  academy  till  the  autumn  of  1776  ;  after  which 
his  mental  and  bodily  powers  gradually  declined,  and  he 
<Jied  in  August,  1782. 

Margraf  was  held  in  considerable  estimation  as  a  chemist, 
throughout  Europe,  and  bad  the  honour  of  being  elected 
a  member  of  several  learned  bodies.     All  the  writings 

i  Diet.  Hiit. 

» * 

X  2 

508  M  A  R  G  R  A  F. 

which  he  produced  were  published  in  the  Memoirs  of  the 
Literary  Society  of  Berlin,  before  and  after  it»  renovation ; 
but  they  have  been  collected  and  published  both  in  Ger- 
man and  French.  Tbey  contain  the  detail*  of  a  great 
number  of  processes  and  analyses,  described  in  clear  and 
simple  language.  Seme  of  the  most  important  of  his  dis- 
coveries relate  to  phosphorus  and  its  acid  ;  to  the  reduction 
of  zinc  from  calamine ;  to  the  fixed  and  volatile  alkalies ; 
to  manganese,  the  Bolognian  stone,  platina,  and  the  acid 
of  sugar.  In  short,  he  is  entitled  to  rank  among  the  more 
accurate  experimentalists  who  contributed  to  the  advance- 
ment of  the  science  of  chemistry,  before  the  recent  limit* 
nous  improvements  which  it  has  gained.1 

M ARIALES  (Xantes),  a  laborious  Dominican,  was  bpra 
about  1580,  at  Venice,  of  the  noble  family  of  Pinardii 
He  taught  philosophy  and  theology  for  some  time,  but 
afterwards  refused  all  offices  in  his  order,  that  he  might  be 
more  at  liberty  to  study.  He  died  1660,  at  Venice,  aged 
eighty,  leaving  several  large  tbeok>gie4l  works,  the  moat 
curious  among  which  is  entitled  "  Bibliotheca  Interpretum 
ad  universam  summam  D.  Thomie,"  1669,  4  vols,  folio; 
and  several  "  Declamations,"  in  Italian,  against  the  liber- 
ties of  the  Galhcan  church,  which  involved  the  writer  in 
great  troubles,  and  occasioned  him  to  be  twice  driven  from 
Venice.1  • 

MARIANA  (John),  a  Spanish  historian,  was  born  at 
Talavera,  in  Castille,  in  1337  \  and  entered  into  the  order 
of  Jesuits  when  he  was  seventeen,     He  was  one  of  the 


most  learned  men  of  bis  age,  an  able  divine,  a  consider- 
able master  of  polite  literature,  admirably  skilled  in  sacred 
and  profane  history,  and  a  good  linguist.  In  1561  be  was 
sent  by  his  superiors  to  Rome,  where  he  taught  divinity, 
and  received  the  order  of  priesthood ;  and  at  the  end  of 
four  years  went  to  Sicily,  where  ne  continued  the  same 
profession  two  years  more.  He  came  to  Paris  ui  1569, 
and  read  lectures  publicly  upon  Thomas  Aqtrina*  for  five 
years ;  then  returned  into  Spain,  and  passed  the  remainder 
of  his  life  at  Toledo.  He  wrote  many  books  in  Latin. 
His  piece  "  De  monetae  mutatione,"  gave  great  offence  to 
the  court  of  Spain  ;  for  Philip  III*  haviqg  altered  and  em- 
based  the  coin  by  the  advice  of  the  duke  of  Lerma,  Mart- 

*  Eloget  des  Acad«miewnft  vol  III.— Reei'i  Cyclopsclis. 
»  Moreri.— Diet  Hist. 

MARIANA.  30* 

Ma  shewed,  with  great  freedom,  the  injustice  and  disad- 
vantage of  this  project ;  for  which,  he  was  put  into  prison* 
*»d  kept  there  about  a  year  by  that  minister.  But  what 
made  more  noise  stiH,  was  his  tract  "  De  rege  &  regis 
institutione,"  consisting  of  three  books,  which  he  published 
to  justify  James  Clement,  a  young  monk,  for  assassinating 
Henry  III.  of  France.  In  this  he  argues  against  passive 
obedience  and  non-resistance ,  asserts  the  lawfulness  of 
resisting  "  the  powers  that  be/'  where -the  administration 
is  tyrannical;  and  founds  his  whole  argument  upon  this 
principle,  "  that  the  authority  of  the  people  is  superior  to 
that  of  kings."  This' book  *f  Mariana,  though  it  passed 
without  censure  in  Spain  and  Italy,  was  burnt  at  Paris,  by 
?narr£t  of  parliament. 

:    But  the  most  considerable  by  far  of  all  his  performances, 
is  bis  "  History  of  Spain,'*  divided  into  thirty  books.    This 
be  wrote  at  first  in  Latin ;  but,  fearing  lest  some  unskilful 
pen  should  sully  the  reputation  of  his  work  lay  a  bad  trans* 
Ration  of  it  into  Spanish,  he  undertook  that  task  himself* 
not  as  a  translator,  but  as  an  author,  who  might  assume  the 
liberty  of  adding  and  altering,  as  he  found  it  requisite, 
upon  further  inquiry  into  records, and  ancient  writers. 
Yet  neither  the  Latin  nor  the  Spanish  <came  lower  down 
than  the  end  of  the  reigh  of  king  Ferdinand,  grandfather 
to  the  emperor  Charles  V.  where  Mariana  concluded  his 
thirty  books ; .  not  caring  to  venture  nearer  his  own  times, 
because  he*  could  not  speak  with  the  freedom  and  impar- 
tiality of  a  just  historian,  of  persons  who  were  either  alive 
themselves,   or  whose  immediate  descendants  were.     4* 
the  instigation  *of  friends,  however,  he  afterwards  drew  up 
a  short  supplement,  in  which  he  brought  his  history  down 
to  1621,  when  king  Philip  HI.  died,  and  Philip  IV.  came 
to  the  crown.  .  After  his  death,  F.  Ferdinand  Gamargory 
Salcedo,  of  the  order  of  St,  Augustin,  carried  on  another 
supplement  from  1621,  where  Mariana  left  off,  to  1649, 
inclusive ;  where  F.  Basil  Voren  de  Soto,  of  the  regular 
clergy  took  it  up,  and  went  on  to  1669,  being  the  fifth 
year  of  the  reign  of  Charles  II.  king  of  Spain.     Gibbon 
says  that' in  this  work  he  almost  forgets  that  he  is  a  Jesuit, 
to  assume  the  style  and  spirit  of  a  Roman  classic.     It  is  a 
work  of  great  research  and  spirit,  although  not  free  from 
the  prejudices  which  may  be  supposed  to  arise  from  his 
education  and  profession.     The  first  edition  was  entitled 
"  Historic  de  rebus  Hispaniee,  lib.  viginti,"  Toleti,  I5$t, 

310  MAR  I  A  N  A. 

folio.  To  some  copies  were  afterwards  added  five  more 
books,  and  a  new  title,  with  the  date  1595,  or  in  some 
1592.  The  remaining  five  books  were  printed  as  "  Historic 
Hispanic®  Appendix,  libri  scilicet  XXI — XXX,  cum  in- 
dice,"  Francfort,  1616,  fol.  There  is  an  edition  printed 
at  the  Hague,' with  the  continuations,  1733,  4  vols,  in  2, 
fol.  The  best  editions  in  the  Spanish  are,  that  of  Madrid, 
1780,  2  vols,  folio,  and  that  with  Mariana's  continuation, 
ibid.  1794,  10'vols.  8vo.  The  French  have  various  trans- 
lations, and  the  English  an  indifferent  one  by  capt.  Ste- 
vens, 1699,  fol. 

Mariana's  history  did  not  pass  without  animadversions  in 
his  own  time.  A  secretary  of  the  constable  of  Castile, 
who  calls  himself  Pedro  Mantuana,  published  "  Critical 
Remarks"  upon  it  ats  Milan,  in  16 1 1,  which  were  answered, 
by  Thomas  Tamaius  de  Vorgas.'  The  latter  informs  us, 
"  that  Mariana  would  never  cast  his  eyes  upon  the  work  of 
bis  censurer,  or  on  that  of  his  apologist ;  though  this  latter 
offered  him  his  manuscript  before  he  gave  it  to  the  printer, 
and  desired  him  to  correct  it."  - 

Besides  those  already  mentioned,  he  published  several 
other  pieces  in  Latin,  theological  and  historical ;  among 
the  rest,  one  entitled  "  Notes  upon  the  Old  Testament ;" 
which  father  Simon,  in  his  "  Critical  History,"  says^ 
and  Dupin  agrees  with  him,  are  very  useful  for  under- 
standing the  literal  sense  of  the  Scripture,  because  he 
chiefly  applies  himself  to  find  out  the  proper  signification 
of  the  Hebrew  words.  It  is,  however,  as  the  historian  of 
Spain  only  that  he  now  deserves  to  be  remembered.  He 
^ied,  at  Toledo,  in  1624,  .aged  eighty-seven.  After  his 
(Jeath,  was  published  in  Italian,  Latin,  and  French,  another 
treatise  of  his,  wherein  he  discovers  the  faults  in  the  go- 
vernment of  his  society ;  but  the  Jesuits  have  thrown  doubts 
on  the  authenticity  of  this  work,  which  have  not  been  alto- 
gether removed.1. 

,  MARIN  (Michael  Angelo),  a  writer  of  several  ro- 
mances or  novels  much  esteemed  in  France,  was  born  at 
Marseilles  in  1697,  bis  family  having  been  originally  of 
Genoa.  He  was  early  in  orders,  >and  settled  at  Avignon, 
where,  as  a  minim,  he  was  much  employed  in  all  the  offices 
pf  his  order,  and  preached  against  the  Jews  with  no  little 
success.     He  published  some  works  oc*  pious  discipline, 

i  Antonio  Bibl.  Hisp.— Gen.  Diet.— Dupin.— Marchand  Diet.  Hist.-— B  run  et 
Mamwl  du  Librajjo* 

MA  R  I  N.  311 

which  were  much  esteemed,  and  gained  him  the  favour 
of  pope  Clement  XIII..  From  this  pontiff  he  received  se- 
veral marks  of  honour,  and  was  employed  by  him  to  collect 
the  "  Acts  of  the  Martyrs."  He  had  composed  only  two 
volumes  in  12mo  of  this  work,  when  he  was  seized  with  a 
dropsy  in  the  heart,  and  died  April  3,  1767,  in  his  seven- 
tieth year.  He  was  much  esteemed  by  all  worthy  men  ; 
and  his  novels,  as  well  as  his  other  writings,  were  calcu- 
lated to  serve  the  cause  of  virtue  and  religion.  The  prin- 
cipal of  his  works  are  :  1.  "  Conduct  of  Sister  Violet,  who 
died  in  odour  of  sanctity,  at  Avignon,"  I2mo:  2.  "Ade- 
laide de  Vitzburg,  or  the  pious  pensioner/9  12mo.  3. 
"  The  perfect  Nun,"  12mo.  4.  "Virginia,  or  the  Christ 
tian  Virgin,"  2  vols.  12 mo.  5.  "  The  Lives  of  the  Soli- 
taries of  the  East,"  9  vols.  12mo.  6.  "  Baron  Van- Hes- 
den,  or  the  Republic  of  Unbelievers,"  5  vols.  12 mo.  7. 
"  Tbeodule,  or  the  Child  of  Blessing,"  16mo.  8,  "  Far- 
fal la,  or  the  converted  Actress,"  12mo.  9.  "  Retreat  for 
a  Day  in  each  Month,"  2  vols.  12 mo.  10.  "  Spiritual 
Letters,"  1769,  2  vols.  12mo ;  and  a  few  more  of  less  con* 

MARINI  (John  Baptist),  a  pnce  celebrated  Italian, 
poet,  was  born  at  Naples  in  1569;  and  made  so  great  a 
progress  in  his  juvenile  studies,  that  he  was  thought  quali- 
fied for  that  of  the  civil  law  at  thirteen.  His  father,  who 
was  a  lawyer,  intended  him  for  that  profession,  as  the  pro- 
perest  means  of  advancing  him ;  but  Marin i  had  already 
contracted  a  taste  for  poetry,  and  was  so  far  from  relishing 
the  science  to  which  he  was  (tat,  that  he  sold  his  law-books, 
in  order  to  purchase  books  of  polite  literature.  This  so 
much  irritated  his  father,  that  he  turned  him  out  of  doors, 
and  obliged  him  to  seek  for  protectors  and  supporters 
abroad.  Having  acquired  a  reputation  for  poetry,  he  hap- 
pily found  in  Inico  de  Guevara,  duke  of  Bovino,  a  friend 
who  conceived  an  affection  for  him,  and  supported  him 
for  three  years  in  his  house.  The  prince  of  Conca,  grand 
admiral  of  the  kibgdom  of  Naples,  next  took  him  into 
bis  service,  in  quality  of  secretary;  and  in  this  situation 
he  continued  five  or  six  years  ;  but  having  assisted  a  friend 
ip  a  very  delicate  intrigue,  he  was  thrown  into  prison,  and 
very  hardly  escaped  with  his  life.  Thence  he  retired  to 
Rome,  where,  after  some  time  spent  in  suspense  and  po- 
verty, he  became  known  to  Melchipr  Crescentio,  a  pre-* 

*  Diet  Hist, 

512  .    M  A  R  I  N  I. 

late  of  great  distinction,  who  patronized   him,  and  pro- 
vided him  with  every  thing  he  wanted. 

In  1601,  he  went  to  Venice,  to  print  some  poems  which 
be  dedicated  to  Crescentio ;  and  after  making  the  tour  of 
that  part  of  Italy,  returned  to  Rome.  His  reputation  in* 
creased  greatly,  so  as  to  engage  the  attention  of  the  car* 
dinal  Peter  Aldobrandini,  who  made  him  his  gentleman, 
and  settled  on  him  a  considerable  pension.  After  the 
election  of  pope  Paul  V.  which  was  in  1605,  he  accom- 
panied this  cardinal  to  Ravenna,  his  archbishopric,  and 
lived  with  him  several  years.  He  then  attended  him  to 
Turin,  at  wtlich  court  he  ingratiated  himself  by  a  panegyric 
upon  the  duke  Charles  Emmanuel ;  for  which  this  prince 
recompensed  him  with  honours,  and  retained  him,  when 
bis  patron  the  cardinal  left  Piedmont.  During  his  resi- 
dence here  he  had  a  violent  dispute,  both  poetical  and 
personal,  with  Gasper  Murtola,'  the  duke's  secretary. 
Murtola  was,  or  fancied  himself*  as  good  a  poet  as  Marini, 
and  was  jealous  of  Marini's  h^igh  favour  with  the  duke,  and 
therefore  took  every  opportunity  toispeak  ill  of  him.  Ma* 
rini,  by  way  of  revenge,  published  a  sharp  sonnet  upon 
him  at  Venice,  in  1608,  under  the  title  of  "  II  nuovo 
mondo;"  to  which  Murtola  opposed  a  satire,  containing 
an  abridged  life  of  Marini.  Marini  answered  in  eighty-one 
sonnets,  named  the  "  Murtoleide :"  to  which  Murtola  re- 
plied in  a  "  Marineide,"  consisting  of  thirty  sonnets. 
But  the  latter,  perceiving  that  his  poems  were  inferior  in 
force  as  well  as  number  to  those  of  his  adversary,  resolved 
to  put  an  end  to  the  quarrel,  by  destroying  him ;  and  ac- 
cordingly fired  a  pistol,  the  ball  of  which  luckily  missed 
him.  Murtola  was  cast  into  prison,  but  saved  from  punish- 
ment at  the  intercession  of  Marini,  who,  nevertheless,  soon 
found  it  expedient  to  quit  his- present  station. 

He  went  afterwards  to  France,  where  be  found  a  pa- 
troness in  Mary  de  Medicis^  who  settled  a  handsome  pen- 
sion upon  him.  '  In  1'62 1  he  sent  a  nephew  whom  be  had 
with  him  at  Paris,' to  Rome,  about  business,  and  conveyed  by 
him  h&  compliments  to  cardinal  Louis  Ludovisio,  nephew  to 
Gregory  XV:  then  the  reigning  pope;  which  compliments 
were  so  well  received  by  the  cardinal,  tfiat  he  wrote  to 
him  immediately  to  return  to  Rome.  Marini  complied, 
and  quitted  France  about  the  end  of  1622  ;  and  on  bis 
arrival  at  Rome,  was  made  president  of  the  academy  of 
the  Umoristi.     Upon  the  advancement  of  Urban  VIII.  td 

M  A  R  I  N  I.  313 

the  pontificate,  in  1623,  be  went  to  Naples,  and  was 
chosen  president  of  one  of  the  academies  in  that  city,  but 
soon  after  conceived  an  inclination  to  return  to  Rome, 
which  he  was  about  to  indulge,'  when  he  was  seized  with  a 
oomplaint  which  carried  him  off,  in  1625. 

Marini  had  a  very  lively  imagination,  but  little  judgment, 
and  abandoned  himself  to  the  way  of  writing  fashionable 
in  those  times,  which  consisted  in  points  and  conceits ;  so 
that  he  may  be  justly  reckoned  among  the  corrupters  of 
taste  in  Italy,  a&  his  name  and  fame,  which  were  very  con- 
siderable, produced  a  number  of  imitators.  His  works  are 
numerous,  and  have  been  often  printed.  The  principal 
of  them  are,  1.  "  Strage  degli  Innocenti,"  a  poem  on  the 
slaughter  of  the  Innocents,  Venice,  1633.  2.  "Rime,** 
or  miscellaneous  poems,  in  three  parts.  3.  "  La  Sam- 
pogna,"  or  the  flageolet ;  1620.  4.  "  La  Murtoleide," 
1626,.  4to,  the  occasion  of  which  has  been  already  no- 
ticed. 5.  «  Letters,"  1627,  8vo.  6.  "  Adone ;"  an  he- 
roic poem.  This  was  one  of  the  most  popular  poems  in 
the  Italian  language,  little  less  so  than  the  Aminta  of 
Tasso,  and  the  Pastor  Fido  of  Guarini ;  and,  says  Baretti, 
w  would  cope  with  any  one  in  our  Italian,  if  Marini  had 
not  run  away  with  his  overflowing  imagination,  and  if  his 
language  was  more  correct."  It  has  been  frequently  printed 
in  Italy,  France,  and  other  parts  of  Europe.  >:One  of  th« 
most  valued  editions  is  the  Elzevir,  printed' at' Amsterdam, 
in  1678,  in  4  vols.  16mo.! 

MARIOTTE  (Edmund),  an  eminent  French  philoso- 
pher and  mathematician,  was  born  at  Dijon,  and  admitted 
a  member  of  the  academy  of  sciences  of  Paris  in  1666.  His 
works,  however,  are  better  known  than  his  life.  He  was 
a  good  mathematician,  and  the  first  French  philosopher 
who  applied  much  to  experimental  physics.  The  law  of 
the- shock  or  collision  of  bodies,  the  theory  of  the  pressure 
and  motion  of  fluid s,  the  nature  of  vision,  and  of  the  air, 
particularly  engaged  bis  attention.  He  carried  into  his 
philosophical  researches  that  spirit  of  scrutiny  and  investi- 
gation so  necessary  to  those  who  would  make  any  consi- 
derable progress  in  it.  He  died  May  12,  1684t  He  com- 
municated a  number  of  curious  and  valuable  papers  to  the 
academy  of  sciences,  which  were  printed  in  the  collection 
of  their  Memoirs  dated  1666,  viz.  from  volume  1  to  volume 

1  Njc«rOD,  vol.XXXII.— Tiraboschi.*— Moreri.  , 

314  M  A  R  I  O  T  T  E. 

10.     And  all  bis  works  were  collected  into  2  volumes  in 
4to,  and  printed  at  Leyden  in  1717. 1 

MARIVAUX  (Peter  Carlet  de  Chamblaw  de),  a  ce- 
lebrated French  writer  of  the  drama  and  of  romance,  was 
born  at  Paris  in  1688.  His  father  was  of  a  good  family  in 
Normandy ;  his  fortune  was  considerable,  and  he  spared 
nothing  in  the  education  of  his  son,  who  discovered  un- 
common talents,  and  a  most  amiable  disposition.  His  first 
object  was  the  theatre,  where  he  met  with  the  highest 
success  in  comic  productions;  and  these,  with  the  merit  of 
his  other  works,  procured  him  a  place  in  the  French  aca- 
demy. The  great  object  of  both  his  comedies  and  ro- 
mances was,  to  convey  an  useful  moral  under  the  veil  of 
wit  and  sentiment :  "  my  only  object,"  says  he,  "  is  to 
make  men  more  just  and  more  humane;"  and  he  was  as 
amiable  in  his  life  and  conversation  as  in  bis  writings. 
He  was  compassionate  and  humane,  and  a  strenuous  ad- 
vocate for  morality  and  religion.  To  relieve  the  indigent, 
to  console  the  unfortunate,  and  to  succour  the  oppressed^ 
were  duties  which  he  not  only  recommeuded  by  his  writ- 
ings, but  by  his  own  practice  and  example.  He  would 
frequently  ridicule  the  excessive  credulity  of  infidels  iiv 
matters  of  trivial  importance ;  and  once  said  to  lord  Bo* 
lingbroke,  who  was  of  that  character,  "  If  you  cannot  be- 
lieve, it  is  not  for  want  of  faith." 

Marivaux  had  the  misfortune,  or  rather  the  imprudence, 
to  join  the  party  of  M.  de  la  Motte,  in  the  famous  dispute 
concerning  the  superiority  of  the  ancients  to  the  moderns. 
His  attachment  to  the  latter  produced  bis  travesty  of  Ho- 
mer, which  contributed  but  little  to  his  literary  fame.  His 
prose  works,  while  they  display  great  fertility  of  invention, 
and  a  happy  disposition  of  incidents  to  excite  attention, 
and  to  interest  the  affections,  have  been  censured  for  af- 
fectation of  style,  and  a  refinement  that  is  sometimes  too 
metaphysical.  His  "  Vie  de  Marianne,"  and  his  "  Paysaa 
Parvenu,"  hold  the  first  rank  among  French  romances; 
yet,  by  a  fickleness  which  was  natural  to  him,  he  left  one 
of  them  incomplete  to  begin  the  other,  and  finished  neither. 
He  died  at  Paris,  Feb.  11,  17C3,  aged  seventy-five.  His 
works  consist  of,  1.  "  Pieces  de  Theatre,"  5  vols.  12 mo. 
2.  "  Homere  travesti,"  12mo.  3.  "  Le  Spectateur  Fran§ois," 
2  vols.  12mo  ;  rather  affected  in  style,  but  containing  many 

*  Eloge  des  Acafaimcien?,  vol.  !. — Diet.  Hist.— Hutton's  Dictionary. 

M  A  R  I  V  A.  U  X.  315 

fine  .thoughts.  4.  "Le  Philosophe  indigent/'  l2mo,  lively 
and  instructive.  5.  "  Vie  4de  Marianne/'  4  vols.  12 mo; 
one  of  the  best. romances  in  the  French  language.  6.  "  Le 
Paysan  Parvenu,"  1 2 mo;  more  ingenious,  perhaps,  than 
Marianne,  but  less  instructive,  and. containing  some  scenes 
that  ought  to  have,  been  omitted.  7.  "  Pharsamon ;  ou 
les  nouvelles  follies  romanesques  ;"  inferior  to  the  former. 
This  was  republished  under  the  name  of  "  Nouveau  Dom 
Quicbotte."  The  chief  objection  made  to  this,  and  in- 
deed many  .other  writings  of  Marivaux,  is  a  mixture  of  me- 
taphysical style,  sometimes  too  refined  to  be  intelligible; 
but  amends  are  generally  made  for  this  fault,  by  correct 
pictures  of  the  human  heart,  and  sentiments  of  great  truth 
and  beauty. '  „ 

MARK,  or  MARCUS,  the  founder  of  the  sect  of  the 
Marcosians,  is  said  to  have,  appeared  about  the  year  160, 
or,  according  to  some,  about  the  year  127.  Many  learned 
moderns  are  of  opinion  that  Mark  belonged  to  the  Valen- 
tinian  school,  but  Rh  en  ford  and  Beausobre  say  that  the 
^Marcosians  were  Jews,  or  judaizing  Christians;  andGrabe  * 
likewise  owns  that. they  were  of  Jewish  extract.  Irenaeus 
leads  us  to  imagine  that  Mark,  who  was  an  Asiatic,  had 
come  into  Gaul  and  made  many  converts  there.  Never- 
theless, learned  moderns  think  that  they  were  only  dis- 
ciples of  Mark,  who  came  into  that  country,  where  Irenaeus 
resided,  of  whom,  in  one  place,  he  makes  particular  men- 
tion.. Irenaeus  represents  him  as  exceedingly  skilful  in  all 
magical  arts, .  by  means  of  which  he  had  great  success* 
Tertullian  and  Theodoret  concur  in  calling  Mark  a  magi- 
cian. Irenaeus,  after  giving  an  account  of  the  magical  arts  . 
of  Mark,  adds,  that  he  had,  probably,  an  assisting  daemon, 
by  which  he  himself  appears  .to  prophesy,  and  which  en- 
abled others,  especially  women,  to  prophesy  likewise  :  this 
practice  favoured  his  seduction  of  many,  females,  both  in 
body  and  mind,  which  gained  him  much  wealth.  .  He  is 
also  said  to  have  made  use  of  philters  and  love-potions,  in 
order  to  gain  the  affections  of  women  ;  and  his  disciples 
are  charged  with  doing  the  same.  Dr.  Lardner  suggests 
some  doubts  as  to  the  justice  of  these  accusations ;  and 
jndeed  there  is  considerable  obscurity  in  every  particular 
of  his  personal  history.     His  followers,  called  Marcosians, 

*  D'Alembert'j   Eloges. — Necrologie. — L'Esprit  dc  Marivaux,  17(59,  8vo.— - 
Diet.  Hist 

W6  MAR  K, 

are  said  to  have  placed  a  great  deal  of  mystery  in  the 
letters  of  the  alphabet,  and  thought  that  they  were  very 
useful  in  trading  out  the  truth.  They  are  charged  un- 
justly with  holding  two  principles,  and  as  if  they  were 
Doceta&y  and  denied  the  resurrection  of  the  dead;  for 
which  there  w  no  sufficient  evidence.  They  persisted  in  the 
practice  of  baptism  and  the  eucharist.  As  to  their  opinion 
concerning  Jestts  Christ,  they  seem  to  have  had  a  notion 
of  the  great  dignity  and  excellence  of  his  person,  or  bis 
ineffable  generation  :  and,  according  to  them,  he  was  born 
of  Mary,  •  a  virgin,  and  the  word  was  in  him.  When  be 
tame  to  the  water,  the  supreme  power  descended  upon 
him;  and. .he  had  in  him  all  fulness;  for  in  him  was  the 
word,  the  father,  truth,  the  church,  and  life.  They  said 
that  the  Christ,  or  the  Spirit,  came  down  Upon  the  man 
Jesus.  He  made  known  the  Father,  and  destroyed  death, 
and  called  himself  the  Son  of  Man;  for  it  was  the  good 
pleasure  of  the  Father  of  all  that  he  should  banish  igno- 
rance and  destroy  death :  and  the  acknowledgment  of  him 
is  the  overthrow  of  ignorance.  From  the  account  of  Ire* 
naerus,  we  may  infer  that  the  Marcosians  believed,  the  facts 
recorded  in  the  gospels ;  and  that  they  received  most,  or 
all  the  Scriptures  of  the  Old  and  New  Testament.  Irenseus 
also  says  that  they  had  an  innumerable  multitude  of  apo- 
cryphal and  spurious  writings,  which  they  had  forged  :  and 
that  they  made  use  of  that  fiction  concerning  the  child 
Jesus,  that  when  his  master  bade  him  say,  alpha,  the  Lord 
did  so ;  but  when  the  master  called  him  to  say  beta,  he 
answered,  "  Do  you  first  tell  me  what  is  alpha,  and  then 
I  will  tell  you  what  beta  is/9  As  this  story  concerning 
alpha  and  beta  is  found  in  the  gospel  of  the  infancy  of  Jesus 
Christ,  still  in  being,  some  are  of  opinion  that  this  gospel 
was!  composed  by  the  Marcosians. l 

MARKHAM  (Gervase),  an  English  author,  who  lived 
in  the  reigns  of  James  I.  and  Charles  I.  but  whose  private 
history  is  involved  in  much  obscurity,  was  son  of  Robert 
Markham,  esq.  of  Gotham,  in  the  county  of  Nottingham. 
He  bore  a  captain's  commission  under  Charles  I.  in  the 
civil  wars,  and  was  accounted  a  good  soldier,  as  well  as  a 
good  scholar.  One  piece  of  dramatic  poetry  which  he  has 
published  will  shew,  says  Langbaine,  that  he  sacrificed  to 
Apollo  and  the  muses,  as  well  as  to  Mars  and  Pallas.     This 

>  Lardner't  Worlw.— Rees't  Cyclopaedia* . 

M  A  R  K  H  A  M,  317 

play  is  extant  under  under  the  title  of  "  Herod  and  Anti* 
pat£r,"  a  tragedy,  printed  in  1622.  Markham  published 
a  great  many  volumes  upon  husbandry  and  horsemanship ; 
one  upon  the  latter,  printed  in  qttarto,  without  date*  he 
dedicated  to  prince  Henry,  eldest  son  to  James  I,  In 
husbandry  be  published  "  Liebault's  La  Maison  rustique, 
or  the  country- farm,"  in  1616.  This  treatise,  which  was 
at  first  translated  by  Mr.  Richard  Surfleit,  a  physician* 
Markham,  enlarged,  with  several  additions  from  the  French 
books  of  Serris  and  Vinet,  the  Spanish  of  Albiterio,  and 
the  Italian  of  Grilli.  He  published  other  books  of  Jams-* 
baodry,  particularly  "  The  English  Husbandman,  in  two 
parts,"  Lond,  16 13-— 1635,  with  the  "  Pleasures  of  Princes 
in  the  Art  of  Angling."  Granger  mentions  "  The  whole 
Art  of  Angling,"  1656,  4to,  in  which  he  says  Markham, 
very  gravely  tells  us  that  ao  angler  should  "  be  a  general 
scholar,  and  seen  in  all  the  liberal  sciences ;  as  a  grant* 
marian,  to  know  how  to  write  or  discourse  of  bis  art  in 
true ^ and  fitting  tern)s.  He  should  have  sweetness  in.  speech 
to  entice  others  to  delight  in  an  exercise  so  muqh  laudable. 
fie  should  have  strength  of  argument  to  defend  and  main- 
tain his  profession  against  envy  and  slauder,"  &c,  Markhacq 
also  wrote  a  tract  entitled  "  Hunger's  prevention^,  or  the 
whole  Art  of  Fowling*''  162 1,  8vo*  In  military  discipline 
he  published  "  The  Soldier's- Accidence  and  Grammar,"  m 
1635.  But  he  appears  to  have  been  earliest  distinguished 
by  bis  talents  for  poetry.  In  1597  be  published  "  De- 
vereti?  Yertues  tears  fort^e  loss  of  the  most  .Ghristiaa 
king  Henry,  third  of  that  name  king  of  France,  and. the 
untimely  death  of  the  most  ivafele  and  heroical